7. It is easy to imagine financial or navigational disasters that may occur as the result of arithmetic errors due to overflow and truncation problems. What con- sequences could result from errors in image storage systems due to loss of image details (perhaps in fields such as reconnaissance or medical diagnosis)? 8. ARM Holdings is a small company that designs the processors for a wide vari- ety of consumer electronic devices. It does not manufacture any of the proces- sors; instead the designs are licensed to semiconductor vendors (such as Qualcomm, Samsung, and Texas Instruments) who pay a royalty for each unit produced. This business model spreads the high cost of research and develop- ment of computer processors across the entire consumer electronic market. Today, over 95 percent of all cellular phones (not just smartphones), over 40 percent of all digital cameras, and 25 percent of Digital TVs use an ARM processor. Furthermore, ARM processors are found in mini-notebooks, MP3 players, game controllers, electronic book readers, navigation systems, and the list goes on. Given this, do you consider this company to be a monopoly? Why or why not? As consumer devices play an ever increasing role in today’s society, is the dependency on this little known company good, or does it raise concerns?
Computerscience education teaching methods: An overview of the literature Articles from LOG IN magazine - Several articles in the computerscience educational magazine LOG IN are interesting from methodological and practical teaching standpoints. LOG IN already raised awareness of the necessity of new methods in computerscience education ten years ago (Seiffert & Koerber, 2003). Among the writings found in the LOG IN heading “Praxis & Methodik” (‘Practice & Methodology’) there are reports featuring the following teaching methods: direct instruction (Tiburski, 2010), inductive approaches (Müller, 2008), research-based learning and experiment (Müller, 2006a, 2006b, Müller, 2010; Schulz & Witten 2010), concept mapping (Ertl & Mok, 2010), discovery learning (Hromkovic, 2011), problem solving (Baumann 2007; Thiele, 2008), self-directed learning (Homberg, 2006), project teaching (Ambros, 1992; Müller 2011); simulation and modeling (Steinkamp, 2004; Bierschneider-Jakobs, 2005; Wiesner, 2008; Vollmer, 2011), and role play (Fothe, 2006; Tiburski, 2010; Baumann, 2010; Link, 2011). Attention should be drawn to another aspect in connection with LOG IN magazine; namely the context-orientation in computerscience education, a concept for the planning and arrangement of computerscience education oriented on the everyday experiences that school pupils inhabit (Diethelm, 2011; Dietz, & Oppermann, 2011; Diethelm, Koubek, & Witten, 2011).
Graph theoretical concepts are widely used to study and model various applications, in different areas. They include, study of molecules, construction of bonds in chemistry and the study of atoms. Similarly, graph theory is used in sociology for example to measure actors prestige or to explore diffusion mechanisms. Graph theory is used in biology and conservation efforts where a vertex represents regions where certain species exist and the edges represent migration path or movement between the regions. This information is important when looking at breeding patterns or tracking the spread of disease, parasites and to study the impact of migration that affect other species. Graph theoretical concepts are widely used in Operations Research. For example, the traveling salesman problem, the shortest spanning tree in a weighted graph, obtaining an optimal match of jobs and men and locating the shortest path between two vertices in a graph. It is also used in modeling transport networks, activity networks and theory of games. The network activity is used to solve large number of combinatorial problems. The most popular and successful applications of networks in OR is the planning and scheduling of large complicated projects. The best well known problems are PERT(Project Evaluation Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). Next, Game theory is applied to the problems in engineering, economics and war science to find optimal way to perform certain tasks in competitive environments. To represent the method of finite game a digraph is used. Here, the vertices represent the positions and the edges represent the moves.
Jobs in consultancy (for example with IGS) tend to be customer facing, with employees required to dress smartly in suit and tie, taking a high level overview of the way in which different systems integrate with each other. By contrast, development style jobs like in the Hursley Laboratory are usually working on products that will hit the market in 12 to 18 months time, and don’t face directly to customers. This means that development employees usually dress more casually (jeans and t-shirt is common at Hursley) and work to different deadlines. Consultancy employees are the frontline breadwinners for a company – it is their work that brings in the cash, but without the development employees they would have no new products to offer to customers.
1. Daina A, Blatter MC, Baillie Gerritsen V, Palagi PM, Marek D, Xenarios I, et al. Drug Design Workshop: A Web-Based Educational Tool To Introduce Computer-Aided Drug Design to the General Public. Journal of Chemical Education. 2017; 94(3):335-44.
Information and Communication Technology is a critical component in global change strategies, but it needs to be considered as a component of development rather than as a stand-alone devel- opment sector. The eight UN Millennium Development Goals (none of which list ICTD access, use and capacity building as top goals) have encouraged numerous articles about the transformative role that ICT can and should play in attaining these goals (Gerster and Zimmerman, 2005; InfoDev, 2006). While the MDGs perhaps can be criticized for their normative approach to global iniquities, they have galvanized and coordinated efforts across industry, academia, practitioners, multilateral agencies and foundations, and NGOs. ICTD, especially the ICTD efforts grounded in computerScience, would do well to be as inclusive and cohesive.
It is almost fifty years since the introduction of the magnetic disk drive (the “Ran- dom Access Method for Accounting and Control” or “IBM 305 RAMAC”, designed and manufactured by IBM in 1953 was the first computer offered for sale with magnetic disk storage). As an interesting aside, it was the somewhat arduous journey from IBM head office in Armonk, NY to San Jose, CA that allowed a group of engineers in San Jose to work on what was essentially a bootleg project. If the flight across the continent had not taken 12 hours and been expensive, they would have got more management attention sooner. The effect of that quite likely would have closed down their project in the early stages. The plan was to paint some alu- minium disks (50 of them, each 2 feet in diameter) with the iron oxide primer that was (and indeed still is) used to paint the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco. The bridge, and it’s characteristic paint being very familiar to the engineers in San Jose, being only an hour’s drive North along US101. A read / write head similar to those used in a tape recorder would then be positioned over the spinning disks, and moved radially by a mechanical actuator. This entire arrangement weighing around a ton could store the huge capacity of 5 million characters (bytes hadn’t been invented then, these were 7 bit characters in ‘EBCDIC’ code), or 4.4MB in today’s terms.
igh-powered technology use computer graphics in education, entertainment, games, simulation, and virtual heritage applications has led it to become an important area of research. In simulation, according to Tecchia et al. (2002), it is important to create an interactive, complex, and realistic virtual world so that the user can have an immersive experience during navigation through the world. As the size and complexity of the environments in the virtual world increased, it becomes more necessary to populate them with peoples, and this is the reason why rendering the crowd in real-time is very crucial.
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In this phase, students develop the game. It means that they have to create scene artefacts and all occurring characters with the use of various graphical tools. Students tackle these time consuming tasks in different ways. Some of them create all of these graphic elements using the selected software tools. It requires a lot of skills and knowledge of the technology of work, but then further processing of graphical elements is much easier. Others draw key elements on paper and then digitize images. Especially for characters that are animated in a game, this work is time- consuming because it is necessary to draw each character in different positions and from different angles. Designed graphic elements must then be uploaded into a game machine. This is a program that supports animation, dialogues, and player's interaction with the game environment. The technology is progressing rapidly and we try to follow it and select the solutions which enable students to give the maximal attention to the didactic aspects, while the computer takes care of the technical aspects of the realization of games. Recently, students have used the e-Adventure environment, which was developed at the Universidad Compultense de Madrid. We cooperate with the authors of this tool in different European projects and, therefore, we have access to the latest versions of the software and the opportunity to influence the development of new capabilities of the tool.
Backus and his team started working on the project in the beginning of 1954 and were finished in April 1957. Together, FORTRAN took 18 man-years to complete (Nijholt & van den Ende, 1994). Although more ambitious and complex than previous algebraic translators, this program did not seem to differ fundamentally from these earlier systems. Like earlier systems, FORTRAN was first and foremost a computer program, with a corresponding notation system. Most of the effort went into getting the program to do its job in an efficient way. Designing the notation system only came second (Backus, 1981). Also, like earlier algebraic translation-systems this program was designed for a specific machine: the IBM 704.
will ever help me. Rice, and Stanford who contributed the choice grati and helped to debug our rst drafts. Our contacts at Addison-Wesley were especially ecient and helpful; in particular, we wish to thank our publisher (Peter Gordon), production supervisor (Bette Aaronson), designer (Roy Brown), and copy ed- itor (Lyn Dupre). The National Science Foundation and the Oce of Naval Research have given invaluable support. Cheryl Graham was tremendously helpful as we prepared the index. And above all, we wish to thank our wives (Fan, Jill, and Amy) for their patience, support, encouragement, and ideas. I had a lot of trou-
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Our professionals are unable to make a mark in respect of creating innovative designs and epoch making developments. The performance of the Indian students is comparatively less and lacking deep understanding of the fundamental concepts. India has a history of nearly 5000 years unlike USA which is about 400 years old. Indian professionals are unable to keep pace with Science & Technology and utilization of technology. The Indian education system in general is developing, run of the mill graduates. Many instant education experts and educationists are also responsible for the damage to the education per se.
In the globalized world none of us can escape the necessity of a text being translated into a foreign or mother tongue. Translators and interpreters play a huge role in making this happen. However, it is of vital importance that the translation is of a good quality and that it is able to perform its function. Consequently, t he need of translation assessment has appeared and a new scientific branch was born, i. e. translation science. Translation science defines terms, sets criteria for assessment, educates translators and interpreters etc.