predicts symptoms of depression and social anxiety as well as physical stress-related symptoms better than other commonly used life events scales (Cohen et al., 1983).
Diabetes-related distress. The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) Scale (Polonsky et
al., 1995) was used to measure emotional distress associated with diabetes. The scale consists of 20 emotional problems that are often reported by people with diabetes. The self-report measure asks respondents to indicate the degree to which each item is a problem for them using a Likert Scale that ranges from 0 (not at all) to 4 (serious problem). The items address areas such as worry (“worrying about the future and possibility of serious complications”), anger (“feeling angry when you think about living with diabetes”), and interpersonal problems (“feeling that friends/family are not supportive of diabetesmanagement efforts;” Polonsky et al., 1995). The ratings are summed and multiplied by 1.25 so that the total score ranges from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more diabetes-related stress (Welch, Jacobson, & Polonsky, 1997). The PAID has demonstrated high internal reliability (α = .95) and significant correlations with measures of general psychological distress (r = .63) and glycemic control (r = .30; Polonsky et al., 1995). The internal consistency at baseline in the current study was also high (α = .94).
models: 1) after all demographic and sta- tistically signi ﬁcant weight history and cognitive/psychological variables had en- tered the model; and 2) after all statisti- cally signiﬁcant behavioral variables had been added to the ﬁrst model. This ana- lytic strategy allows us to determine whether behavioral variables explained the association of other factors with weight outcomes. We also present the r 2 at the end of each block to assess the con- tribution of each set of factors to weight outcomes. Because results other than those for the multivariate analysis of the end-of-study outcome are supplementary analyses designed to provide a context for interpreting the primary results, we do not adjust for multiple comparisons. All analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). RESULTSdBaseline characteristics re- lated to weight history, previous weight loss experiences, and scores on psycholog- ical and behavioral variables that were potential predictors of weight outcomes are reported in Table 1. The 6-month changes in psychological and behavioral variables selected to represent putative pre- dictors for end-of-study long-term weight outcomes are reported in Table 2. Statisti- cally signi ﬁcant improvements were docu- mented in all measured psychological and behavioralfactors, except for perceived stress, after completion of the 6-month core curriculum.
Objective: To investigate the effects of cognitivebehavioralintervention on psychologicalstress response in breast cancer patients by cognitivebehavioralintervention in breast cancer patients. Methods: Adopting the random com- parison method, 100 patients with breast cancer were divided into compari- son group and intervention group by 50 cases. The intervention group un- derwent cognitivebehavioralintervention at the same time as the comparison group only received conventional treatment without cognitivebehavioral in- tervention. Two groups of breast cancer patients were enrolled in the general questionnaire, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) within one week after admission and one month after treatment to understand the psychologicalstress levels of the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the scores of SAS and MCMQ between the intervention group and the comparison group before intervention (P > 0.05). But after intervention, the scores of SAS and MCMQ in the comparison group were significantly higher than those in the interven- tion group (P < 0.05); thus, the differences of SAS and MCMQ factors before and after intervention in the intervention group were statistically significant (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the factors of SAS and MCMQ before and after intervention in the comparison group (P > 0.05). It shows that the implementation of cognitivebehavioralintervention therapy for breast cancer patients has the effect of improving their psychological sta- tus. Conclusion: Cognitivebehavioralintervention therapy combined with psychology for breast cancer patients can effectively reduce their stress level, improve mental health status and improve their positive coping ability. How to cite this paper: Huang, P., Li, Y.,
assess the QOL of these patients as well as the impact of psychological interventions on the improvement of this scale, the SF‑36 Questionnaire was completed during three stages of before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention by both groups. To analyze the findings of this study, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and inferential statistics (repeated measures ANOVA and independent t‑test) were used. All P values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant.
DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2019.82006 83 Advances in Breast Cancer Research situations. The serum levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-8 in the intervention group were significantly lower than those before the intervention. The concentration of TNF- α was significantly higher than that before the intervention, and the serum IL-6 concentration did not change much. The reason was analyzed. The serum content of breast cancer patients may not only involve psychologicalfactors, but also involve other factors of its own, such as the growth of the tumor itself; In addition, it may be related to the sample size and intervention time of this study. The serum levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-8 in the control group were lower than those in the serum before the intervention, but the decrease was not obvious; the IL-6 concentration was higher than that before the intervention; The concentra- tion of TNF- α increased compared with that before the intervention, but the change was not significant. This suggests that cognitivebehavioralintervention therapy can improve the psychologicalstress response of breast cancer patients, promote the recovery of immune function, and promote the prognosis of the disease. TNF- α is mainly produced by macrophages and monocytes. It is a plei- otropic cytokine that plays an important role in maintaining immune homeosta- sis and promoting disease progression. It is a host defense pathogen and im- mune surveillance for malignant tumors. The cytokines necessary for cell proli- feration are also important inflammatory mediators of various diseases. Up-regulation of TNF- α expression suggests that serum TNF- α levels are asso- ciated with the status and prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Another objective of the program was to investigate the effectiveness of stressmanagement skill training in improving nurses' quality of life. The results obtained showed the improved quality of life of nurses following stressmanagement skill training. In agreement with this result, a study conducted by Mazlom et al showed that stress immunization training leads to improved quality of life in nurses working in the psychiatric ward. In their study, in the follow-up period a month after completion of intervention, quality of life of nurses showed a significant improvement from before intervention to after intervention. This was considered by researchers due to frequent and optimal use of stressmanagement program by nurses in their daily functions, which changed their quality of life over time . Behzadipour et al studied the effect of intervention based on stressmanagement on the quality of life of other groups, and showed that stressmanagement can lead to better quality of life in women with breast cancer . In a randomized clinical trial, Penedo et al investigated the effect of cognitive-behavioralstressmanagement on the quality of life of men with prostate cancer. Their results showed a significant improvement in the quality of life of the study subjects . Therefore, given the above studies, cognitive-behavioralstressmanagement strategies can lead to effective coping with stressors that reduce quality of life . Physical health and psychological health are the components of quality of life. As stated above, training included in the program such as relaxation and diaphragm breathing may reduce physical tensions and physiological symptoms as well as synthesis of adrenal hormones and noradrenaline, and strengthen the immune system in parallel. Strengthening the immune system can lead to better health and subsequent improvement in the perception of quality of life [38,39]. Stressmanagement skills may lead to improvement in interpersonal as well as intrapersonal dimensions by reducing tension and creating relaxation as well as inducing constructive beliefs. These skills enable the individual to reduce tension in his/
Table 1 shows that although the significant level of 0.05 is indicative of rejecting variance equality assumption, it is not difficult to do so because of the equality of samples and variance test rigor (F test), especially when samples are equal [the Persian sentence is vague]. Also, the assumption of homogeneity of regression coefficient slope, and normal distribution according to Kolmogorov- Smirnov test has been established, and F shows linearity assumption of the relationship. Thus, covariance analysis can be used. Table 1 shows that hypothesis zero is rejected, and study hypothesis is thus confirmed, which means there is a significant difference in mean scores between the trial and the control groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that stress inoculation training has an increasing effect on overall coping skills in female students (P=0.002). The effect of this therapeutic intervention on coping styles is 0.47, which means 47% of variance of overall remaining score belongs to group membership or the effect of method applied. Statistical power is at favorable level of 0.98, which indicates adequacy of sample size. Results of covariance analysis, investigating
To assist clinicians who care for obese children and adolescents, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), Health Resources and Services Adminis- tration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Rockville, Maryland, supported a national assessment of pediatric health care provid- ers to determine their attitudes and their perception of barriers to obesity intervention, and their evalua- tion and intervention practices. By identifying areas of incomplete evaluation or treatment, the MCHB, HRSA, DHHS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, the US Department of Agriculture, and professional organi- zations can design and implement programs to edu- cate and assist providers in dealing with this com- plex problem within the limited time available at office visits. One goal of the assessment was to learn how often practitioners consider emotional state, eat- ing and activity habits, and family’s involvement and how this knowledge may affect their approach to treatment. Their responses to the questions on this subject are the focus of this article. This study’s primary aim was to characterize the usual psycho- logical, emotional, and behavioral evaluations of pediatric professionals who see overweight youth. Additional aims were to compare these approaches reported by providers to those recommended by an Expert Committee and to identify any associations between reported interventions and the respondent’s type of practice and personal demographics.
During the CBITS training and ongoing consultation with sites, we have specifically included in our training ways to implement this program to address cultural competency. We encourage sites to use culturally appropriate examples during the treatment, and we discuss the cultural issues pertinent to each trainee’s site. Although there are examples for each of the exercises in the manual, clinicians are encouraged to substitute these for culturally salient ones. For example, in working with immigrant populations, we focused some of the parent sessions on separation and loss issues that so many had experienced during the migration process. When we’ve worked in Catholic schools, faith-based clinicians openly discussed the students’ examples of coping through prayer and complementing this with CBT skills. CBITS is an ideal trauma intervention for underserved ethnic minority students who frequently do not receive services due to a whole host of barriers to traditional mental health services. This school-based program is designed to be delivered in school settings, whether it is in an urban or midwestern public school serving a diverse student body or a religious private school providing outreach to an immigrant community. CBITS has been successfully used in a wide variety of
Yaser Boolaghi, Mahnaz Mehrabizade Honarmand, Amir Sam KianiMoghadam
Prapst et al., 1992, Prapst, 1988, quoted from James and Wales (2003) in their study compared the cognitive-behavioral therapy on disorders such as depression. Results showed greater positive impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy with religious factors compared with classic cognitive- behavioral. There are several reasons that religious-based cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective on psychological well-being and resilience of the students in this study. It seems that religious-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with different mechanisms cause psychological well-being of individuals and society. Religion-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with hope, motivation, positive thinking in life, pleasant and reasonable explanation and definition of suffering create a support, emotional, social network, and give clear-cut answers to the concept of creation, universe and life effective in improving psychological well-being. In this treatment, it is emphasized on religion in their lives. When religion becomes a crucial part of human life, it means that life and all events in the world are due to the God's wisdom and tact. Therefore, it is less likely to develop feelings of depression, disappointment and failure in life and these things comes from the good Lord. No-doubt having such an attitude to life will improve and increase mental health and psychological well-being because of their strong and spiritually connected to their source and all matters of wisdom and God's plan. In this way, they find solutions for their failures and lack of finding meaning. People who report higher levels of religiosity have physically less disease. Since the risk of cancer and heart attacks is lower, longer life leads to faster recover after illness or surgery and more pain tolerance (Georg, Larson, Koenig and MCKalag, 2000).
Objective: To understand the effect of stressmanagement in- terventions on improving stress response and job satisfaction among auto company employees. Method: A total of 320 em- ployees in three Chinese auto companies were selected in Au- gust 2017 by stratified random sampling method to detect the stress response and job satisfaction. According to the score of job satisfaction, we got the low job satisfaction group (exper- imental group, n=86) and high job satisfaction group (control group, n=86). The two groups accepted a twelve months stressmanagementintervention and then the stress response and job satisfaction scores were measured in August 2018 to learn the interventioneffect. Results: The stress response score had a significant correlation with the job satisfaction score (r=0.219, P<0.05). After the intervention, the stress response and job sat- isfaction scores in experimental group was significantly higher than that before intervention (19.38±9.54, 16.00±10.47, P<0.05). The job satisfaction score was significantly higher than that be- fore intervention (11.07±4.59, 2.89±1.96, P<0.01). Conclusion: Stressmanagementintervention can improve the stress re- sponse and job satisfaction of auto enterprise employees.
Training protocol. For the Special Cognitive-BehavioralIntervention, the theoretical infrastructure emphasizes using such components as the enthusiasm for exercise, the intensity and frequency of exercise, reinforcing and disrupting factors. The factors are based on the health belief model (23), the trans-theoretical model (24), the theory of planned behavior (25), and self-determination theory (26). With an emphasis on the theoretical infrastructures, 14 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapies (of 70 minutes each) were designed. Then, the experimental group was trained with the cognitive-behavioral therapy method and the control group was put on the waiting list. Further, it was recommended to the experimental group to do exercise for four sessions a week, for at least half an hour for each session. The nature of the exercises was specified with respect to the interest of the participants: joining a club, swimming, hiking, or any other activity of their interest.
Conclusions for the efficacy of CBT are slightly more complex. During the 16-week treatment intervention period there was a higher drop-out rate for CBT group members than for the two groups receiving CM. As a result, the number and percentage of stimulant-free urine specimens during treatment for the CBT group were significantly lower for CBT group members than for the two CM groups. However, self-reported stimulant-use days at week 17 and urinalysis results indicate compara- ble reductions in stimulant use by all three groups. These measures also indicate that at the 26- and 52-week follow-up points, the CBT group’s performance was not significantly different than the performance of CM participants.
Many factors were associated with the three DHP-18 dimensions in this sample: some were specific to the ill- ness, some were related to socio-demographic factors, and some to health-related behavioralfactors. The effect size, a distribution-based indicator, was calculated to determine whether a difference could be considered as important . Accordingly, major negative associations (at least a difference of 5 between groups in the DHP score, corresponding here to small to medium effect size) were observed for major microvascular complica- tions (effect size of 0.18) -with little or no effect for macrovascular complications- and for severe hypoglyce- mia (effect size of 0.24), insulin treatment (effect size from 0.20 to 0.32 according to the DHP score), non- adherence to the treatment (effect size of 0.45), increas- ing weight (effect size of 0.18), at least one psychiatrist visit (effect size of 0.25), and surprisingly no alcohol consumption (effect size from 0.19 to 0.25 according to the DHP score). Finally, universal medical insurance coverage (effect size from 0.20 to 0.46 according to the DHP score), which, in France, permits free access to medical care for people with a low socioeconomic level, was negatively associated with psychological functioning, suggesting a higher toll of diabetes in people with low socioeconomic level. According to Cohen, effect sizes of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 are considered as small, medium and large, respectively . Therefore, in summary, the effect on PBF of non-adherence to treatment and uni- versal medical insurance coverage can be considered as medium. The effect of insulin treatment, severe hypogly- cemia, at least one psychiatrist visit and no alcohol con- sumption can be considered as small.
Maintenance is a business function which serves and supports the primary process in an organization . Shafeek  researched on maintenance practices in Cement industries where he mentioned that high productivity at the modern cement plant is highly dependent on regular, scheduled maintenance. In a bid to optimize maintenance decision making process, some authors ,  have implemented multi-criteria decision techniques. Amin et al.  introduced optimized maintenance management system which led to maintenance cost reduction in a cement manufacturing plant. The use of CMMS has attracted so much attention owning to the fact that enormous amount of maintenance data need to be analyzed fast and efficiently in order that decisions are reached . Šlaichová and Maršíková  reported on the effect of implementing a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) on the efficiency of production facilities. It was discovered that great improvement was achieved in the facilities Key Performance Indices (KPI) by the implementation. Organizations use KPI to reveal how successful they are in accomplishing long lasting financial and non-financial goals . Ogbo et al.  correlated CMMS adoption in Abstract: Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is a tool tailored to support maintenance business functions of production systems. Market available CMMS software programs seldom meet the needs of each organization’s peculiar maintenance functions. Therefore, this work investigated the effects of CMMS on a cement production plant. The materials used included a Computer and Networking system and maintenance software. Preliminary study via interview among the relevant maintenance staff members of the plant was conducted to identify critical plant assets. Critical assets considered under this study are Limestone Crusher (LC), Cement Mill (CM) and Kiln (KI) among others identified. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as Plant Reliability Factor (RF), Number of Stoppages for Incidents (NSI) and Production Losses (PL) were used as basis for the evaluation which covered period from year 2013 to 2015. The result obtained from this implementation showed that RF for LC, CM and KI were 46, 76, 86; 51, 79, 88; 59, 88, 92 in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. The corresponding NSI for the three plant assets were 824, 472, 82; 788, 462, 56; 431, 420, 46 in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. The Production Losses for the plant were $22.54m, $21.587m and $19.365m in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. KPIs showed improvement in the maintenance performance function in years 2014 and 2015 relative to year 2013 when CMMS was not deployed in the plant.
In multi-agents systems, behavioral models are used to represent the theoretical characteristics of the agents. The behavioral models specify how perception of the environment and stimuli are processed to determine the best next action to achieve a specific goal. BDI model is popularly used and prevalent model in agent-based crowd simulation. BDI model is developed based on the theory of human practical reasoning  and theory of intentional systems . An agent’s behaviors are determined by its belief (information the agent has about the environment), desires (the agent’s goals) and intentions (the agent’s committed goal to achieve). Although there are other human agents behavioral models such as Soar  and Act-R, BDI offers the most straightforward representation for describe human reasoning and actions . For this reason, this study use BDI as the foundations and aims to related psychology and soci-psychology theories of crowd behaviors for extending the BDI model to allow understanding of impacts of these affective aspects on agent’s decision making, agents communications and agents behaviors. The high level simulation framework is shown in Figure 1.
The evaluation of stressor is referred to a process involving identification, description, comprehension, analysis, synthesis and judgment on perceived stressors. The evaluation requires mental abilities to performance all those processes and that the reason why it is linked with cognitive domain. All these processes will enable individuals to specify and filter stressors that really bothering them, thus will enable them to come out with appropriate solutions as responses towards the real stressors. An important factor for evaluation is individuals’ ways of thinking about stressful situations. Training is an important way to guide individuals to develop positive ways of thinking (23-32). Studies have reported individuals who adopted planning and positive reinterpretation as coping strategies were associated with better psychological health (34, 35). From that notion, one of the objectives of stressmanagementintervention should be to promote development of healthy mindset towards stressful situations.
therapeutic effects on cognitive processes associated with insomnia maintenance, including dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs about sleep and sleep effort. One limitation of this approach is the implementation of the experimental proce- dure, which is costly due to the amount of time required in the laboratory. Therefore, ISR is in its infancy and further studies are required to examine the clinical effectiveness and provide a suitable method for patient delivery (eg, home- based procedure).
This argument, which focuses on the organisational/individual interface, appears valid. It acknowledges differences between individuals and their environments, and therefore tailors a programme to an individual's specific needs. Dewe (1994) argues that if one takes a transactional perspective towards stressmanagement interventions, then one must consider both the individual's primary and secondary appraisal of a situation. In terms of primary appraisal, that is the meanings which individuals give to events, researchers must consider the way in which individuals perceive different situations at work. In other words, one must not assume, for example, that a heavy work load is a stressor, unless an individual perceives it as being a threat to their well-being. This issue relates to Sowa's (1992) model of stressmanagement, which emphasises the need for consideration of the individual's perception of a situation. This is important within the context of stressmanagement, since it may determine the type of stressmanagementintervention to be used. Although some conditions at work may be stressful to the majority of employees, and therefore need to be considered in terms of organisational change in the design of a stressmanagement programme, in certain cases the problem may also lie in the way some individuals perceive certain events at work. In such instances, cognitive restructuring may need to be implemented as a stressmanagement technique, in order to help those individuals perceive events in a less threatening way.