Political Liberalism attempted to remedy the limitations of Rawls’s earlier moralism by abandoning his earlier strategy for discovering universal principles of justice by placing citizens behind a ‘veil of ignorance’. Instead, Rawls now invoked the concept of an overlapping consensus that was intended to incorporate moral and political diversity into his philosophy. In other words, the principles of justice were no longer identified as timeless moral truths discerned in a condition of ignorance about our actual identity but were linked instead to historically based principles of right said to be implicit in the overlapping consensus about the political good found in any actual society, to the extent that it is well-ordered. It was immediately pointed out by critics like John Gray, however, that Rawls’ attempt to avoid assimilating the political to the moral had retained the characteristic neo-Kantian reduction of the political to rule- following, thereby assimilating it to a quasi-legalistic process. As Gray put it, in Rawls’ supposedly ‘political’ liberalism, justice is thought of as ‘a matter, not for political decision, but for legal adjudication’ (Gray, 2000). 12 This, however, was not
Based on this fact, the future arrangement of Indonesia must lead to national convergence, namely convergence in the field of basic social, cul- tural and political concepts. The meaning and purpose of national conver- gence are a form of mutual understanding rooted in the spirit of willing- ness to give and receive among individuals and tribes. The basic principle of accepting and giving is the stability of individual, ethnics, and groups to open themselves to differences and eliminate anxiety between individuals and groups. This national convergence tendency should be directed to- ward a more cosmopolitan outlook on life, the maturation process of every member of the nation, individuals and groups, the self-declared in self- awareness, in an ever increasing capacity, to recognize the universal values of individuals and group, to communicate with other people and groups. It means that every person or group is required not to be too attached to the exclusive symbols of individuals or the group, and their view should be developed toward more inclusivity based on the awareness of social func- tions and values behind the formal symbols. This cosmopolitanism spirit should be a national association, in the external and interpreted sense, which is insightful throughout all members of the nation. Based on the above matters, Indonesia has grown steadily as a nation. The most valuable assets of Indonesia are the unity of the state, the language of unity, the
Keeping the role of religion in mind, the ideals of the society are clearly found in Bible. Also the mechanisms of how society works were derived from religion. Religion was used as the top set of values and overall goal while feudalism was the base of development underneath the church ideals. For that reason leadership was more practical than following the church. Most of the people were without education and very few had their independent thoughts. Mostly the feudals were the ones to have thoughts about role of power and leading. Science and discoveries were not welcome in Middle Ages – even if having discovered or learned something new, it was more useful not to spread the knowledge as reputation of scholars and innovators was very low. The leaders were the existing ones, they changed by generations, no need for changes was present. Things were not regarded as obsolete. Absolute continuity in leadership and values characteristic to Middle Ages in Western Europe. Due to the huge influence of church, religion was the only considerable tool and justification of power or leadership. No skills or options for exercising leadership were ever mentioned. Therefore leaders were blindly followed and followers were the only indicator of leadership.
Sayyid Qutb writes in a magazine's with name of "Al-Moslem":"In today's societies, there must be thought and mind, but the va- cuity of Western societies of thought and mindset draws them back into materialism and materialism, and these communities are never able to escape this great misfortune and not fall into the scope of materialism. Be- cause they want to eliminate ideas and prac- tices, instead of offering the right mindset, bribery and imprisonment. However, we have all the forces that the West has not dreamed of. Because we can base our social system on a sound and complete basis, and it is stupid that we lose the chance and imitate the "west" Why some! From this fair system based on belief and all-round social justice for all, he keeps everyone in the shadow of his just sys- tem, and materialism with a comprehensive mindset of his system and his social system, not rejecting force and bayonets, are they afraid?! Westerners disagree with the imple- mentation of the Islamic system, because this system rejects colonialism as communism. It is only based on this principle that they are struggling with a fair and comprehensive sys- tem of rules that can all be protected in full shadow.
thought from Augustine onwards – Cavarero alludes often to metaphors of seeing. In re- or mis-appropriating a forensic, Platonic gaze (with an eye on Heidegger’s parsing of Platonic a-letheia as orthotes or ‘correctness of sight’ rather than ‘revelation’, 74), her task is to highlight that which has been concealed, or even that which is in clear sight but nonetheless remains unseen. This strategy of ‘highlighting’, at the risk of seeming to ‘exaggerate’, pays overt homage to Hannah Arendt’s rhetorical strategies (20-1). We are encouraged to ‘look with curiosity’ at the theme of inclination, as a new ‘transparency’ is laid over snapshots of what is later termed a ‘Western macrotext’ (61) that posits rectitude over and against ‘maternal’ leaning (25-6). As Cavarero recognizes, the underlying model of this proper philosophical and political subject – the autocratic, integral, self-referential, non dependent (and implicitly) Western, able-bodied male – has been under attack for at least a century: she
As it was mentioned before, if we could use a counter argument to explain realism in Machiavel- li‟s political thinking, actualism, which is concep- tually related to welfare in the thought in the idea of some of the contemporary Islamic thinkers (4), because of the lack of theoretical basis, will be led toward actions which are being conducted regard- less of theoretical foundations of the Modern polit- ical thought. It seems that the concept of expe- dience, as was mentioned, compared with the ac- tualist‟s thinking, is a theory, which because of the lack of thinking foundations, except some tradi- tional theoretical ones, tries to take the world of action and theory together; the two identities, which are left devoid of their origin. As an exam- ple, if, by talking about ethics in political thinking, the objective is its understanding in the logical framework of politics, in traditional theories the discussion would end to the issue that ethical ne- cessities are after imposing themselves on the do- main of politics and gaining independence from the political affairs. It should be emphasized that there can be no relation between these two con- cepts (Actualism, expediency, and realism), and if there is any relation or combination, it is no more than eclecticism, because in the interest oriented traditional theory, the more we approach the more we get unfounded, because expedience is just acci- dental and not instinctive in thinking. Stated diffe- rently, the interest or expediency oriented theory or that of the actualist, since is based on the old think- ing, can accept the Modern politicalthought as the secondary one, because the Modern politicalthought is no more than expedience, itself. On the contrary there are people who believe that the ex- pedience emanated from the traditional thinking, which is in one way or another, similar to realism! In Machiavelli‟s thinking, which conforms to the changes in time and situation of the external world and, is to explore its own problems, it should be
Corridor North - South consists of infrastructure projects in the field of gas, electricity and oil, which will link the markets of Central Europe with each other as well as from the western part of the continent. In the gas sector, the Corridor aims to create a coherent transmission network, consisting of pipelines and interconnectors, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic coast. The corridor is also to extend the existing pipelines so that oil supplied to Europe via the Baltic Sea or the Adriatic Sea could then be freely transported across Central Europe. As for the electricity sector, the most important thing is the construction of high voltage power lines that will connect the Baltic countries - which are still lonely islands - with the rest of Europe. Infrastructure, which in effect created, will be essential to ensure energy security in Central Europe. The entire European Union, which thanks to the implementation of the corridor will increase its competitiveness, will benefit from strengthened national industry and facilitating the coordination of strategic objectives.
consolidate his/her own position. This view was based on principles outside the sphere of politics and human, i.e. nature and/or religion. In this field, the power of providence as well is attributed to god (Skinner, 2002: 28). Machiavelli, with ref- erence to the ancient discourse, raised the issue of providence and power by making reference to the nature in order to highlight the complexity of the challenge of virtue with nature. Providence is as a devastating hurricane as if it were caused by the nature and the will of gods. To stand against this hurricane, the king needs to possess qualitative virtue which contains complete consistency and internal coherence. Ability, capability and capaci- ty are characteristics to this consistency resulting in resistance against and overcoming providence (Laine, 2008:12). By reference to this, Skinner stresses capability as a potential concept of deve- lopable virtue and it may, proportionately to times, situation and possibilities (quantitative as- pect) provide the king with more options. In this way, in challenging fortune, human possibilities are discovered in the face of it and the result of this process is virtue, and the qualifier of the king is Virtuoso. Skinner believes that in Rome, to which Machiavelli makes reference, the analysis of virtue is complex. Hannibal warns against the unleashed power of fortune. Fortune should not be relied on to upright the body so that if it changes its back on us, will overthrow us hard (Skinner, 2001: 54).
00001t tif HOBBES, METAPHOR AND POLITICAL THOUGHT JA M ES WILLSON QUAYLE SUBMITTED IN FU LFILM EN T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF P h D AT THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOM ICS UNIVERSITY OF LONDON[.]
"Principles of Public Administration in their application to specific problems in this State and the Commonwealth."(55) In his other half course he covered "Municipal Administration from the social and political point of view."(56) From 1925 he taught an expanded single full course entitled "Public Administration", which amalgamated the two courses which until then he had been teaching. With the introduction of a course for a Diploma in Public Administration in 1930, this full course was augmented by a further half course, "Public Administration II", concerned initially with three special topics: "(a) the administration of ameliorative legislation covering a survey of the measures, the agencies involved, and the difficulties encountered; (b) the financial administration of New South Wales, covering the Budget, its preparation, discussion, execution and examination; (c) the administration of transport, rail, road and ocean."(57) Mills and Butlin put the view that:
Befohe leaving for America, he wrote "al~^Âdâlah al- Ij tinia'^ iyah fi al-lBlam" (Social Justice In Islam), his first book on Islamic thought and Islamic culture. The book was published in 1947 in Cairo (24). It was received warmly by the Muslim Brotherhood and al-Banna - the leader of the movement said when he read the book: This book represents our thought and the author should become a member of our movement(25).
Political condition in Indonesia is beyond imagination of Indonesian itself. They perceive that Indonesia’s politic is a something that politicians do for a living, or that they will do to get their favored position and power. They may sacrifice things to get what they want and it is done by all necessary means. The government indeed finds difficulty to represent the aspiration of citizens. Most Indonesians grieve about the lack of welfare. People feel helpless without assistance of government, and the welfare is still far from being satisfactory. If people perceive that politic is bad, it is because the government fails to perform the duty as the representative of people. For Indonesian, politic is a self-interest based way reach the power or a nasty way to obtain something. For instance, the civil officers in the House of People Representatives have a good salary but this salary does not match with what they do in the work program for the people. They are only worsening the poverty of people especially when they commit corruption. Such negligence shall betray justice with the spread out of poverty through Indonesia. There are few fundamental suggestions to produce a more reliable political system. In relation with the application of political ethic to Indonesia, some are given as follows.
In the last 20 years, the Western Balkans went through significant socio-political and economic changes at the regional as well as the national level. Along with the emergence of newborn states and democracies, market economy structures have also been established and functioning. In other words, a new world has been formed in the region, consisting of eastern nation-states with western oriented patters of development. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the area has enormously increased, as a consequence of the region ’s path towards economic integration with the rest of Europe. Greece has been a pioneer in this field; while Romania and Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007. All these developments meet many of the prerequisites and criteria set by neoclassical economic theories for a successful path towards regional cooperation and growth.
Accordingly, gender mainstreaming has become a central issue currently receiving a global attention. The concern on gender issues can be traced to the UN’s 1975 declaration of International women’s year. This interest was further climaxed during the fourth international women’s conference held in the year 1975 in Beijing, China which focused on “ Equity, Development and Peace” with the sole objective of reviewing and appraising the accomplishments recorded by the UN on women’s concerns over a period of ten years (1975-1985) (Akinboye, 2004). The growing concern to integrate and extend gender related issues beyond academic discourse into public policy and advocacy domain is borne out of the fact that women represent more than half of the world’s total population and have continued to contribute to human development. Thus, democracy, which is predicated on the principle of majority rule, is believed to be capable of providing a window of opportunity for the marginalized groups to participate in shaping policies and decisions that affect their lives (Walby, 2008). This assertion is based on the reasoning that programmes and policies formulated by any democratic government should be all inclusive in which case equal opportunities and improvement in socio- economic conditions are provided for everyone regardless of their colour, age, ethnicity, religion or gender. It is against this backdrop that the study carried out a situational analysis of women’s political participation in Nigeria. Thus, the study raised the following research questions: To what extent are gender inequality and discrimination against women in Nigerian politics? What are the factors responsible for the imbalance in women’s representation in elective positions? What are the explanations available for the emerging new trend in appointive positions of women in Nigerian politics?
Belenky (1999) identified six recurrent models or categories of ex- presidents in the USA: the still ambitious (who long for a comeback); exhausted volcanoes (who quietly retire); political dabblers (who give advice, campaign and fund-raise for their party); first citizens (who engage in dignified and non- partisan public service); embracers of a cause (usually a big humanitarian and/or global ‘cause’); and seekers after vindication (those aiming to reverse history’s likely negative verdict on them). These categories are not watertight and individuals may at different times seem to fit under a number of these headings. Personality, health factors, circumstances and changes in the nation’s political landscape all affected the roles played by ex-presidents. Belenky predicted that most future ex-presidents would be likely to aim to play a role as first citizens and/or to emulate the Carter model by taking up ‘worthy causes’.
Many young men and women in our society today have refused to go to school or embrace education as a panacea to most of the challenges they face in life. On the contrary, they choose to drink around, smoke around, sleep around with opposite sex partners even when they are not legally married, etc. However, we have to note here that there are some youths who seem to have no interest in education and do the kind of unscrupulous things they do because there is actually no hope due to several other intervening factors that could not easily be explained here! They have to humble themselves and do what can make them go to school for a better future. What follows, therefore, is that there is so much of illiteracy among the Tiv youths in contemporary society:
about women’s subordination and reluctance on the part of males in our society to share power with them. Fifteen states at present have increased the reservations in local self-governing bodies to 50%, Punjab joining them in 2017. The most prominent factor which impinges on women’s effective participation in decision-making is the role played by the political parties. Main motive of the party is to win the seat and hence it gives ticket to the family which has been winning the seat for it. When the constituency becomes a reserved one, a female in the family is made to contest election. This has given rise to the problem of proxies. The majority of the real female cadre in the party fails to get nominated in elections. For meaningful representation of women in decision-making bodies quota must be introduced in the political parties as well.
our study is part of the European Science Foundation’s EUROCORES programme for European Collaborative Research Projects (ECRP) which is an ideal format for conducting comparative research across Europe. With the support of the ESF the project brings together some of Europe’s most renowned researchers in political communication. By coordinating and supporting our network the ESF provides us with a unique opportunity to study the cultures of political communication across Europe.
institutions, parties, groups and offices to implement the policies of Islamic system. Political Islam presents a complete and comprehensive code of conduct for an individual and collective life. The Western democracy and modern Liberalism particularly in the post 9/11 scenario has changed the perception of Islamic political system all edging to be the major sponsor of global terrorism, consequently the forces like new ideologues, new conservatives and the Zionists have launched the new confrontation with Islam. Huntington’s theory of clash of civilizations has regained the room for future course of action. Furthermore the global debate on the issue of terrorism and counter terrorism has put down the perception and image of Muslim world as the counter part of Global Liberalism in the contemporary environment of World Politics. The particular study makes analytical evaluation through the paradigms and jargons of comparative approach. Global Liberalism on other side as moderated form of political behavior, state administration as a culture and a political system particularly in the Western world. Different norms, conditions, merits, demerits of Global Liberalism are the leading contents of comparison with its implications and effects. The purpose of the study remains to find out conflict and conflict resolution between contemporaryPolitical Islam and Western Global Liberalism while seeking the answers of some questions raised by the different critiques. The conclusive objective of the study is to find out the characters and factors remain engaged to air up contradictory environment and clash between two major political ideologies of the contemporary world politics. How much practice, theory, misperception lobbying, propaganda, hardliners, interest groups, agencies and stake holders play their role to disorder the situation of harmony, peace and co-operation between these two major cultures. Furthermore, it is too suggested that a valuable co-operation, understanding and compatible approach can bring quite positive rapporteurs if different responsible quarters and classes i.e. statesmen, policy makers, legislative authorities, media scholars and intellectuals contribute positively for the sake of human rescue, peace prosperity and development. There is an essential aptitude of rationality need to be adopted from both sides along with acceptance of ground realities, socio economic and geostrategic development following the lasting principles of tolerance and mutual co-existence.