Top PDF Conditions Necessary for Private Investment in the Ethanol Industry

Conditions Necessary for Private Investment in the Ethanol Industry

Conditions Necessary for Private Investment in the Ethanol Industry

36 billion gallon of total ethanol by 2022 are important steps in legitimizing demand for cel- lulosic ethanol, but consistency in public policy is necessary to draw in private investment. Commitment by the DOE of more than $1 bil- lion to commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol ventures in 2007 and programs ensuring future commitments are indicators of consistent pol- icy and provide sociopolitical legitimacy to the ethanol industry, which helps reassure private investment. These DOE commitments have taken many forms, but primarily consist of grants, co- operative agreements, technology investment agreements, and loan guarantees (DOE, 2007). For the grants, the DOE acts as ‘‘a cost sharing benefactor of equity R&D,’’ while through the cooperative agreements the DOE acts as ‘‘a cost sharing research/development partner’’ (Herrick, 2008). In both cases, the DOE is providing matching funds to support the technological legitimacy of the industry. The DOE’s loan guarantees place the depart- ment on the ‘‘debt side of traditional energy project financing’’ (Herrick, 2008). These loan guarantees, provided for by Title 17 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act, are similar to the Business & Industry Loan program (B&I Loans) offered through USDA and utilized by many food and fiber value-added ventures. B&I Loans played a critical role in the financing of many grain-based ethanol plants in the U.S., providing guaranteed loans for ventures and alleviating equity risks of private investors. Similarly, the DOE loan guarantees are expected to play a critical role in ‘‘second generation’’ biofuel ventures.
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Government Stability, Corruption, Investment Conditions and Private Investment in Côte d’Ivoire: The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach

Government Stability, Corruption, Investment Conditions and Private Investment in Côte d’Ivoire: The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach

Thus, efforts should be directed towards the implementation of the necessary public investments (infrastructure such as constant electricity supply, good high- ways, best care delivery system, etc.) in order to provide an environment condu- cive to the development of private domestic investment, in particular ivorian small and medium-sized enterprises. Secondly, there needs to be a focus on re- ducing the negative effects of external shocks caused by investment uncertainty and terms of trade degradation. It also suggests, as in Ouattara [15], the estab- lishment of a national authority with exceptional powers of sanction to better fight against corruption in all its forms. Finally, since the majority of variables are significant in the long term, it is important that polity programs can survive changes in government, hence the need to promote a democratic culture to en- sure a stable and high quality institutional environment.
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Financialized Hollywood: Institutional Investment, Venture Capital, and Private Equity in the Film and Television Industry

Financialized Hollywood: Institutional Investment, Venture Capital, and Private Equity in the Film and Television Industry

sovereign wealth funds, and investment banks, while also raising debt in junk bond markets. With these massive funds (upwards of $20 billion), private equity firms extract value from their target companies through financial engineering: paying themselves dividends, exploiting tax and debt loopholes, selling assets for profit, going into and out of bankruptcy, and not honoring contracts, as well as various methods of lowering labor costs, such as laying off high-wage labor, reducing wages and benefits, intensifying workloads, and shifting to non-unionized workers. With little to lose if the company’s debt drives it to eliminate labor or even file for bankruptcy, but much to gain if the investment can be exited from successfully, private equity is a textbook case of “moral hazard,” as someone else bears the cost of their risks. Recent scholarly work in media production studies often focuses on the precarious conditions faced by workers in the cultural industries, often utilizing a “bottom-up” perspective, but it’s worth complementing these considerations with the “top-down” perspective that labor conditions are often facilitated by abstract financial processes as well. 27
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Investigating the Relationship between Investment Risk and Private Investment in
            Iran’s Industry Sector

Investigating the Relationship between Investment Risk and Private Investment in Iran’s Industry Sector

Imobaigh (2006) analyzed private investment and macroeconomic instability in Nigeria’s economy during 1970-2002. As observed in the results, the coefficient of correlation between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the indicators of macroeconomic instability (e.g. inflation rate, exchange rate, and foreign debts) was a negative value. In addition, unemployment in the economy had a significant and negative impact on FDI. In Imobaigh’s paper, there are recommendations such as adopting a managerial strategy with respect to interest rate, exchange rate, and foreign debts. The results of the study indicated that procurement of the facilities required for necessary infrastructures and policies that enhance investments is a mandatory and Nigeria should avoid unsteady policies which may be implemented by any government coming into office.
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SOA Governance: Necessary Protection for a Strategic Business Investment

SOA Governance: Necessary Protection for a Strategic Business Investment

Of course, implementing Services Orientation and SOA Governance must be staged to enable organizational learning across multiple dimensions. New method- ologies, standards and coding conventions must be acquired and quality-assured. Re-use and cross-department design based upon reuse must become a core devel- opment practice, reinforced by well-managed registry/repository systems and cen- ters of excellence. Business units must collaborate among themselves and with IT in order to assure that project management and funding will support this. The chief architect at a leading risk management firm puts it this way: “The governance model is very much a federated model so the business units have a lot of in- put…It’s a major change. SOA is more than just an investment by our Corporate IT. It’s an investment across all of our businesses, so it has to go through all our governance processes.”
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Economic Impacts of the Ethanol Industry in Nebraska

Economic Impacts of the Ethanol Industry in Nebraska

The estimated net returns for a representative ethanol plant are shown in Figure 4 for the years 2010 – 2014. The net returns include the revenue from the sale of ethanol and dried distillers’ grain less the cost of corn along with the variable and fixed costs. As seen in the figure the net returns were briefly over $1 per gallon in 2014, but for most of 2012 were in the negative range of around 10 to 15 cents per gallon. The variability in net returns reflects that the ethanol industry is a commodity type of business with returns highly dependent on input costs and output prices over which the industry has little or no control.
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Investment Terms and Conditions

Investment Terms and Conditions

These Investment Terms and all of the documents in the agreed form (including for the avoidance of doubt, the Disclosure and Variation Letter) set out the entire agreement and understanding between the parties and super- sede all prior agreements, understandings or arrangements (oral or written) in respect of the subject matter of these Investment Terms. The Investors acknowledge that they have agreed to these Investment Terms in reliance only on the representations, warranties and promises specifically contained or incorporated in these Investment Terms and, save as expressly set out in these Investment Terms, the Warrantors and the Managers shall have no liability in respect of any other representation, warranty or promise made prior to the Completion Date unless it was made fraudulently.
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Necessary and sufficient conditions for a resolution of the social choice paradox

Necessary and sufficient conditions for a resolution of the social choice paradox

Necessary and sufficient conditions for a resolution of the social choice paradox Chichilnisky, Graciela and Heal, Geoffrey.. Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8495/ MPRA Paper N[r]

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The Conditions Necessary for the Absorption of Ultra Short Waves in Hydrogen

The Conditions Necessary for the Absorption of Ultra Short Waves in Hydrogen

The general experimental problem of observing the absorption of ultra-short radio waves in excited hydrogen is one whose results are of considerable theoretical importance... The overwhe[r]

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Private Investment and Public Health

Private Investment and Public Health

In the twenty-first century non-state actors are increasingly shaping governance at all levels. Traditionally, international law and international institutions facilitated relationships among sovereign states, but now, corporations, non-governmental organizations, and other non-state actors are increasingly becoming participants rather than spectators. One of the important areas of law that has undergone a dramatic transformation in recent decades is international investment law. With the spread of investor- state dispute settlement as a core dimension of bilateral investment treaties, foreign investors can directly challenge states’ actions in a range of areas. A number of investor-state cases focus on public health regulations, including Philip Morris International’s recent challenges to the required health warnings and plain packaging for tobacco products in Uruguay and Australia. These cases reflect the growing role of non-state actors in shaping the international system and highlight the potential implications for the regulation of public health.
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ON NECESSARY OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR RAMSEY-TYPE PROBLEMS

ON NECESSARY OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR RAMSEY-TYPE PROBLEMS

Conditions (1.2)–(1.5) do hold for an optimal solution of the Ramsey problem with exponential discounting, when ψ(t) → 0 as t → ∞. But all (1.2)–(1.5) fail for the zero discount rate, when the objective functional diverges and ψ(t) → const > 0 as t → ∞. This case was considered by Ramsay in [3, p. 543] with moral motivation:

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Necessary and sufficient conditions for global uniqueness of equilibria

Necessary and sufficient conditions for global uniqueness of equilibria

equilibrium prices. Having exactly one equilibrium for each economy is the same as asking when the Walras correspondence is a differentiable bijection with a differentiable inverse. However, working with functions is easier than with correspondences. We can instead ask for necessary and sufficient conditions that guarantee that the projection from the equilibrium manifold to the set of economies is a differentiable bijection and its inverse is also differentiable.

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Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Necessary Conditions of Value Creation

Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Necessary Conditions of Value Creation

Price (1965) reveals that science and technology have their own separate cumulative structures. With the cumulating, close-knit structure of science, new knowledge flow from highly related and recent pieces of old knowledge. Technology has a similar cumulating, close-knit structure, but of the state of the art, rather than the literature. Since the structures are separate, only in special and traumatic cases involving the breaking of a paradigm can there be a direct flow from the research front of science to that of technology or vice versa. It is probable that research-front technology is strongly related only to that part of scientific knowledge that has been packed down as part of ambient learning and education, not to front science. Similarly, research-front science is related only to the ambient technological knowledge of the previous generation of students, not to the research front of the technological state of the art and its innovations. This reciprocal relation between science and technology, involving the research front of one and the accrued archive of the other, is nevertheless sufficient to keep the two in phase in their separate growths within each otherwise independent accumulation. Faulkner (1994) notes that science is able to overlap with, and contribute to, technology in the areas of theory, experimental technique, and specialized knowledge, because it had earlier achieved its own momentum. Freeman (1994) note that the contribution made by basic science to industry is mainly indirect, in the form of young recruits with new and valuable skills and knowledge, rather than direct, in the form of published papers. Rosenberg and Nelson (1994) note the contribution of basic research to industry, the potential time lag thereof, and the role of industry maturity; the role of science in development of ways of thinking and specialized methodology design; the impact of basic science on the development of industry professionals; application driven basic research; and the connection and cooperation between universities and industry.
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Necessary conditions for the existence of perfect Lee codes

Necessary conditions for the existence of perfect Lee codes

Wattel that no perfect group code exists with these parameters.. Using the methods of Γ2] and Computer results kindly provided by A.E..[r]

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Corporate structure of a beet-ethanol industry

Corporate structure of a beet-ethanol industry

(6) Where in any income year any primary producer co-operative company sells or otherwise disposes of any qualifying asset (other than trading stock), such amount[r]

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Private investment in infrastructure provision

Private investment in infrastructure provision

The history of PFI projects in Korea can be divided into four stages. The first stage was the period from the 1960s until August 1994. During this time, Korea implemented PFI projects on sporadic basis in accordance with laws such as the Road Act and the Harbor Act. The second stage covered the period from August 1994 (when the Promotion of Private Capital in Social Overhead Capital Investment Act was passed) to December 1998 (just before the aforementioned act was revised to become the Private Participation in SOC Infrastructure Act). During this period, the government sought to further develop PFI projects by laying a strong legal foundation for future projects. However, lack of experience gave rise to poorer results than expected. In particular, in late 1997, Korea was hit by a financial crisis and was forced to receive support from the IMF, putting PFI projects into a difficult situation.
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Adjustment and private investment in Kenya

Adjustment and private investment in Kenya

Though real depreciation is found to have a Econometric estimation of the investment direct negative impact on investment, the authors model with Kenyan data for 1968-88 suggests use[r]

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Necessary Optimality Conditions for a Class of Nonsmooth Vector Optimization Problems

Necessary Optimality Conditions for a Class of Nonsmooth Vector Optimization Problems

A vector optimization problem with only inequality constraints and suppose that the involved functions are locally Lipschitz is studied in [14]. The KT optimality conditions is given under a generalized Abadie type constraint qualification assuming that the Clarke subdifferentials of the objective and constraint functions are polytopes.

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Implications of the Ethanol Industry for Cow-Calf Producers

Implications of the Ethanol Industry for Cow-Calf Producers

increased (Figure 3). Another way to illustrate this relationship is provided in Figure 4 which illustrates the correlation between the percentage of corn used in ethanol production and corn prices by year. As ethanol production, and percentage of corn production used for ethanol, has increased, so have corn prices. A natural sentiment is to conclude that the corn price pattern observed is caused all by ethanol production. That is, there may be a tendency to conclude that the doubling in corn price from the early 2000s from $2/bu to more than $4/bu in 2008 and the nearly additional $1.50/bu increase in 2012 are because of increased ethanol production. However, this would assume that other corn market price determinants were all stable during this time period. They certainly were not. Isolating corn market price impacts associated with expanded ethanol production is not a simple task.
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The dual nature of causation : two necessary and jointly sufficient conditions

The dual nature of causation : two necessary and jointly sufficient conditions

To sum up, we may give the following characterisation of the aim of my proposed account of causation: My aim is to provide an account of causation, presented as a biconditional, c is a c[r]

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