A b s t r a c t
Biodiversity loss is occurring globally at an alarming rate through the impacts of an unsustainably expanding human population, with changes in land-use practices, pollution, exploitation of natural resources and climate threatening species and ecological communities worldwide. Species range contractions and population declines as a result of these changes, combined with predicted future changes in climatic distributions, make managing their remaining suitable habitats even more important. Threatened birds, by acting as indicators of ecosystem health, can provide a basis on which conservationmanagement can be designed and targeted at the site-level. Wadersbreeding in European lowland habitats are an example of a species-suite in which populations have declined dramatically, and where concurrent range contractions are now compounded by the impacts of climate change. Breeding success (nest and chick survival to fledging) is the main demographic parameter driving these declines, so conservationmanagement focusses on enhancing productivity by restoring or maintaining suitable nesting habitat and high levels of nest and chick survival. Such management can be organised into a decision tree where each step indicates a research requirement or deployment method in the conservation toolkit. Through two case studies of wader species breeding in lowland habitats in the UK (Redshank Tringa totanus on saltmarsh, and Lapwing Vanellus vanellus on wet grassland), the types of management required and challenges faced are explored, while discussing the research underpinning each step, including the contributions of eight key publications. The issues and solutions presented in these case studies are widely applicable to other lowland wader species and habitats at similar European latitudes. The next step will be to apply this conservationmanagement at the landscape-scale across the continent to ensure the provision of effective supranational ecological networks of well-managed sites able to promote ecosystem resilience in the face of global threats.
The current complex landscape structure of agricultural land and semi-natural land in lowland Iceland seems to be highly suit- able for these species, given the large populations that the Ice- landic landscape supports. However, this favourable habitat composition is likely to change, as a recent study shows that farmers in Iceland intend to expand their cultivated land in the coming years in response to increasing demand for agricultural production (Johannesdottir et al., 2017). Iceland is one of an increasingly rare group of countries in which agricultural land- scapes still support large numbers of species of conservation concern, but evidence from other countries throughout the world has shown how fragile this situation can be, and how rapidly bio- diversity can be lost in response to agricultural expansion and intensi ﬁcation. Protecting these landscapes from further develop- ment is therefore crucial, both to maintain the species that they support and to aid the design of restoration and recovery strate- gies in locations in which widespread declines have already occurred. Throughout much of temperate western Europe, rapid
macrophytes is important for stream invertebrates, providing refugia and habitat diversity (Berrie 1992).
Although chalk streams and rivers are an important ecological resource, they are scarce and declining, having suffered from human pressures. The River Glaven has been modified by agricultural and flood management practices, such as river channelization, construction of artificial embankments, soil drainage, and substantial increases in the application of inorganic fertilisers; nevertheless the river flows through numerous habitat types that are of high conservation value (e.g. wet meadows, fen meadows, riparian woodlands, shallow lakes, and coastal marshes), which support a diversity of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and several important and protected bird species such as heron (Ardea cinerea), barn owls (Tyto alba), kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (Sayer and Lewin, 2002).
Intertidal wetlands are among the most productive habitats and support large number of waterbirds worldwide, however they are also one the most threatened habitats on earth. The loss of intertidal habitats is considered a key factor to explain the current decline of the majority of wader populations. At a global scale, anthropogenic supratidal habitats such as coastal salinas can function as buffer zones against the loss of natural coastal habitats. When the intertidal flats are no longer available as the tide advances, waders are forced to move to high-tide roosts, where they must remain until the receding tide exposes their feeding grounds once again. During the high-tide period waders congregate in dense flocks at salinas and spend most of their time sleeping, preening or feeding. Coastal salinas are man-made habitats exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater in a series of shallow interconnected evaporation ponds varying in size, water depth and separated by dykes. Unlike natural wetlands, the water level and salinity in salinas are stable and predictable as a result of management. The management of water level and saltmarsh overgrowth in the ponds and dry areas from salinas are particularly important in determining their use by waders. The different salinities and fluvial dynamics in salinas originate a particularly high benthic invertebrate prey density for waders. During migratory periods, waders can opportunistically exploit this food source and rapidly rebuild their fat stores and pursue their journey. The un-vegetated linear paths between ponds are used also by ground-nesting waterbird species to breed, but their linear structure may facilitate the detection of nests by predators. This negative effect may, however, be counterbalanced by the advantages of breeding in mixed colonies. After hatching, chicks of waders feed by themselves along the ponds of salinas and are limited to hypersaline waters prior to fledging. However birds raised in saline environments can present physiologic and behavioural adaptations to cope with high salinity.
Targeted conservation actions that focus on the specific requirements of single species can inadvertently influence other food web components, including species that may interact directly with the target species. For example, man- agement may influence predators of target species, and thus indirectly influence the effectiveness of conservation man- agement. Identifying factors influencing predator activity can potentially help to reduce impacts on species of conser- vation concern, but opportunities to explore predator activ- ity in relation to conservationmanagement are rare (Amar & Redpath 2005). In this study, the collation of 7 years of intensive monitoring of breedingwaders has allowed the identification of environmental conditions associated with differing levels of nest predation. Lapwing nests were signif- icantly more likely to be predated when far from verges, far from field edges in dry fields, close to field edges in wet fields and when there were fewer other lapwing nesting in the surrounding area. Modelling of the potential impact of realistic management scenarios that altered surface wetness and verge distribution indicated that substantial changes in nest predation rates (up to ~20%) could occur in response to particular management scenarios, but only for nests close to field edges in areas with high nesting densities.
The River Pang, a tributary of the Thames near Reading, to the west of London, was selected to represent the Chalk, because it had been studied over a number of years and several numerical models of groundwater flow had been constructed. Diffuse nitrate pollution was known to be an issue in its management. The adjacent Lambourn catchment was included with the Pang because both catchments overlie the same aquifer system and because the Lambourn includes several wetlands that are candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and the whole river length is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). A strong historical data set of surface water and groundwater observations existed, together with some historical invertebrate surveys. However, the catchments were lacking any significant background information on fish or sediment transport. These were not, at least at the outset of the research, considered to be major management issues in these catchments.
Due to the increasing demand by local and export market, the vegetable production in Malaysia is not only focusing on the highland areas, but also through the growing production in lowland areas. The importance of lowland vegetable production as a main source of vegetable products has been shown in the recent statistic of total vegetable productions (DOA, 2014). Despite the needs to focus on the growth of vegetable productivity, it is a must to look at the flow of pesticide usage in the vegetable productions due to the pesticide residue risk especially when consumer consumed the raw products. Therefore, rapid monitoring data on pesticide usage in developing countries were developed to enhance the effectiveness on the food safety policies (Leong et al., 2007). As a means to enhance good agricultural practices and safe use of pesticide by farmers in the areas of growing vegetable productions, a study was carried out in the lowland vegetable areas of Peninsular Malaysia in 2013. The purpose of this research is to provide comprehensive information on farm pest management practices by the lowland vegetables farmers. This information needed to evaluate the potential food risk as a result of pesticide usage in Malaysian lowland farming system and to provide a better insight on potential approaches that can be taken to reduce pesticide residues incidence in vegetables products.
2 mil. ha of land area and are broadleaf forests while the Iranian part is only commercial forests (FAO 2005). Approximately 60% of these forests are used for commercial purposes and the rest of them are more or less degraded (Marvie Moh- adjer 2006). These are the most valuable forests in Iran, both in commercial and in natural terms. The Hyrcanian forests are generally managed by selection cutting, with different logging method- ologies. Data on existing densities and composi- tion of snag populations are scarce for the Iranian lowland forests. The purpose of this study was to determine the density, size, level of decay and species of snags in different managing scenarios and the effect of forest management method on snag characteristics in the Hyrcanian lowland for- ests. The species, the volume, the distribution of species and diameter of snags in relatively undis- turbed forests could provide a valuable baseline for sustainable management goals in managed forests and constitute a reference for restoring de- graded woodland.
Soil erosion research based on measurements and observations started in the last century (Ádám, L. 1967; Ádám, L. 1975; Erődi, B. et al. 1965; Pinczés, Z. 1968). Results of this research were not adopted in the practice, i.e. preven- tion measures were not performed. During the socialist era quite a few soil conservation projects (e.g. contour tillage, shrub belts) were elaborated and successfully implemented at various locations. Aft er the change of regime in 1989 most of these schemes created in the framework of the previous soil con- servation projects became abandoned. The objective of the present paper is to show the benefi ts of conservation tillage for the environment under the condi- tions of climate change with a special emphasis on water management.
Keywords: tidal lowlands, water management, sustainability, cultivation
Abstrak (Indonesian):Ketersediaan air pada lahan pasang surut suatu saat mengalami kekurangan tetapi di saat lain mengalami kelebihan. Kekurangan atau kelebihan air tidak diinginkan dalam budidaya tanaman. Karena itu, pengelolaan air memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan pertanian pada lahan pasang surut dengan mengatur kondisi air yang tepat. Karena lahan pasang surut pada kondisi tertentu dianggap marjinal, maka budidaya tanaman harus memperhatikan sifat rapuh lahan sehingga pemanfaatannya untuk tanaman pangan dapat dipertahankan. Penggunaan lahan pasang surut yang terus-menerus untuk produksi pangan memerlukan pengelolaan ekosistem pertanian melalui pengukuran keberlanjutan pengelolaan air. Karena itu, pengelolaan air yang berkelanjutan di lahan pasang surut untuk produksi pangan seharusnya tidak hanya mempertimbangkan sumberdaya fisik (infrastruktur), tetapi juga sumberdaya manusia dan sumberdaya keuangan. Tulisan ini membahas tiga agenda penelitian pengelolaan air sebagai berikut: (1) pengembangan infrastruktur air spesifik lokasi, (2) inisiasi operasi dan pemeliharaan infrastruktur air partisipatif, (3) kemandirian dalam pendanaan pengelolaan air.
Palabras Clave: Ferias de semillas nativas y criollas, diversidad biocultural, agricultura familiar.
Cababié, Javier; Ma. Margarita Bonicatto; Esteban Abbona (2015) Family farmers` knowledge and seeds. What is trade fairs role in their breeding and conservation?. Rev. Fac. Agron. Vol 114 (Núm. Esp.1): 122-128
Diversity of exchanged seeds in native and creole seed fairs represents an important seed entering to family agroecosystems. The interest in the study of the above mentioned fairs has allowed knowing and documenting both the seed and knowledge that circulate in these events. Nevertheless, the information about exchanged seeds incorporation to agroecosystems diversity is a debt. It is still not known if family farmers find impediments to reproduce the exchanged seeds and the values and senses that give to this diversity once incorporated into their agroecosystems. The aim of this work is to investigate these aspects focusing in the diversity of seeds exchanged during the I National Native and Creole Seed Fair. Data was collected based on semi-structured interviews. We selected a sample of 9 family farms who took part of the mentioned event. During the interviews we addressed the following topics: we inquired about exchanged seeds, local names, destination, uses and knowledge and food sovereignty. A total of 61 samples were recorded. An average of 7 exchanges was done by each farmer. They sowed 93 % of the samples reaching a successful reproduction in 79 % of the cases. The main destination was self consumption (90%). Knowledge shared by farmers were organized in categories, the most important one was related to agronomic work. The free access to seeds and knowledge, the incorporation of diversity to the agroecosystems, and the high percentage of plants harvested to self consumption and the success in seeds reproduction, reinforces the importance of native and creole seed fairs to reinforce independence and food sovereignty of family farmers.
intermediaries, consumers, processors located and interconnected in a given territory (Boucher, 2006).
The RAI comprehensive development of goat cheese producers must consider issues related to process, from the physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw material and finished product, until organizational and administrative processes related to social capital, marketing and planning and organization of each aspects of it. That is why this study focuses on two main objectives: the first is aimed at contributing to the knowledge of the characteristics of goat milk and cheese produced in the two main producing areas of northern Argentina, as initial tool to establish procedures adequate production. To do this we assessed the variation in milk composition of Saanen goats (Valleys) and Creole (Quebrada) and cheeses made from them taking into account the variation during a production cycle. We also evaluated the milk admissibility for cheese production and the theoretical yield. The second objective was focused to accompany the Quebrada and Valleys producers to identify strategies to facilitate the application of management tools to all the areas of RAI, for which we evaluated the processes related to the traditional goat production and the ability to modify guidelines related to production and commercial aspects, such as the incorporation of a milk pasteurization step.
no obvious reproductive pathology that could have represented the cause of RBS. Moreover, a recent study by Sood et al. (2017) demonstrated that part of the RB cows’ etiology occurs at an earlier phase of folliculogenesis, thereby impairing oocyte competence, and subsequently reducing the probability of normal fertilization, which diminish embryo vitality and development. Also, Kafi et al. (2017) proved that the ovulatory follicle microenvironment of Holstein repeat breeder heifers places their oocytes at a developmental disadvantage, suggesting the existence of an inherent inferior quality of the ovulatory follicle microenvironment in repeat breeding Holstein heifers.
Ideal temperature sensors have as low a heat capacity as pos- sible to match the temperature of the surrounding environ- ment as fast as possible. The human leg in the wader consti- tutes a significant heat capacity, and, as any experimental hy- drologist can confirm, the thermal insulation the wader pro- vides between the leg and the water is not perfect; i.e., both the body temperature of the wearer of the wader and the heat capacity of the combined wader–leg system can influence the accurate determination of the water temperature using the thermistor. To test the influence of both the heat capac- ity and the body temperature, six experiments were done in a flume in the lab of Delft University of Technology. The waders were first placed in a 40 L bucket of warm water. When the temperature stabilized, the waders were put in the streaming water of the flume. This was repeated with a leg in the wader and without a leg; in the latter case the wader was pressed down into the water using a rod. This was done at three different flow velocities (0.2, 0.17 and 0.38 m s −1 ), creating a total of six experiments. The step response of the temperature-sensing waders are assumed to be exponential, i.e.,
The selected reproductive fish will be introduced, if it’s possible, in a separate lake. Their izolation decreases the danger of young fish deseases. Lakes’ surface for the reproductive fish is calculated at a minimum of 15 m 2 for each one. It’s recommended that these lakes were situated as near as possible from the feeding source. If we don’t have a special lake for reproductive fish, so they will be placed in lakes with a maximum biogenic capacity and with a large surface. The reproductive fish, especially before the reproduction, will be separated according to their sex in special lakes or even in wintering basins, and after the reproduction, if we don’t have such a kind of lake, they will be released in breeding lakes also according to their sex.
Biodiversity is a term given to the variety of life on earth and the natural patterns it forms. It often classified at three levels, which are genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. Genetic diversity represents the heritable variation within and between populations of organisms. Species diversity is measured by the total number of species in a given study area. Ecosystem diversity refers the variety of different habitats. Evidence shows that, there is a highly complex relationship between species and ecosystem diversities. Rangelands are characterized by a high biodiversity, which is economically important both locally and nationally. Apart from this role, rangelands serve for a number of functions such as ecological, ethical and the protection of gene pool. Rangelands are sources of forage/fodder for about 360 million cattle and over 600 million sheep and goats for an estimated 100 million people in arid areas. Eastern Africa rangelands harbor a rich agro biodiversity of cultivated food crops and their wild relatives, which contribute to crop improvement programs and food security. Thus, in order to sustain the benefits of biodiversity, conservation is needed at all levels. Rangelands can be used sustainably if their ecosystems are maintained intact and they are most productive when their components are put to a variety of uses. There are two main conservation methods, which are currently practiced in some of the eastern African rangelands: Ex-situ conservation in form of gene bank or germplasm management, in vitro storage and field gene banks are commonly used. Another method is in situ conservation, which include protected areas and home gardens. However, such conservation efforts are affected by rapid population growth, poor government policies, sedentarization, breakdown of traditional institutions and resource utilization and rangeland degradation which serve as major causes of genetic erosion in rangelands of eastern Africa. The eastern African indigenous knowledge in management of rangeland biodiversity involves several techniques. Pastoralists have over many generation developed communal tenure and land use practices; and they also have their own herd management and water management practices which help them to successfully use the rangelands on sustainable basis. Such practices can and should play an important role in maintaining rangeland biodiversity, especially when blended with more modern scientific rangeland conservation and management practices. Improved scientific understanding of biodiversity, notably its role in ecosystem functioning, is a precondition for increased concern and thus action to conserve it.
Table 3. 9 Least square means ± SE of the magnitude of change in number of bird species, total abundance, and abundance of frequently detected species (those detected >200 times in the first year of surveys) within 100 m per point at unburned points and at points that burned in spring, summer, or fall in east-central Minnesota during 2016-2018. Stars indicate species that are listed as a Minnesota Species in Greatest Conservation Need (MNDNR 2015). Underline indicates species that are listed as fire-dependent by the Lake States Fire Science Consortium (LSFSC 2018). All species (including those not reported as frequently detected) were used to calculate bird species richness and total abundance. We used data from surveys conducted before and after burns during 1–25 June 2016, 29 May–21 June 2017, and 5–28 June 2018. The number of avian point-count locations is indicated by n. χ 2 values and degrees of freedom (df) come from Type II Wald Chi-square test. P-values come from linear mixed-effects models and test whether there was a significant difference between fire season treatments and unburned, controls at α = 0.05. Bolded rows indicate an overall significant P-value associated with the model. We further assessed pairwise differences between each treatment and controls for significant models. Stars indicate level of significant difference between each fire season treatment and unburned controls.
Studbook information is correlated on a simple computer database designed by ISIS, called SPARKS (Single Population Analysis and Records Keeping System). The ‘studbook’ is a long list of all the animals within a region, preferably dating back to when they were first brought into captivity. Look at Appendix VIII for an example of a studbook for greater flamingos in Australasia. By analysing the data stored in SPARKS, a studbook keeper can determine the best pairings in order to retain maximum genetic diversity (as opposed to inbreeding). This analysis is run using PM2000 (Population Management 2000), a specialised software package, which analyses genetic and demographic data imported from SPARKS.
degraded habitat (Andreone & Randrianirina 2003; Andreone et al., 2005a), the harlequin mantella (Mantella cowani) should become soon the object of a specifi c, fully fi nanced captive breeding project, with the aim of creating captive stocks of the main existing populations (Andreone et al., 2006). Unfortunately, no report has been published so far describing signifi cant success in rearing this high alti- tude species in captivity, and we suspect that this is mainly due to the extreme environmental requirements of this species, such as signifi cant thermal differences between day and night, and the humidity conditions that it requires. Another criti- cally endangered species that is yet to be assessed for its captive breeding potential is the rainbow frog, Scaphiophryne gottlebei. Although this species still appears to be widely distributed within the Isalo Massif, and is likely to be locally abundant, it has been exported in massive numbers in recent years (Andreone et al., 2006), and has not yet been bred in captivity. This is the reason why the exportation of this microhylid is not yet balanced by captive breeding successes, but given that the genus Scaphiophryne appears to be successfully reared in captivity, we are confi - dent that the rainbow frog could also be successfully bred and reared in captivity. In this case too, as with the other species, a captive breeding project led by major institutions could be one of the strategies for its conservation.