In recent years, there has been an increase in the sale and purchase in an array of organic products. Claims of higher nutrition content, being more environmentally friendly, and being from a small family farm are all part of the neatly wrapped package presented to the consumer of what “organic” is. The sale of organicmilk has been one such product that has grown in popularity. Farmers get paid more for the sale of organic fluid milk and consumers willingly pay the higher price at the grocery store. Meanwhile, conventional dairy farmers have been under media scrutiny over an array of issues such as environmental impact, human health and animal welfare concerns. The literature review presented in this paper explored the potential factors, reasons and concerns that contribute to a consumer’s choice to purchase organicmilk, verifying whether this choice was based on reality or merely an image of what they believed organicmilk was.
suggest that marketing should focus on the protec- tion of biodiversity, as willingness to pay for this attribute is higher than for the others. Rather than the values and their significance, it is useful to ex- ploit this information taking into account the order of preference, derived from the initial experimental design. This means that the calculated terms have value in indicating that consumers seem to be more sensitive to biodiversity and to health than to pol- lution from nitrates. However, this consideration suggests that the consumer is still very interested in environmental issues, but probably does not per- ceive the issue of nitrates as a prerogative of organic products, compared to the role in the reduction of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and antibiotics.
more quickly process milk. M. tuberculosis was again the microorganism of concern when establishing parameters for what would be known as HTST pasteurization. The work by North and Park (1927) did not review temperatures higher than 65.6°C for destroying M. tuberculosis, making it difficult to set minimum requirements. The first HTST standards were publisheds in 1933 in the U.S. Public Health Service Milk Ordinance and Code (Westhoff, 1978). Workman (1941) studied the effects of time and temperature on various pathogenic bacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and brucellosis, and found that all were destroyed by heating to 71.1°C (160°F) for 15 seconds (Workman, 1941). Based on these results, a standard of 71.7°C (161°F) for 15 seconds was established as the minimum for HTST pasteurization. In 1957, the parameters for both LTLT and HTST pasteurization were updated to account for the thermal tolerance of Coxiella burneti, the microorganism which causes Q fever. The new parameters increased the minimum temperature and time of LTLT pastuerization to 62.8°C (145°F) for 30 minutes and 71.7°C (161°F) for 15 seconds for HTST pasteurization; products with higher solids were recommended to be pasteurized at higher temperatures to account for varying suspensions of the pathogenic microorganism (Enright et al., 1957). Current standards for grade “A” pasteurized milk requires milk to be cooled to 7°C (45°F) or less, contain less than 20,000 cfu/ml for overall bacteria (less than 10 cfu/ml for coliforms), contain less than 350 milliunits per liter active alkaline phosphatase, and show no positive results for drug residues (FDA, 2013).
One-way ANOVA results also indicated a statistically significant relationship between household type and the importance placed on a range of attributes. These results would agree with findings by Hjelmar (2011) and Xie et al. (2015) that suggested household type (particularly whether there were children in a household) had an impact on consumerperception and purchase of organic food. However, a situation similar to that of age occurred, with one group having a much smaller number of respondents than the others, causing the significance of these results to be questionable. The only attribute for which there possibly was a significant effect was no/minimal food additives, with the means suggesting that the groups of respondents living with parents and with flatmates placed a significantly lower level of importance on this attribute than other groups did.
We have used a similar questionnaire to that used by Michelsen et al. The information requested encompassed data on organic production, organic consumption, organic imports and exports, organic supply deficits, organic farmer and consumer prices, and organic farmer and consumer price premiums (the additional cost above the price for the same conventional product). Questions related to the most important organic plant and animal products, including cereals, oilseeds, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, wine, milk, beef, sheep and goat meat, pork, poultry and eggs. The questionnaire was sent to a number of market experts in each of the nineteen countries investigated. Their responses have been cross- checked for reliability, and in many cases we have obtained additional data from Internet and other sources to confirm and supplement the data gathered from the questionnaires. On such a scale, the data search was demanding, labour-intensive, and inevitably not without difficulty,
Genetically modified food (GMF) and organic food (OF) are two different forms of food production that are becoming more popular and drawing more interest worldwide in recent decades. The aim of the present article was to provide a brief review of the literature about concepts and consumer´s perception aspects in Brazil related to GMF and OF. Scientific database such as PubMed, Scielo and ScienceDirect were consulted and a total of 33 references were identified as informative and relevant for this study. While large industrial groups sponsor the production of transgenic, the production of organic food is counterpoint, valuing the local issues and the preservation of the environment. However, far from being complete opposites, these two forms of production have strengths and gaps still to be filled to the full understanding of what they are and what they can offer to the consumer. So far, there is incongruous information about effects and/or benefits from consuming GMF and OF and, in response, it is observed a wide lack of knowledge from consumers.
Although the attributes associated with organic foods may be difficult to identify by visual inspection alone, most consumers purchase organic products because of a perception that these products have unique (and in some cases superior) attributes compared to conventionally grown alternatives (Vindigni et al. 2002). On the other hand, a major reason why some consumers do not purchase organic foods is linked to a perception that such foods are not better than their conventionally produced alternatives (Jolly et al., 1989). There is, thus, a continuing debate about whether organically produced products are superior to and/or different from conventionally produced alternatives and, if so, in terms of what characteristics. Several studies have assessed whether there are differences between organic and conventional foods from the perspective of both the producer (or supply-side) and the consumer (or demand-side).
Based on the data it is undoubtedly the 45+ age group that buys organic food regularly most often, respondents between 36 and 45 years buy it sometimes. Let us emphasize the high proportion of people under 35 and mainly the youngest – under 25, who never buy organic food. The majority of respondents who never buy organic food live in small villages of under 2,000 inhabitants. Many respondents consider organic produce to be more expensive, more than one‑tenth of answers came from responders who do not believe in the qualities of organic produce, consider it unnecessary luxury or find it unattractive. Men and people aged 36 – 45 buy organic food more often at the mall or in the supermarket, women shop in health and organic food stores. People under 25 grow their own organic produce more often than every other age group. Respondents over 45 years are the most frequent to shop for organic food in small grocery stores. When buying organic food, participants in the survey apparently shop mainly for fruits and vegetables, and also milk and dairy products. The analysis further suggested that men seem to be shopping for organic food as often as women. As for the frequency, there is not a big difference when it comes to age or education either, only respondents over 45 years are the most frequent to buy organic produce several times a week. It also became evident that there is not a big difference in the amounts usually spent by men and women, but men and respondents younger than 25 often do not know how much they spend for organic food. Respondents over 45 years of age of all categories spend over 500 CZK per month more than others. The group of respondents aged 26 to 45 years stated that available organic food comes from regional or domestic production. Respondents under 25 are often simply not interested in the origin of organic food, according to the research.
Feed analyses. Grab samples of pasture were collected randomly from the areas grazed at farm two to fill a one gallon zip-closure bag. Grab samples were obtained in a manner to simulate the selection of the grazing cow to provide a representative sample. Samples were taken by hand-tearing the top 7 to 10 cm of pasture leaves (White et al., 2001). Pasture species were identified on the farm at the time of collection. Table 2 identifies the grass species grazed on by PB cows and the months in which they were collected. Dry samples, consisting of TMR from farm one and ground corn and cottonseed from farm two, were each placed in one gallon zip-closure bags. Feed samples were gathered at each milking and sent to the North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Food & Drug Protection Division, Forage Laboratory, Raleigh, NC for protein, moisture, and fiber analysis. Samples were dried in an oven at 80°C for a minimum of 15 h. The samples were ground after drying, using a Retsch ZM 100 and Retsch ZM 200 mill with a 1-mm sieve (Arthur Thomas Co., Philadelphia, PA). Ground samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP) by Dumas combustion (LECO FP-428, LECO Corporation, St. Joseph, MI) and for acid detergent fiber (ADF) by wet chemistry digestion (Ankom 200, Ankom Technology Corp., Fairport, NY). Net energy lactation (NEL) was determined by using the Cornell regression equations (Mertens, 1973).
Finally, the ecological food consumers affirm that a price at the moment of a purchase is extremely important. Therefore, it means that this kind of consumer is very sensible to the price and its changes. In this sense, a node, which defines a profile of possible consumer and his price perception of the eco-product, refers to the label. Moreover, the price aspect in a moment of purchase is the best predictor of a price perception when consumers decide to buy a food for their meals at home. It is also important to mention that a lifestyle which is based on an extreme care of health (e.g. no use of salt in a food), regular medical checkups and other activities, ratify what have said Vega, Parras, Murgado and Ruiz (2013) that consumption increases under a perspective of selfish values (health, food security, physical characteristics of the products) and altruist ones (environmental, animal welfare, territory development). Hence, it is essential to understand that for the ecological food product con- sumers the main perception factors for consumption is security, cleanness and ethical issues.
A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the actual purchase of organic products. Understanding this intention- behaviour gap may lead to increased sales of organic products. Effective communication and education can create trust, added additional values and credibility, and may lead to structured perceptions, convictions, values, norms, knowledge and interests and lead to better understanding of organic farming and farm animal welfare. Merchandising strategies can reduce barriers the consumer may encounter at the moment of decision making.
Organic Farming is about 10000-year-old. It has its roots from Neolithic age in Mesopotamia Civilization. Yet another Indian Epic Mahabharata mentions the role of Kamdhenu, the celestial cow on soil fertility. The religious texts of India the “Vedas” too mention the use of organic means in agriculture. Rig Veda (2500- 1500 BC) talks about organic dung and Atharva Veda also mentions the same.Sukra (IV, V, 94, 107-112) mentions, to insure growth in plants, they should be nurtured with dung of various animals like goat, sheep, cow along with water. Kautilya’s Arthashartha also mentions the use of several green manure and excretion of animals. The father of modern organic agriculture, Albert Howard (1900-1947) worked on developing the organic compositing process at Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar. He also mentioned about his invention in a document “An agriculture Testament”. Taking inspirations from his idea J I Rodale, popularized the term sustainable agriculture and came to be known as an early advocate of sustainable agriculture in USA (1942).
Abstract: Many consumers are interested in local products because of the perceived benefits of freshness, stronger taste and higher quality. To consumers the origin attribute represents a strong purchasing criterion. With respect to organic produce, local food products may be perceived either as substitutes or as complementary. A qualitative approach to data collection (focus groups) and to data processing (content analysis) has been used to analyse Italian consumers’ perception with respect to local and organic food products. In the framework of the EU project QLIF (FP6-506358) a discussion guide to focus group interview was used in order to identify important purchase criteria, the willingness to pay, as well as the role of organic food products in purchasing criteria. Two animal – yogurt and eggs – and two non animal products – bread and tomatoes – were taken into account. Focus groups interviews indicate that Italian consumers place much importance on the local origin of food products, especially if fresh consumed. The origin with its implication of seasonality, territoriality and localness are among the major motivating and trust factors, however not always linked to organic food products. The lack of availability of local and organic food products together with retailing issues are taken into consideration. Differen- tiation throughout animal and non-animal products and between processed food products and commodities is analysed. Organic seems to suffer in global markets, localness may suggest a solution. The research provides insights on substitution and complementary marketing strategies.
5. Krystallis 2002; Krystallis and Chryssohoidis 2005; Tsakiridou et al. 2008; and Fotopoulos a. In any case, the importance of individual factors appears to be country specific and/or time specific. Even in cases where similar attitudes between different countries were depicted, cultural differences lead consumers to seek different values when making purchasing decisions on organic food products. Consumer behaviour involves a complex and sophisticated pattern that requires marketing research in order to understand the process.
Table5 deal with the level of awareness. From the question 1, 2 and 4 it is concentrated on the awareness of the consumer which is if the consumer know about how the organic food are produced. Question no 1 until 4 are focusing on the pesticide which be assume that always use as the protective chemical in the organic food mostly for organic farming. The result of the understanding of an organic food are agrees and grown without the use of pesticide and conventionally grown foods that where use more pesticides than organically grown food is given positive result among the consumer or respondent for both questions. This shows that they aware about organic food. For based on result, question no 4 has a higher in neutral t which is 118 out of 300. This finding can be sure that consumer still not totally aware and some of consumers have awareness about the amount of pesticide residues remaining on conventionally farmed turn out don't seem to be possible to be harmful to health. For question 3, the result mostly agrees which is 112 out of 300 or 37.3%. It shows that it has more positive result on conventionally grow, which is consumer do not aware with benefit of food organic for the consumer. For question 5, most of them agree with the statement which is organic food are less susceptible to bacteria such as E.coli. Based on the result, it shows that 114 out of 300 and its positive result from consumer. Hypothesis 1 examined the positive impacts on the perception level toward organic food and it is accepted. According to the resulting obtained, the perception does give an impact towards organic food awareness among students. Based on the previous research, the consumers perceive the attributes of their products (freshness, local employment) in the same way
The average milk yield per cow for all commercial farms remained almost unchanged during the study period. Farms with a milk yield above average in Year 0 decreased their milk yield at some stage during conversion, whereas farms with yields lower than average in Year 0 in many cases increased their yields. A similar result was found in a German study of 57 dairy farms in conversion, although an average reduction in milk yield of 2.7% was reported. (Schulze Pals, 1994). In earlier English case studies, milk yields declined by 10% on one farm and remained constant on the other (Lampkin, 1993). The different responses in milk yield to the change to organic management have been explained by Schulze Pals (1994) as being due to a higher reduction in concentrate use on higher yielding farms. Likewise all farms in our sample with milk yields above average before conversion reduced the amount of concentrate during conversion, resulting in most cases, in increased milk from forage. The interviews indicate that some of the reductions in concentrate use were strategic rather than due to forage quality and quantity. In the group with milk yields below average in Year 0 some farms reduced, whereas others increased the concentrate feeding. On some farms, concentrate feeding was increased to compensate for lack of forage. The maintenance of average milk yields, despite a reduction in concentrate feeding of about 15%, indicated the concentrate feeding before conversion was suppressing forage utilisation, at least on some farms. It also led to an average increase in milk from forage per cow. On the other hand, initial analysis of the interviews revealed that feed shortages in the first year of conversion, apart from the desire to improve milk yield, were one reason for increased concentrate input during the period of conversion.
Consumer preferences and consumer buying behavior are the major issues that should be taken into account when designing a new package. In spite of factors such as new technology or material development, consumer’s choices and desires are the important elements that drive the marketing process. Consumers are the key actors in planning and implementing packages. Hereby, the key issue for packaging design is to understand the consumer (Stewart 2004). There are many studies that are done in the area of packaging. Nevertheless, Holmes and Paswan in the article "Consumer reaction to new package design" (2012, pp. 109 -110) deem that a little is known about the impact of the consumer’s experience with the package on the evaluation of the product itself. Concerning the previous researches, it can be seen that not a lot of studies are about the package design perception and direct customer experience with the package. Schoormans & Robben (1997); Rettie & Brewer (2000) deem that package design is one of the most significant parts of product strategy. It is estimated that approximately 70 percent of all purchase decisions of goods are made at the point of purchase. Therefore, the package itself is the only marketing communication the consumer may receive while evaluating the product. (Holmes & Paswan 2012, p.109.) Schoormans & Robben (1997); Rettie & Brewer (2000) deem that package design is one of the most significant parts of product strategy. It is estimated that approximately 70 percent of all purchase decisions of goods are made at the point of purchase. Therefore, the package itself is the only marketing communication the consumer may receive while evaluating the product. (Holmes & Paswan 2012, p.109.) According to the fact that the package and the consumer are strongly related to each other, two areas of business are described from the point of packaging in this study: marketing and consumer behavior. These two fields both affect and develop each other what helps companies to make right decision about their marketing strategies.
Food consumption belongs to people’s joys and pleasures of life and is o en perceived by con su- mers as an activity which should be paid much more attention, especially in connection with health. The reason for the concern of the public is the news propagated by media about unhealthy and even harmful eﬀ ects of foodstuﬀ s. Some statistical ﬁ gures point to an enormous increase of diseases caused by foodstuﬀ s. For this reason it is necessary to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuﬀ s and we all have it served on our table every day.
The interviewed farmers, who use this breed, do not consider this to be a problem (see Table III). They are aware of drawbacks, mainly consisting in intensive care and suﬃ cient amount of quality food and believe that they are able to eliminate this issue. Another technical barrier is a complicated separation of organic soil from the conventional units. Two other barriers may arise from the simultaneous conventional and organic production. It is the inability to produce the same raw material conventionally and organically as well as the need to fully and clearly separate conventional and organic production, which takes place on the farm. If the farm cannot separate the conventional and organic areas due to the farm