20 naseljenosti. Sredinom stoljeća u ivanečkom kraju bilo je više od 80 % poljoprivrednog stanovništva. Agrarna je prenaseljenost bila problem, a prva industrijska djelatnost u kojoj je stanovništvo Grada Ivanca i ranije tražilo zaposlenje bilo je ugljenarstvo (Feletar, 1997; Spevec, 2011). Ugljenarstvo je, dakle, bila okosnica industrijalizacije ovog prostora i prostorne pokretljivosti stanovništva u vidu dnevnih migracija jer su radnici bili primorani putovati iz okolnih sela do lokacije rudnika (Dugački, 1940), a koliko je ugljenarstvo bilo važno govori i podatak da je 1969. godine u rudnicima radilo oko 1700 ljudi (Miljan, 2016). U poslijeratnom razdoblju ugljenokopi se počinju zatvarati te se događa supstitucija industrije, odnosno u prostore bivših ugljenokopa smještaju se nove industrije poput tekstilne, drvne, kožne i drugih. Razvoj industrije odvijao se u jačim lokalnim centrima (Ivanec), uz prometnice i željezničke pruge, a gustoća jeftine radne snage je bila velika što je bio jedan od glavnih preduvjeta za mogućnost industrijalizacije (Njegač, 1989). Upravo je sredinom stoljeća većina naselja imala maksimume naseljenosti (sl. 13) da bi nakon toga u ostalim naseljima Grada Ivanca broj stanovnika padao (od 1953. do 1971. za 7 %). Problem je bio što procesi deagrarizacije i industrijalizacije nisu tekli istom brzinom. Deagrarizacija je bila puno brža pa je stanovništvo moralo tražiti izvor prihoda van mjesta stanovanja (u Zagrebu i Varaždinu) i van lokalnog industrijskog centra (Ivanca) (Feletar i Stiperski, 1992) što je rezultiralo, prvo prirodnim padom, a zatim i padom ukupnog broja stanovnika. Koliko su navedeni procesi bili jaki pokazuje i podatak da je u međupopisnom razdoblju 1953. – 1961. godine ukupni broj stanovnika grada Ivanca prvi puta imao negativan predznak (manjak od 87 stanovnika), no nakon toga je od 1961. do 2001. populacijski ojačao za 57 % kao centralno naselje ovog prostora.
The areas of population problem concentration are located in peripheral regions, far from main communication routes and large urban centres . The largest number of communes with negative population features is located at the borderland and administrative borders between regions . The communes in Białystok vicinity are the only exception where condensed problem areas were iden- tified . This most probably results from the city’s failure to develop a zone of economic influence and its becoming a destination for population from neighbouring communes . On the other hand, a significant number of Białystok inhabitants migrate to other regions .
The UK space economy is back on research and policy agendas but in a new guise (Harrison, 2007).  Through most of the twentieth century it was described in regional terms to inform policy needs that were essentially territorialist in nature: in Castells’ (1996) thinking this was the ‘national economy’ as a ‘space of places’. In this century the emphasis is moving towards ‘spaces of flows’ approaches that privilege the role of cities. This has rekindled research on identifying and describing the important cities in the space economy. For instance, Parkinson et al. (2006) have carried out a very detailed comparative study of English cities and Hall et al. (2001) have recalibrated the urban hierarchy in England and Wales. Both studies present a set of cities as key players in the major part of the UK space economy; in the former 56 ‘primary urban areas’ are selected on the basis of continuous built-up areas and demographic criteria (over 125,000 population), in the latter the ‘top 35 cities’ are identified from the higher echelons of the urban hierarchy defined in terms of retailing and other urban-centred services. The two sets of cities agree at the top end of their lists, but, going further down, many differences become apparent. This is to be expected given the different criteria for selection. We share with these studies the aim to identify leading urban areas in the national economy, but we are searching out a very specific set of cities and towns.
100 cities are now onto the SMART City mission list of India. The question trying to be answered is how architectural interventions help make a city smart? How the idea of smart might change from city to city, from context to context, how these smart interventions need to respond to the context- cultural, historical, social, economic and physical of the city being intervened.
Background: Ethical approach is one of the paramount aspects of life. The position of this approach in medical occupations has always been noticed. This study was carried out to analyze the types of ethical approaches in midwives and their relationship with their demographicfeatures. Materials and Methods: The current descriptive‑correlation and cross‑sectional study was conducted from October to December 2014 using quota random sampling technique. The participants consisted of 189 midwives employed in Isfahan, Iran. The data collection tool was a researcher‑made questionnaire. The midwives’ attitudes were examined in the four fields of virtue ethics, deontologism, utilitarianism, and religious ethics. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software (p < 0.050). Results: The highest score belonged to religious ethics with the mean value of 64.36 out of 100. A positive significant relationship was found between deontologism and education level (F = 8.74; p = 0.004), and total ethical approach and workplace (F = 2.60; p = 0.053). There was a reverse significant relationship between age and work experience and virtue ethics (r = −0.15; p = 0.035 and r = −0.20; p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions: The existing high percentage of religious ethics shows the religious tendency of the participants. The determination of ethical approach among midwives as one of the important medical groups and creation and improvement of the most appropriate attitude among them based on the present regulations and requirements in society are principles that we should attempt to achieve. Keywords: Deontologism, midwifery, religious, utilitarianism, virtue ethics
Kosovo aims for development of a state over the Kosovo state identity, which includes all communities living in Kosovo. Integration of all communities in public institutions and life remains one of the challenges of Kosovo society. The social distance refers to the extent of understanding of another group, which characterizes parasocial and social relations. Another definition is the lack of availability and relations in being open to others. Bogardus states that social distance is an outcome of affective distance between members of two groups. Earlier studies have shown that the social distance or gap is related to the ethnic background, education level and earlier interaction with other ethnic groups. Also, studies have shown a link with social/political activism. Further, it has been proven that social distance is manifested at three different spatial dimensions, their own self in a reciprocal co-product: physical, symbolical and geometric. The study aims to explicate social distance in a relation with demographic records of respondents to a research undertaken in Kosovo in 2010, in which 1296 citizens (64.4% Albanians, 13.9% Serbs, 6.9% Turkish, 5% Roma/Ashkali/Egyptian (RAE), 6.9% Bosnian and 2.7% others). Social distance has been measured by asking the respondents about the groups or persons they would object in terms of neighborhood: they, who speak another language, have another religion, have homosexual orientation, etc. Comparisons of average social distance in relation with ethnic sub-groups, gender, level of education, experience in earlier trips to the countries of the European Union (EU), size of settlement and the region of origin of the respondent, show significant differences, at p < 0.05.
Armenian community included important merchants with considerable commercial assets. Since Kayseri did not become a battle zone during the war, the most transformative factor in the transition of the sanjak from the Ottoman to Republican period was the Armenian deportation. Therefore, the role of the deportation in the social and economic transformation of a district would be more easily evaluated in the case of Kayseri for the sanjak was relatively free of other transformative factors; such as being a battlefield or invaded. In addition, even though the deportation was implemented in the sanjak, a significant number of Armenians were not deported and allowed to remain through conversion to Islam. Thus, it is thought that some local dynamics had an important role in the implementation process. The fact that Kayseri was a mutasarrıflık also affected the selection of this area as the focus of the current study. A detailed analysis of the process in a province, composed of many sanjaks with different local governors and local features, would be problematic since such a study could fail to take into account the peculiarities and variations among different sanjaks of the province.
A number of authors deal with problems of convergence, divergence and disparities, particularly with reference to economic growth and its comparison in groups of countries. This paper is aimed at problems of using basic methods of measuring the convergence at the evaluation of the develop- ment of selected demographic characteristics of particular regions of the Czech Republic for the pe- riod 1992 to 2007. From demographic data provided by the Czech Statistical Oﬃ ce some indicators were selected associated with aging the CR population. In particular, following indicators were used: the proportion of productive population, coeﬃ cient of loading the productive population by young persons, coeﬃ cient of loading the productive population by old persons, coeﬃ cient of the total load- ing and index of age. A precondition served as a working hypothesis that in addition to the negative demographic development aﬀ ecting the CR as a whole, the convergence of its particular regions also occurred, viz. regions at the level of NUTS 3. At the quantiﬁ cation of convergence processes in par- ticular regions of the CR, the method of beta convergence was used (in a simpliﬁ ed linearized form) as well as the method of sigma convergence. Both methods predicate unambiguously on the conver- gence of the CR regions from the point of view of all examined demographic indicators. From the as- pect of both methods, the fastest convergence occurred in the studied period in the indicator of load- ing the productive population by old persons. In this indicator (as the only from monitored ones), no disparity showed as well, ie a region showing an isolated development was not noted. Opposite situation manifested itself at the indicator of loading the productive population by young persons. Only elimination of the capital city of Prague reversed an original result showing evidence of the di- vergence of regions from the aspect of this indicator. Disparities of the capital city of Prague occurred even at other two indicators. Only from the aspect of age, the Central Bohemian region became a re- gion being beside the general trend of convergence.
the second mutations noted were most often to amino acids of low database frequency. These mutual exclusion pat- terns were seen in epitopes corresponding to three CTL responses against Env in S1 (outlined in green boxes in Fig. 5). In this complex case, the original Env epitopes were replaced by day 68 by two to four variants harboring mutu- ally exclusive mutations. A response was detected against the known epitope SFNCGGEFF (C04; residues 375 to 383) (SFC of 620 at day 127; not measured at day 7), which had been replaced by day 68 by two mutually exclusive variants (mutated residues are underlined in the sequences) SVNC GGEFF and SFNCRGEFF. The epitope RRGWEILKY (A01; residues 787 to 795) represented ⬎ 90% of sequences until day 13 and only 27% at day 21 and was not detected afterwards, while the variant RRGWETLKY became the consensus (the ELISPOT assay response was 15 SFC at day 7 and 715 at day 127). A stronger response at day 127 (SFC of 1,310; not detected at day 7) was elicited against RQGL ERALL (B08; residues 848 to 856), which was the predom- inant variant until day 44, when it was replaced by RQGL ERVLL/RQGLERAFL. Five more CTL responses were detected by ELISPOT assay in subject S1; however, their targeted epitopes showed no sequence variation over 181 days of follow-up. Three other examples of mutually exclu- sive mutations were observed in this subject. In Pol, two FIG. 4. Stochastic processes predominate during acute HIV-1 infection. Plots for four individuals followed from 3 up to 350 days postonset of symptoms. Trends in pairwise diversity and divergence from the first visit consensus for genome nucleotide alignments are shown along with plasma viral RNA load over the same period (the legend is shown in the S3 panel). Times during which significant negative deviations for Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s D* neutrality tests were detected are shown in shaded blocks.
However, contemporary linguistic studies in Islamic discourse have not shown a comparable interest in studying metadiscourse resources as cohesive and persuasive devices. In other words, we do not have the knowledge about how orators exploit metadiscourse in Islamic sermons, especially when interpersonal and persuasion appeals are fundamental for communicating with audience. Therefore, the deficiency of linguistic research into metadiscourse elements in Islamic religious discourse particularly ‘Friday sermon’ is one of the key factors that necessitate this study. Thus, to understand the effects of linguistic features in English Islamic Friday sermons, this study is intended to (i) investigate the frequency of the occurrence of metadiscourse markers in the EIFS; and (ii) identify the functions of the metadiscoures markers in the contexts used by the religious orators. This study shows the status of MD in religious contexts as well as it raises the awareness of the orator about how to use MDMs appropriately to make the discourse organized, coherent and persuasive. Furthermore, this study will be added to the few studies that have been made on metadiscourse in religious discourse.
It is known that the geographical space is a product, reflection, environment and condition of social reproduction and happens in the sphere of the lived. This allows the construction of a network of meanings and meanings that are intertwined by history, culture and establish identities, since social subjects recognize each other, since this is where life happens, because “[...] there is no memory that does not happen in a spatial context”. (HALBWACHS, 2006, p. 170). In this convergence, transformations in society are read even through demographic changes in the urban space. In this sense, in Brazil, currently, there is an accelerated process of population aging that is one of the greatest challenges of the present century. With the increase in life expectancy in the urban space there is a longer and better survival among women, so there is no way to hide the phenomenon known as feminization of old age. However, old age has not been a subject of wide discussion related to older women and their social function, since contemporary society does not yet have an adequate perception of this social
constructions around the Amman Nymphaeum as well as the increasing number of people who come to work. In the year 1921 Prince Abdullah Bin Al-Hussein Bin Ali had arrived to Amman and made it the Capital of emerging emirate (Malkawi ,2001) all this led to the growth of the city center, also communities flourishing on high lands which are adjacent to the city center with clear building patterns. Natural Stone became the most used building material, and Refai described this phase; the phase of climbing mountains, as the new architectural pattern has been characterized by Pedestrian system where long narrow stairs were heading towards the mountains that formed the general stairs. Most of these buildings were, despite being for upper class, simple and modest in size which allowed it to respond sensitively and successfully to the topography of Amman’s site which has many slopes (Rifai and Kanaan, 1987).
A cross sectional study 101 of Takayasu arteritis patients done at our centre showed both disease and treatment related eye manifestation. About one third of patients showed impairment of vision, typical takayasu retinopathy was seen in 16% patients, hypertensive retinopathy was noticed in 15% of cases, while ocular ischemic syndrome was found in 7% cases. About one fourth patients was found to have cataract as a complication of treatment (steroid induced cataract). Other rare ocular features noticed are iris neovascularisation, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, steroid induced glaucoma and uveitis. A statistically significant finding of Takayasu retinopathy and ocular ischemic syndrome was noticed in patients who are having low blood pressure in both upper limbs.
City residents’ knowledge of Kandy as a sacred cosmic landscape was investigated using a multiple-choice questionnaire. The questionnaire had 10 questions; some referring specifically to one of the two principal narratives while others referring to both narratives (Table 1). The responses for each question in turn referred to one or more sub-narratives (Tables 2). Questions referred to a particular feature, name, or event in the city and asked participants to choose from the provided responses. Response choices included related sub- narrative(s) along with reference to some other cultural schemata that might have been represented by that feature, name or event. These other narratives were derived from the findings of the pilot studies, wherein I found that people seem to assign different meanings to city elements in Kandy (Table 2). The questionnaire, therefore, tested people’s knowledge about the city’s historic and contemporary meanings. One of the response choices was ‘city/city feature in question represents nothing;’ and it gave the option of refuting the claim that the city has any particular historic or current meanings. Participants were allowed to choose more than one response for any given question.
THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHICPROCESSES IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SPLIT-DALMATIA COUNTY
Abstract: The paper presents the results of the study of influences of demographicprocesses in the organization of primary education in the area of Split-Dalmatia County. Adverse processes in modern demographic development of Croatia contribute to the reduction of the total human potential as holders of socio-economic development. Complex consequences of these demographicprocesses among other things reflected in the spatial organization of certain central functions, one of which is in this paper focus on the educational function. By analysis of demographic dynamics and recent demographic structure of enrolment area primary schools Split-Dalmatia County were found implications for structural changes in the network of schools: number of schools and school size on the one hand and changes in the used state index and the straining coefficient of geography teachers on the other. Based on the size of the school as a variable, a enrolment areas typology of Split-Dalmatia County was made. By comparing the change in the student’s contingent of 2000/2001, 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 school year and the projection of the number of classes for the 2017/2018 school year were singled out catchment area of primary schools in which changes in number of classes is threatening the sustainability and rational organization of the network of primary schools. Reduction in the number of students will be reflected not only on the network of schools and the status of “parentage” but also on decrease of number of classes in subject teaching, and thus the utilization of human resources for geography, and other subjects. By analysis of spatial data and visualization of research results in GIS were singled out catchment areas in which the application of effective measures is necessary to support the sustainability and rational organization of educational functions and balanced regional development in the future.
Among the many architectural relics of India, a special place is the Hindu temple of Ranganatha complex, built in the 1st century ad. It is a temple city, and its distinctive feature is a unique facade, decorated and dotted with incredible sculptures of deities that reflect the history and culture of the country (Fig. 5). These sculptures depicting various mythological heroes, deities, musicians, dancers, animals tell about any events and traditions, reflect Hindu philosophy. The whole view of the temple complex appears before the eyes of every visitor stunningly, because it consists of numerous pavilions, chapels and towers located on a huge territory and surrounded by majestic walls stretching for almost ten kilometers. The composition and decor of the painted sculptures of the temple is made in ethnic style, we can say that there can be traced a single concept of design according to the laws of monumental composition.
The paper discusses contemporary methods of quenching processes analyzing and cooling time evaluation to provide engineers with the correct data needed for hardening process interruption. It is shown that intensive interrupted cooling combined with the optimized chemical composition of steel allows reduce distortion and increase service life of steel parts due to creation of high compressive residual stresses at the surface of quenched products. Examples of calculations are supported by analytical equations and computer code HART- TANDEM developed and used in Ukraine within – 1998. The paper is illustrated with many images: phase and stress distribution, distortion and quench cracks prediction. It is underlined that contemporary powerful software such