The temperature distribution patterns that were observed in this trial confirm the results obtained by Tanner and Amos (2003). The temperature differences between the front and rear in the 40’ reefer container in this trial were not as great as found in their research, as the temperature difference in this trial was only as high as 1.23 ° C. The front resulted in colder grape pulp temperatures than the middle and the rear positions in both reefer containers. This trend was observed despite the fact that the floor was completely sealed to avoid short-circuiting of the cold air. From an aerodynamic perspective, the key characteristic of transport equipment is the placement of the delivery air and return air units on the same face (Smale et al., 2006). However, the drawback of this asymmetrical design is the presence of a strong pathway between the two sections, implying high velocities in the front of the refrigerated enclosure. In addition, the compactness of the cargo and high resistance to airflow due to narrow air spaces between pallets result in an uneven air distribution in the cargo where stagnant zones with poor ventilation can be observed in the rear part of the vehicle (Smale et al., 2006). Moureh et al. (2002 and 2004) used different models to show the airflow distribution in both the loaded and unloaded refrigerated truck. Their models showed high air velocities in the front of the refrigerated truck configuration compared to the rear parts. Fastest cooling is obtained when the floor is completely covered with product (Thompson et al., 1998).
Grapes can be consumed fresh (tablegrapes) or used in the production of wine, grape juice and raisins (Zhou & Raffoul, 2012). The beneficial effects of grapes and grape-derivative food prod- ucts are associated with their nutritional and polyphenolic compositions (Mikulic-Petkovsek, Schmitzer, Slatnar, Stampar, & Veberic, 2012; Santos et al., 2011) and many studies have been published concerning their nutritional value (Kurt et al., 2017). The organoleptic qual- ity, flavor and stability of grape berries de- pend to a large extent on the relative and total amounts of sugars and organic acids that main- tain grape berry quality and determine its nutri- tive value. The nature and concentration of these constituents affect the market value because they contribute to grapes’ sweetness and acidity, prop- erties that vary among species, cvs. or vari- eties. For instance, grape seeds are a rich source of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid, polyunsat- urated fatty acids which prevent cardiovascular diseases (Kurt et al., 2017).
The five varieties of V. vinifera species grapefruit extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and the values ranged from maximum to minimum and the maximum FRAP scavenging assay was in Flame seedless (34±0.167 µM/g dry wt.) and least in Thompson seedless(9.1±0.11 µM/g dry wt.). The antioxidant capacity of extracts on the FRAP assay decreased in the order of flame seedless > Pusa navrang > Rizamat > Kismis chorni > and Thompson seedless. Reported on the antioxidant properties of Norton (Vitis aestivalis) and Cabernet Franc (V. vinifera) are the wine grape varieties  studied on the antioxidant activity and phenol content of 16 raisin grape (V. viniferaL.) cultivars. Analysis of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and resveratrol in wine grapes and tablegrapes, was studied . Quantitative analysis of wine varieties and (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel, and Carignane), tablegrapes Emperor, Tokay, Perlette and Ribiero was studied by Wada et al. . Ferric reducing antioxidant power is an antioxidant capacity assays. The FRAP assay is often used to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods, beverages and nutritional supplements containing polyphenols. The FRAP assay may offer putative index of antioxidant activity and measure the ability of antioxidants to reduce the ferric 2, 4, 6-tripyridyl- S-triazine complex [Fe (III)-(TPTZ) 2] 2+ to intensely blue colored
The numerical ratios of seedlings with hermaphrodite and female flowers cor respond to a monofactorial scheme of inheritance (table 1). However, in table 3, where a 3 : 1 ratio is to be , expected, the percentage of seedlings with female flowers is considerably lower than 25 percent. As varieties with functionally female flowers are homozygous (Sf sr), one would expect in the progenies of the crossings of table 4, 50% with hermaphrodite and 50% with female flowers. Here also, seedlings with female flowers are less represented. This phenomenon may be explained by a rela tively small population of seedlings in each crossing, by the action of a great number of lethal and semi-lethal factors in some clones of Vitis vinif.era, which may disturb the ratio, , and the existence of genetic modifiers, which alter the expr,ession of a main genetical factor. In the present plhase of research it is difficult to establish the reason of these deviations. It is interesting to note that, if there exists any deviation from an expected ratio of sexes in a progeny, usually heterogametic sex appears in deficit (WESTERGARD 1958). Our results, however, reveal, that obviously homogametic female sex is in deficit.
VitisviniferaL. is a specie that is adapted to a very variable range of climates, from cold up to the desert one, but especially it grows in the temperate Mediterranean regions and continental areas of Europe. Grape is a widespread consumed fruit as well as processed to musts, juices or wine. The health beneficial effects of grapes and wine are very well known due to their high nutritional value and unique phytochemical composition. Despite many health protective and beneficial effects of Vitisvinifera, a part of population suffer to allergic reactions to this fruit. Allergens of wine and grapes are: endochitinases, lipid-transfer protein and thaumatin. Thaumatin is a protein having a sweet taste belonging to the PR5-like proteins. These proteins are very difersified in their functions and were described to be involved in stress responses and fruit ripening, but are expressed in healthy grape fruits in a constitutive manner and needn´t to be expressed only as a answer to the stress. Thaumatin is a minor allergen in grape, but belonging to the suspected panallergens relevant to the food cross-allergy induction, its importance is quite high. Another importance of this protein is a technological one, as reported to aggregate in wine to form a visible haze unless removed prior to bottling. In this study, expression of thaumatin-like allergen was analysed in the grapes of selected varieties. Grapes of four red varieties of Vitisvinifera, L. were obtained in the season 2017 in the Sabo winery that belongs to the Malokarpatská wine region. Fresh maturated grapes of varieties Alibernet, Cabernet Sauvignon , Frankovka modrá and Dornfelder were analysed. Expression changes of thaumatin was calculated by delta delta Ct method. Dornfelder was found as to have the lowest activity in thaumatin-like gene activity, mainly when comparing to the Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modrá. Alibernet, on the other side, has the expression level of thaumatin very similar when comparing to the Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modrá.
Porijeklo sorte i povijest uzgoja: Malvasiju dubrovačku smatramo autohtonom sortom, iako su diljem Mediterana pronađeni njezini sinonimi pa možemo reći da se uzgaja od Kanarskih otoka, Madeire, Katalonije, Sardinije, Liparskih otoka, pa sve do Konavala. Malvasia di Lipari, Malvasia di Sadragena te Greco Bianco di Gerace, kao i Malvasia de Stiges, Malvasia Candida i Malvasija dubrovačka za koje se prije smatralo da su različite sorte, dokazano je da su sininimi jedne sorte (Crespan i sur., 2006; López i sur., 2006.). Isto tako, dokazano je da je Malvasia di Lipari genetski bliska Malvaziji istarskoj, Malvasi Bianca Lunga (Malvasia del Chianti; Maraština) i Malvasi Nera di Brindsi (Lacombe i sur., 2007. prema Robinson i sur., 2012.). Najstariji spomen uzgoja Malvasije dubrovačke na ovim prostorima potječe iz arhiva Dubrovačke Republike iz 1383.god. (Maletić i sur., 2008.). Koliko je bila cijenjena govori i činjenica da se nije mogla prodavati bez odluke vlasti, a to dokazuje i dokument iz 1385. godine kojim dubrovački liječnik Bartolo de Piombino traži od Velikog vijeća dozvolu za kupnju jedne kvinte Malvasije (5,5 l), i to, kako navodi, „za potrebe zdravlja osobe svoje“. Drugi spomen imamo iz 1424. godine kojom se određuju maksimalne prodajne cijene vina po krčmama, osim za vina Malvasije – koja su se mogla prodavati „po cijeni kako mu se svidi“. Milanski kanonik Pietro di Casola u svom putopisu iz 1494. godine spominje kako Dubrovčani „imaju vrlo mnogo
Lampíř L., Žaloudek J. (2018): Influence of summer management practices and date of harvesting on organic acids concentration and sugar concentration in grapes of VitisviniferaL., cv. Riesling. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 45: 211–218. The impact of summer canopy management was investigated in VitisviniferaL., cv. Riesling. Sugar and organic acid concentrations were measured for the six defoliation treatments. Titratable acidity (TA) was measured twice before harvest and once at the date of harvest. The same measurements were done twice during wine ageing. The young wine was measured for concentrations of malic, tartaric and volatile acids. Treatments with appropriate defoliation, where shortened lateral shoots (up to two leaves) were retained, supported the process of wine grape ripening to the greatest extend in the cool climate of the Czech Republic, while treatments with almost no defoliation yielded the worst results. The TA decreased during fruit ripening after veraison and continued to decrease during wine maturation. The tendency of decreasing with time was shown for the malic to tartaric acid ratio as well. Concentrations of volatile acids were sufficiently low in each of the treatments.
Studies on the induction characteristics and the fine structure of grapevine cells cultured in vitro were undertaken with cultivar Monastrell berry samples of different developmental stages between fruit set and veraison (Zapata et al., 1996). Medium composition, electron microscopy application and protoplast isolation procedures are explained. It could be shown that the intensity of cell development and callus induction percentage depended on the berry growth stage; the de-differentiation process is mainly located in meso-carp tissues. Cultured cells showed to be highly vacuolated with their cytoplasm reduced to a very thin peripheral layer (containing golgi sacks).
Existen descripciones de variedades españolas desde el periodo romano: Catón (234 – 149 a. C.), Virgilio (79 – 19 a. C.) y Columela (siglo I d. C.). Este último cita en su libro “ De re rustica” 58 variedades. Más tarde, Plinio Segundo (23 – 79 d. C.), en su libro “ Naturalis Historia”, recoge 83 variedades descritas según su morfología. En el siglo XVI, Alonso de Herrera publica el libro “Agricultura General” en el que cita 14 linajes de vid según el color de la baya. En 1832, De Rojas Clemente fue pionero al describir 119 variedades cultivadas en España, clasificadas según la pilosidad de las hojas. La reconstrucción postfiloxérica fue el detonante que potenció el interés mundial por conocer las aptitudes agronómicas y productivas de las distintas variedades, y por realizar una elección apropiada de caracteres que permitieran su reconocimiento, para verificar que el material proveniente de vivero correspondía con lo que se solicitaba (Duque, 1992). Fue en 1940 cuando nace la ampelografía moderna de la mano del profesor francés Pierre Galet, quien estableció las técnicas para la identificación de las distintas variedades que se utilizan hoy día (Galet, 1998). En España, en el siglo XX, Comenge publicó un resumen sobre las variedades españolas de vid teniendo en cuenta la pilosidad de las hojas, y recopila los nombres vulgares y sus sinónimos. En 1954, Marcilla describe las cepas cultivadas en cada región española, basándose en criterios morfológicos y agronómicos en el “Tratado práctico de viticultura y enología española”. En 1971, Hidalgo y Candela publicaron el artículo “Contribución al conocimiento del inventario vitícola Nacional”, el cual fue ampliado posteriormente y que incluye 312 variedades de V. viniferaL. (Duque, 1992).
Therefore, none of these characters distinguish varieties between them, at least from data obtained from our sampling. Indeed, from the results of the factorial analysis (A.C.P) of the quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters of the grapes and berries we note an absence of a net structuring of the feet of the different varieties. And this, despite the discriminating power of the parameters used between different feet without reference to the variety. It is then thought that there is a problem in this study which resides in the number of insufficient feet
A comparison of the detected microsatellite profiles dem- onstrated a high genetic diversity of the analyzed geno- types. All cultivars were found to have unique allelic pro- files. The microsatellite profiles of the investigated cultivars are presented in Tab. 2 and are also available on: http// www.bulgenom.abi.bg (R USANOV et al. 2003). The selected SSR markers revealed a high degree of polymorphism among the tested cultivars. The number of alleles ranged from 4 per locus ssrVrZAG83 to 10 per loci VVS2, ssrVrZAG64, ssrVrZAG79 and ssrVvUCH11 (Tab. 3). The mean number of alleles per locus was 8.1, which was higher than the value observed for the same loci by L EFORT and R OUBELAKIS - A NGELAKIS (2001). This is most probably due to the high proportion of selected cross-bred cultivars among the tested genotypes, which were derived from crosses between na- tive Bulgarian varieties or outcrosses with international cultivars. A comparison of the utilized SSR markers with re- gard to their information content (number of alleles and PI
Vinova loza pripada porodici Vitaceae i rodu Vitis (Tablica 1.). Pripadnici porodice Vitaceae su kultivirane, listopadne, grmolike penjačice s metamorfoziranim granama u vitice (Bačić i Sabo, 2006., Dubravec i Dubravec, 1998., Hulina, 2011.). Prema Domcu (2002.) rodu Vitis pripadaju tri vrste: Vitis sylvestris Gmel., Vitis labrusca L. i VitisviniferaL. Poznato je 70 vrsta roda Vitis rasprostranjenih u umjerenim klimatskim područjima sjeverne Zemljine polutke. Neke su gospodarski važne. Čovjek je uveo u kulturu blizu 20 vrsta koje iskorištava za plodove, za podloge vinovoj lozi ili kao ukrasne loze (Mirošević i Karoglan Kontić, 2008.).
Grapevine, as other plants, is an organism that harbours a myriad of microbial resources that are in a constant interaction with the plant. These associated microorganisms can be beneficial, neutral or pathogens, and are collectively referred as the plant microbiome (Beneduzi et al., 2012; Turner et al., 2013; Pinto and Gomes, 2016). The microbial communities are of utmost importance as they can form beneficial or harmful relationships with grapevine, which may have a direct or indirect effect on plant health and productivity (Berg, 2009; Pinto et al., 2016). As a consequence, both wine production and wine quality will be affected. Beneficial microorganisms can promote the plant growth and stress tolerance, improve plant nutrition, reduce the plant pathogens and induce plant resistance, while phytopathogens are responsible for several plant diseases (Berg, 2009; Berg et al., 2016). Studies have shown the importance of the root microbiome in plant protection, in particular against soil-borne pathogens (Weller et al., 2002; Berg et al., 2016). Herein, the main involved mechanisms include either a direct interaction with phytopathogens or an indirect interaction via the plant through a stimulation of its immune system (Lugtenberg and Kamilova, 2009). Thus, the role of the beneficial plant- associated microorganisms is of utmost interest for crops management as either biofertilizers or BCAs (Compant et al., 2010). Indeed, under the challenge of sustainable agriculture practices, this is an important aspect. In addition to the functional context of these microorganisms, recent studies also highlighted the importance of the autochthonous grapevine-associated microorganisms in the winemaking process (Knight et al., 2015; Pinto et al., 2015; Bokulich et al., 2016; Belda et al., 2017). In this context, the grapevine microbiome should be recognized not only as a natural reservoir of potential BCAs for protection, but also as a source of microorganisms with oenological value for the valorisation of regional wines. Thus, the grapevine microbiome must be considered towards a holistic view.
Irrigation and yeast application did not affect the param- eters of wine phenolic composition (Table 7), with the excep- tion of a significant irrigation × yeast application interaction for antioxidant activity. In fact, differences between yeast treatments for AA were observed only in nonirrigated vines (10.55 mM trolox /L for non-sprayed as compared to 7.44 mM trolox/L for sprayed vines), while no differences were observed between yeast application treatments under irrigated conditions (7.67 and 9.77 mM trolox/L, respectively). How- ever, when treatments were considered separately (Figure 7), wines produced from the combined IR/SP treatment had higher anthocyanin concentration (288 mg/L) and higher total phenol concentration (193 mg of gallic acid/L). There were no differences among treatments for C, TT, and OD280.
Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (VitisviniferaL.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive use- fulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue ma- cro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well- watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit- irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12- fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentra- tion, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration com- pared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influ- enced blade potassium concentration at verai- son differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lem- berger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Ca- bernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or simi- lar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.
grapes are grown over an area of 15.23 thousand ha with annual production of 77.22 thousand tones (GOP, 2015). Baluchistan is the main grape grow- ing region accounting approximately over 70% of fruit production, while the remaining come from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Anonymous, 2015). Major growing areas of Baluchistan are Kalat, Loaralai, Mastung, Quetta, Khuzdar, Pishin, Kanak and Ziarat (Mengal et al., 2017). Moreover, due to day by day increasing demand of a grapes in the coun- try, its cultivation is also started in South Punjab (Anonymous, 2015).
wine not only for local consumption but also for export, especially to northern Europe. This remote history of grapevine cultivation allowed the building up of great diversity. The num‐ ber of cultivars increased until the tree waves of destruction from North American pest and diseases: powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Schweinf. Burrill ) in 1851, phylloxera (Dactylos‐ phaera vitifoliae Fitch) in 1863 and downy mildew [Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Berl & de Toni] in 1880. Until these severe pathological events grapevine was multiply sim‐ ply by self-rooting of cutting our seed germination. Since the introduction of phylloxera the use of rootstocks from hybrids of other Vitis species is mandatory, except in areas were the phylloxera cannot survive. Such a case occurs in the Designation of Origin Colares wine re‐ gion where the vineyards are settled in sandy soil and the roots are over tree meters deep. As early as the 19th century attempts to improve grape production result in a number of cul‐ tivars as Tinta do Aurélio (red cultivar selected by someone called “Aurélio”). However a truth breeding program to obtain new varieties was only started in the mid of the 20th cen‐ tury by José Leão Ferreira de Almeida and two of the obtain cultivars, Dona Maria (table grape) and Seara Nova (wine grape), occupy today a significant acreage . The exact num‐ ber of cultivars in use is unknown but from the 340 allowed for wine production, 240 are thought to be autochthonous [ 8, 9].
Abstract A total of 41 accessions of Aglianico belonging to three different biotypes (Taburno, Taurasi, and Vulture) and 9 accessions of Sirica grapes were sampled from diverse areas of Campania (Italy). All accessions were first geno- typed using 21 microsatellite markers (SSR) to evaluate possible homonymies, synonymies, and the genetic structure of each group. A larger dataset was then constructed adding Italian and International cultivars. On the basis of results obtained analyzing the first dataset, further investigations were carried out enlarging the number of investigated loci (up to 43). The addition of 22 SSRs was useful in the defi- nition of likely genetic relationships linking Aglianico bio- types, Sirica and Syrah. According to their SSR allelic profiles, the monophyletic origin of the three Aglianico biotypes was confirmed. Among Aglianico Taburno acces- sions, eight samples (called Aglianico like-to-type) performed a different SSR allelic profile from Aglianico true-to-type. Sirica and Syrah proved to be synonyms. This work allowed to determine the genetic relationship between Aglianico and the cultivars supposed to be related. The parentage analysis was investigated. The most likely pedi- gree has been reconstructed; revealing a second-degree relationship between the worldwide cultivated Syrah from the Rhone Valley and Aglianico. Aglianico like-to-type appeared related to Aglianico in a parent-offspring fashion.
These results were in accordance with other studies conduct by di Lena (2011) and di Lena & Silvestroni (2009) in which Montepulciano and Sangiovese varieties displayed good performances in terms of RMSE values, between 10 and 5 days generally, but the EFF results were in all cases negative. Those results are partially explained by the fact that the efficiency expresses the portion of variation in the observation set accounted for the model. Regarding this study, the data observations are scattered on different areas according to the available dataset, and for that reason it is plausible that the efficiency cannot described the entire variability of the observations dataset.