Road accidents represent one of the most serious problems faced by the Ministries of Public Health in the World. In Italy for example, in the year 2007 there were almost 330, 000 injuries and 5, 131 fatalities; 230, 871 crashes in all which resulted in an estimated € 30.4 billion financial loss, corresponding to 2% of GDP. In 1999 the National RoadSafety Plan (NRSP), among other things, funded the requalification of several unsafe road infrastructures at higher risk of accidents. Unlike other infrastructure investment plans, NRSP usually requires: i) specific safetyanalysis of crash history to identify the critical road; ii) proactive action, e.g. RSAs and RSARs; iii) before-after accident study; iv) ex-post monitoring of road user behaviors, etc. The paper presents some unsafe roads in urban and suburban areas which were renovated through NRSP strategies and whose projects were submitted to RoadSafety Audit procedure for black spot treatment. It examines the effect of physical traffic calming measures (e.g. roundabouts) on accident risk and user behaviours: ante- and post-operam evaluations are compared on the basis of accident data and investigations in situ (particularly traffic flow and operating speed). Finally, a profitability analysis of several parameters (e.g. accident social costs) is performed. In a region like Sicily, the first Road Administration investments on unsafe infrastructures, partially funded by NPRS, have shown very positive results as to safety and financial aspects.
A good example of the systematic approach is a roadsafety program, introduced by the Swedish government, called Vision Zero. This new safety paradigm is built around the idea that even if not all crashes can be avoided, all severe injuries can be in principle avoided. Vision Zero is a system where all predicted crashes and collisions have tolerable health losses. Its design is based on the human biomechanical forces (Johansson 2009). In this respect the engineer should aim at constructing a traffic system where this human tolerance is not exceeded. Therefore, this change in the approach to roadsafety calls for introduction of the idea of sustainability in the evaluation methods. In this context sustainability can be regarded as a principle under which all the other aspects (safety, economic development, environmental impact, public health, mobility, community needs, etc.) should be addressed. Needless to say that roadsafety is a prerequisite for sustainable transport system. Its assessment is usually based on costbenefitanalysis or cost effectiveness analysis. However, in order to evaluate sustainability of roadsafetymeasures the preferences and objectives of all stakeholders need to be taken into account. Therefore, a multi-actor multi-criteria approach (MAMCA), developed by Macharis (2004), is proposed as an evaluation method which allows to combine tangible and intangible criteria while considering the interests of all stakeholders.
The main objective of this research was to assess potential safety hazards of Delhi-Rohtak Highway using roadsafety auditing approach and to recommend possible options for remedial treatment. At first existing “Guidelines for RoadSafety Audit, 2005” of Roads and Highways Department (RHD), India is reviewed and guidelines of developed countries are analyzed to find out deficiencies of RHD guidelines. Checklists provided with RHD guidelines are also analyzed and design standards and guidelines of other countries are studied to develop a more detailed and complete checklists. Then using the modified checklists, roadsafety auditing was conducted for Delhi-Rohtak highway. Accident data was collected to supplement audit findings. Attempts were made to assess the safety hazard scenario and to suggest likely remedial measures in view of the construction of proposed Padma Bridge, rapid urbanization and implementation of 4-laning project. In order to achieve the objectives of the research work, various guidelines on roadsafety audit, design standards, as built drawings, proposed road alignment plan and related publications were consulted. A total of 13 field visits were made to observe possible hazards through conducting highway geometric study, site specific speed studies, vehicular and pedestrian counts etc. Local traffic conditions were critically observed during the whole study. Besides, a total of 11 visits were made to collect accident data from 5 police stations.
Based on the results of the descriptive analysis, out of a total of 500 questionnaires distributed on respondents, just 389 had completed the administered questionnaire and were considered to constitute the chosen sample in the city of Tripoli. Respondents consisted of 310 male and 79 female. The survey response rate was noted as 76.8%.More than half (81.7%) of respondents (318) are Libyan citizens and 18.3 % of respondents (71) are non-Libyan citizens. As for age groups, the number of respondents was divided almost equally into four groups (25.2%, 31.6%, 26.2% and 17.0%). The largest part of the respondents (41.6%) was secondary school graduates, but 26.0% of them were university graduates. 37.8% of respondents (147) were business men, while 26.5% of respondents (103) were already retired. 68 respondents (17.5%) worked in the government sector, while 71 persons (18.3%) were still studying. An investigation of the marriage status points to the fact that the proportion of single and married respondents (53.0% and 47.0%) was equal. 28.0% of respondents were the most experienced (>12 years); respondents with 6-12 years and 1-5 years of
The analysis of the impact of different type of safety islands on roadsafety showed that the largest effect on roadsafety was achieved by installing safety island with milled and painted in red perimeter. However, a small sample of the investigation of this type of safety islands does not show represent a reliability of the results obtained. Having made the analysis of fatal and injury accidents before and after installation of the safety islands under investigation, it was determined that the effective safety islands are those with horizontal marking and flexible reflective posts, raised safety islands for pedestrian crossing and raised safety islands on major road (Fig. 6.). After installation of raised safety islands on minor road the number of road accidents increased. However, a small sample of the investigation of this type of safety islands does not show represent a reliability of the results obtained.
Early on in the history of IR, the notion of utility featured heavily and gave rise to the strong evaluation based tradi- tions in the field . In , Cooper put forward the propo- sition that utility forms the basis of measurement claiming that it would be the ideal measure. However the difficulty in obtaining judgements of utility meant that the field has resorted to relying upon the simple demarcations of non- relevant and relevant. Nonetheless, the idea of using the utility of a document has arisen in various guises (i.e. graded relevance, gain, benefit, usefulness and negative cost) and has formed the basis of much research. For example, in , Robertson examined the problem of ranking in terms of the costs and benefits. This led to the formulation of the Proba- bility Ranking Principle (PRP) which essentially applies de- cision theory to the ranking problem . The PRP makes a number of assumptions which are also implicit within most measures used, reflecting the user model, i.e. that docu- ments are judged/valued independently, the costs/benefits of (non) relevant documents are the same, and that doc- uments are judged in a linear fashion. Furthermore, most measures and models have focused on evaluating a ranked list. However, there is now impetus to go beyond the ranked list, and consider the whole session in the context of the task [4, 5, 11, 31, 46]. Thus, we need to revisit the idea of modeling the utility of the information found and the actions in the sessions that lead to ascertaining that utility. Here, we consider how much utility (or usefulness) one obtains in terms of the costs and benefits as suggested by Bates . In , Bates describes one of the monitoring tactics people employ when searching is to weigh the costs and benefits of their decisions/interactions. While Bates did not elaborate on this tactic, a line of research has evolved from this notion which formally models the costs and benefits of interaction using di↵erent, but related, frameworks [45, 43, 6, 25]. For instance, in , they examine the cost structures associated with sense-making, and in  Pirolli adapts Foraging The- ory to explore how searchers attempt to maximise the gain (benefit) over time.
The added cost of installing a green roof is mostly made up for by its increased longevity; however, the added maintenance costs are significant. Over a 50- year period, the stormwater, energy, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e, which measures the potential global warming effect of a greenhouse gas) and community earnings of green roofs more than made up for the increased premium of installing and maintaining them. A detailed look at the net present value per square foot of roof on a cash flow basis shows an installation and replacement cost of -$1.10, as compared with a maintenance burden of -$16.89, for Washington DC.
a government following allocative efficiency criteria could carry out a sequence of projects that benefit high-income groups at the expense of low-income ones. The net result would be to aggravate income inequality.
Apart from these two paradoxes that may (in theory) occur, there remains a problem even when compensation is paid: willingness to pay not only relies on preferences, but also on the ability to pay. In reality, reversal from a ‘with’ situation back to a ‘without’ situation is unlikely, which implies that the losers will have to be informed beforehand of how the ‘with’ situation will affect them. Given that the distribution of income without the project is not optimal, indigent losers in the population could lack the ability to compensate, even if they were willing to. Willingness to compensate ought, therefore, to be weighted.
The impacts of a regulatory option can be classified into three sets of activities. The first is to identify all possible impacts for each of the regulatory and non-regulatory options. The second step is to determine how these impacts are related to the fundamental variables that will determine their magnitude over time, e.g. growth in real income, relative price changes, and technological trends. The third step is to make projections of these fundamental variables and use these values to make projections over time of the benefits and costs produced by the potential interventions. As was pointed out earlier, the incremental impacts of each of these options in excess of the baseline scenario are the values for the contributions of the options. For example, in the case of a workplace safety regulation, the impacts may include fewer workers’ injuries, fewer poisonings, healthier air, etc. that are measured by comparing the estimated value of the key variables for the “with safety regulation” scenario with the values for the baseline scenario. Initially, all the possible impacts should be listed and evaluated in consultation with experts in the field. Care needs to be taken to include all the potentially significant impacts and make a list of the minor impacts that can be expected to occur. Whenever possible, the likely sector or group should be identified that will be the beneficiary or bearer of the cost of the impact. Both direct and indirect significant effects of a given policy should be carefully assessed and then summed up over the various sectors or groups of individuals to arrive at the total net benefits. This may be termed the “effect-by-effect” approach.
November 2004, a permanent law 37 USC 1009 was amended to mandate that military monthly pay will now be increased by at least the annual percentage increase of the Employment Cost Index (Goldich, 2005). The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is calculated by the U.S. Department of Labor and Statistics and measures how much civilian pay increases per year. Additionally, HR 1585, section 606 of fiscal year 2008’s Department of Defense’s budget request, guarantees military pay raises that are 0.5 percent higher than the ECI through FY 2012, although this has yet to be approved (H.R. 1585, 2007). This disparity between the rate of inflation and the ECI could theoretically be mitigated by passing these laws. However, potential for risk still exists as lawmakers, who have the ability to increase military pay, can pass another law repealing the amendment to 37 USC 1009 in the event of a massive downsizing or some other reason.
Safety culture (the indicator of a safety level) in enterprises is dependent on the employers’ attitude to safety and health of workers (Arezes et al, 2003; Clarke, 2000; Järvis, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c; Paté-Cornell, 1994; Winder, 2007). Safety culture has different levels. In the first level, an organisation is not even interested in safety and has to make the first step to include safety as a necessary element into the management system of the enterprise. A subsequent level is one in which safety issues begin to acquire importance, often driven by both internal and external factors as a result of having many incidents. At this level, top management believes accidents to be caused by the stupidity and inattention of their employees. The next level involves the recognition that safety does need to be taken seriously. The term calculative is used to stress that safety is calculated; quantitative risk assessment techniques and overt cost-benefit analyses are used to justify safety and to measure the effectiveness of proposed measures. The upper level of safety culture is called as generative and involves a much more proactive approach to safety. It could be characterised with good practice in safety management (Cooper, 2002, 2004; Hudson, 1999; Morris, 1974; Nienaber et al, 2008; Reid, 2000).
While the cost and benefits may relate to goods and services that have a simple and transparent measure in a convenient unit (e.g. their price in money), this is frequently not so, especially in the social case. It should therefore be emphasized that the costs and benefits considered by (social) ‘cost-benefit’ analysis are not limited to easily quantifi- able changes in material goods, but should be construed in their widest sense, measuring changes in individual ‘utility’ and total ‘social welfare’ (though economists frequently ex- press those measures in money-metric terms).
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (1994) require that every construction project gives due consideration to health and safety management. According to a UK Health and Safety Executive- (HSE) report published in 2003, work- related injuries and ill health result in a loss of over 30 million working days per year. The annual costs of work-related injury and ill health are estimated to be in excess of £10 billion to society taken as a whole. Unfortunately, most construction organisations are not aware or do not know the cost of accidents and ill health to their businesses. Evidence suggests that about 3 to 6% of the total project cost can be lost as a result of accidents. Furthermore, the rate of fatalities, major injuries and ill health are likely to increase if nothing is done to reduce accidents to the barest minimum. However, it is envisaged that the construction industry would do more to improve health and safety management if stakeholders were made to perceive the financial benefits of proactive and efficient health and safety management procedures. To date, health and safety management is still perceived as being costly and counterproductive in the construction industry. However, the need to constantly investigate the cost of accidents in relation to overall profits and productivity is deemed necessary. A costbenefitanalysis approach to construction health and safety management is proposed as a means of providing the required motivation to ensure improvements to current levels of implementation. The study identifies and evaluates a costbenefitanalysis technique that may be relevant to the management of construction health and safety. The results of this investigation will form part of an ongoing study of cost benefits of construction health and safety management.
Step 2: Determine Direct Costs of Mitigation Alternatives
For each mitigation alternative one needs to specify the direct cost to implement the mitigation measure. For an apartment building in Istanbul, the owners, whether or not they live on the premises, will have to incur these expenditures. Currently there are surveys being undertaken in different parts of Turkey to better understand how residents feel about alternative mitigation measures and their willingness to pay their share of the cost. In Turkey if some of the owners in an apartment building are not willing to pay their share of the mitigation costs, then the other property owners will either have to agree to cover these costs or the measure will not be pursued. In essence this amounts to a unanimity rule with the option of those who want to undertake a mitigation measure being willing to buy out those who are unwilling to pay their share. The likely interference of owners unwilling or unable to contribute to building retrofitting for mitigation looms as a large factor in forestalling the implementation of cost-effective mitigation measures.
16. Air-pollution regulations issued by the EPA dominate the set of regulations that are subject to the executive-order analytic requirements, both in terms of the number of regulations and the magnitude of their impacts. See, e.g., O FFICE OF I NFO . & R EGULATORY A FFAIRS , O FFICE OF M GMT . & B UDGET , E XEC . O FFICE OF THE P RESIDENT , D RAFT 2012 R EPORT TO C ONGRESS ON THE B ENEFITS AND C OSTS OF F EDERAL R EGULATIONS AND U NFUNDED M ANDATES ON S TATE , L OCAL , AND T RIBAL E NTITIES 13–14 tbl.1-2 (2012), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/oira/draft_2012_cost_benefit_report.pdf. 17. The concepts of compensating and equivalent variation (or compensating and equivalent surplus for public goods) underlie the use of WTP and WTA. See A. M YRICK F REEMAN III, T HE M EASUREMENT OF E NVIRONMENTAL AND R ESOURCE V ALUES 43–94 (2 D ED . 2003) (reviewing the basic theory of defining and measuring welfare changes). Compensating variation refers to the payment that would make the individual indifferent between choosing the original situation and a change; equivalent variation refers to the change in income that would lead to the same change in utility as the change in price. The two measures differ in their starting points: for a beneficial outcome, compensating variation references the level of utility without the improvement, whereas equivalent variation references the level with the improvement. Id. Although there is some dispute over the meaning of utility in this context, conventionally it is generally understood as a sense of satisfaction associated with the consumption of goods and services—where goods include tangible items and services include intangibles.
Two different domains are separated in a more spe- cific definition that only accepts voluntary activities in the formal organizational structure, but the more general definition of some activities includes helping neighbors and friends. The fourth dimension involves the benefi- ciaries of voluntary services. A more specific definition only accepts volunteering activities aimed at strangers, but other definitions also accept the benefits of friends and relatives. Regarding the four dimensions, this paper defines the volunteers as people who work for a non- profit organization, the members of the organization, and other people with their willingness and without receiving any wage; they benefit from their voluntary activities .
This paper is structured as follows. The next section briefly discusses the characteristics of noise, depending on the transport mode, and how this affects the individ- ual’s annoyance level, assumptions about the social cost of noise exposure, various methods of estimating the social costs, and a review of evaluation studies. We thereafter in Section 3 describe and show results of the evaluation of the social cost of noise in this study, i.e. the WTP estimates used and the evaluation of health effects. Section 4 then contains our models on how to combine the different cost compo- nents and our estimated benefitmeasures. In this section we show that the values for road and rail not only differ in levels but also that the relationship between the noise level and the marginal value differ between the two sources. The social value for railway noise reveals a stronger progressive relationship with the noise level compared with road noise. Moreover, we also show that the health cost component added to the WTP estimate will be small but not negligible and that also modest differences in the assumption of the discount rates will have a significant effect on the estimated values. The paper ends with a discussion and conclusions.
A handbook describing the method on how to perform impact study of high PV penetration was published by NREL in January 2016. The handbook provides an idea over development of distribution and PV system models required to evaluate the impacts of high PV penetration. Further it identifies key impacts and defines necessary studies needed to be performed and the necessary points (critical points); where the study shall be more detailed to obtain a clear cut picture of the impacts. It also provides with the mitigation measures in terms of implementing advanced PV inverter. Lastly it presented an example to support the methodology, giving us a better understanding .
Does this mean that there is no role for the concept of marginal cost of public funds? The answer is no for the simple reason that, of course, taxes may not be optimal. Then the interpretation is that the social marginal cost of public funds measures the deviation from an optimal tax system: If the overall level of taxation is in a sense too high, then the social marginal cost of public funds is less than a critical value and the costbenefit test tend to accept marginal projects for which the social marginal benefit is less than the marginal shadow cost. If the overall level of taxation is too high the social marginal cost of public funds is higher than a critical value and the costbenefit test tend turn down marginal costs unity. Hence, the social marginal costs should be scaled down. Similarly, if the overall burden of taxation is too small in the sense that a marginal lump sum tax is desirable then social marginal costs should be scaled up. That is, if optimal taxes are out of reach for the policy maker then the public projects should be used to compensate for that.
Ranking for the three processes would establish that the priority would be to address the paint spraying operation first, then the hydrochloric acid process, then the compressed air process. It is possible that a process has already been made as safe as practicable. For example, there may not be any additional measures that can be added to the hydrochloric acid process to make it safer, as it is already mostly automated. However, hydrochloric acid may not be the only chemical that can be used to perform in the process and a chemical of lower hazard may be able to be substituted in the process. There are usually alternative chemicals that would increase the safety of a chemical process and decrease the risk, although they may not be as fast working, easy to use or as inexpensive as the higher hazard chemical.