Protecting pupils from the risk of radicalisation should be seen as part of schools’ wider safeguarding duties. It is important to understand the risk of radicalisation as a safeguarding risk that is similar in nature to protecting children from other harms. We agree with the Committee that it is important that referrals are made in a sensible and proportionate fashion. That is why the Department’s advice and guidance on the Prevent Duty make clear that if teachers have concerns about any pupils they should follow normal safeguarding procedures and act proportionately. There are no mandatory reporting requirements under the Duty. We recognise the importance of dispelling myths and improving understanding of Prevent, and are working proactively to communicate its positive impact and encourage balanced reporting by the press. We are also working closely with schools and local communities to improve understanding of the duty and make clear that it is about safeguarding young people from the dangers of being drawn into terrorism.
similar in nature to protecting children from other harms. We agree with the Committee that it is important that referrals are made in a sensible and proportionate fashion. That is why the Department’s advice and guidance on the Prevent Duty make clear that if teachers have concerns about any pupils they should follow normal safeguarding procedures and act proportionately. There are no mandatory reporting requirements under the Duty. We recognise the importance of dispelling myths and improving understanding of Prevent, and are working proactively to communicate its positive impact and encourage balanced reporting by the press. We are also working closely with schools and local communities to improve understanding of the duty and make clear that it is about safeguarding young people from the dangers of being drawn into terrorism.
In July 2015, HM Chief Inspector, Sir Michael Wilshaw, wrote to the Secretary of State to provide an update on Ofsted’s monitoring of progress made by schools in Birmingham and Tower Hamlets, which had been inspected because of concerns about extremism. Sir Michael stated that “a serious safeguarding issue that has come to light… potentially high numbers of pupils whose names are being deleted from school admissions registers without either the schools or the local authorities having an accurate understanding of where those pupils have gone.”
The Department has carried out due diligence checks to establish the suitability of individuals and organisations seeking to become involved in schools and in other activity involving children and young people. Work on strengthening regulatory frameworks includes, but is not limited to, amending the standards applying to institutions, teachers and governors to require them to conduct themselves in a way which is compatible with fundamental British values and enabling the Secretary of State and others to take action where they fail to do so. Ofsted has strengthened the school inspections handbook so that inspectors take account of how well schools promote fundamental British values, and protect pupils from the risks of extremism and radicalisation, when judging their effectiveness.
The measure ‘Aid and train local networks of key people who make sensitive issues discussible’ is also implemented differently in each municipality. In Amsterdam the project ‘Dialoog 2015-2016’ was created (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2016, p. 13). This project supports local initiatives to discuss sensitive subjects. Groups or individuals who want to realize their initiatives can apply for a subsidy. Several subsidy request have been made from which 20 have been approved. Some projects have ended, some are active and some initiatives are being planned (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2016, p. 13). In Amsterdam, there is also the ‘Sleutelfigurenprogramma’, this is a program in which key people are trained and supported in order to divide the gap between the governments and certain communities (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2016, p. 14). In Rotterdam the measure of aiding and training networks of key people who make sensitive issues discussible, has been implemented through the project ‘Weerbaar Opvoeden’. This project was aimed at training and educating mothers on subjects such as radicalization, extremism and travelling to Syria and Iraq (Gemeente Rotterdam, 2016, p. 5). The municipality of The Hague has not created a new measure to support and train local networks of key people who make sensitive issues discussible. The municipality has supported the project ‘Oumnia Works’. This project trains and aids teachers in discussing sensitives subjects such as radicalization and extremism (Gemeente Den Haag, 2018, p. 5). ‘Oumnia Works’ also has a special training for mothers which can be requested by schools (Gemeente Den Haag, 2018, p. 5).
After observing the charter school, I sought out interviews with officials who worked in the traditional public school system in this same geographic area. I hoped to find some interviewees who could recall the time when this charter school first opened ten years ago and others who were working in the system currently. I interviewed two legislators who had previously served on the school board and two current employees of the district’s central office. Like the charter school group, most of these interviews reflected surprisingly consistent viewpoints. Some of these views indicated a sense that charter schools had “separated” themselves from public schools; that charter schools were not receiving equitable funding because “you have to give something in order to get something”
In many debates, radicalisation is defined as “a process of developing extremist ideologies and beliefs, and hence to some extent it is used to denote a major precursor to terrorism” (Dzhekova, Stoynova, Kojouharov, Mancheva, Anagnostou and Tsenkov, 2016, p. 8). However, this definition has been criticized since it is “neither based on empirical findings, nor does it help to better understand the mechanisms that lead to political violence and escalation” (Ibid.). According to Schmid (2013, p. 1), the concepts radicalisation and counter- radicalisation are problematic since they “are poorly defined and mean different things to different people.” The municipality of Delft and the municipality of The Hague both use the same definition of radicalisation: “Radicalisation is the willingness to strive for, support or encourage far-reaching changes (possibly undemocratic changes) in society. Far-reaching changes are developments that can threaten the democratic order (goal) often with undemocratic means (means), that damage the functioning of the democratic order (effect)” (Municipality of Delft, 2015b, p. 5 & Municipality of The Hague, 2014, p. 7). This definition will be used in this thesis, since the focus is on these two municipalities.
Empirical evidence directly comparing the effectiveness of employer interventions and guidance interviews is very limited (Stanley & Mann, 2014), but the views of young people in schools in the UK have been examined. Mann and Dawkins (2014b) found that ‘young people interact with employers in very different ways to school staff’ (p. 4). Other research found young people perceived employers’ career support as ‘more genuine’, ‘from experience’, ‘straight’ and ‘trusted…as opposed to a career adviser or teacher ‘telling’ you what to do’ (Jones & Mann, 2014, slide 16). These findings – that young people find employers’ information more impactful than careers advisers’ – may be explained by research into the cognitive mechanisms used by young people to process information and make decisions. The tendency for decision-makers to ascribe greater value to information from trusted personal contacts and direct experience - ‘hot’ information - than abstract or official ‘cold’ information (first identified by Ball & Vincent, 1998) has also been widely observed in young people’s career decision making (Archer, 2000). Foskett and Hemsley-Brown (2001) found that students placed a greater premium on ‘experiential information’ (including face-to-face contact with outside visitors such as employers) than paper-based information. Foskett and Hemsley-Brown (1999) also observed that whereas guidance interviews tend to explore the personal choices learners bring to the
counter-terrorism strategy and the Community Cohesion policies that had emerged after civil disturbances in several northern towns including Burnley and Oldham in 2001. The discourses surrounding these two policies are contextualised with reference to British race relations and immigration policies in the postwar period. Based on interviews with senior management, operational staff and local councillors responsible for the management and implementation of community cohesion and counter-terrorism policies in West Yorkshire, the authors address and add to understanding of many issues of interest to urban studies and related disciplines.
assessment with its spillover into dubious teaching- learning practices sadly sanctioned by society. This paper will also explore the diverse realizations of these policy shifts within an overarching perception of a changing global polity, newly emerging stakeholders and the complexity of transition from policy to practice. However, in reality this is a focus on the changing perceptions of the English language perceived initially through strong nationalist feelings but gradually moving on through diverse realizations to a current neo- liberal stance.
The results in Table 6c are themselves interesting too, though clearly they establish only correlations and not causation. School resources are associated with school quality: higher per pupil expenditure is associated with lower school disquality (i.e. with higher school quality) and when we include pupil teacher ratio instead of per pupil expenditure (results not shown), it comes in with a positive and significant coefficient. The composition of the student body is also related to overall school quality. A poorer student body (higher proportion of FSM students) lowers school quality. A higher percentage of abnormal starters (those who started their current school in a month other than September) is associated with higher school quality and this may reflect that higher quality schools attract those wishing to move from other (presumably less good) schools. The ethnic composition of the school has only a weak association with school quality. Grammar schools are strongly higher quality than non-Grammar schools in terms of helping their students to avoid low achievement. Voluntary aided schools are of better quality than community schools which is the base school governance category. Specialist schools are of higher quality than non- specialist and schools in Special Measures are – understandably – of sharply lower quality. Schools which have adopted various policy initiatives (other than leadership incentive grant schools) are higher quality schools, which is encouraging news from the point of view of this crude impact evaluation. The positive association of these schools with school quality is unlikely to represent the effect of endogeneity or omitted variable bias since, if anything, these schools have are in disadvantaged areas or are for disadvantaged students.
asset (before maturity) for cash. In contrast, agents who realize (ex post) that they have a low valuation for cash can enter the OTC market as buyers of assets, or, equivalently, providers of liq- uidity. Hence, in our model, monetary policy affects not only the equilibrium real balance holdings of agents, but also the very composition of agents who demand and supply assets in OTC markets. More precisely, in our model agents wish to consume a good which is traded in a decentral- ized market (distinct from the OTC asset market) characterized by imperfect commitment and anonymity. These frictions render a MOE necessary, and only money can play this role. After agents’ money holdings decisions are sunk, an idiosyncratic shock determines each agent’s valua- tion for the good, and we assume that this valuation can be low, normal, or high. Since money is the only MOE, the shock that affects agents’ valuation for the good also affects (isomorphically) their valuation for the liquid asset. In equilibrium, agents with the low valuation always enter the OTC market as buyers of assets (or liquidity providers), and agents with the high valuation always enter as sellers of assets (or liquidity seekers). However, the “normal types”, have a non-trivial decision to make, i.e., they choose whether they will enter the OTC as buyers or sellers of assets, and this decision critically affects welfare since it influences the number of matches among the various types. An important ingredient of our model is a matching technology that captures the idea that agents will try to avoid the more congested side of the market.
For these reasons policy makers in England over the last two decades have acted to mitigate perceived dysfunctions in the education market through regulation to ensure that all school places for maintained schools and Academies are allocated and offered in an efficient, open and fair way. In 1998 the Labour government passed the School Standards and Framework Act which established a new legal framework for school admissions which remains the foundation of current practices. The regulation of admissions has been progressively strengthened between 1999 and 2009 through five sets of codes of practice governing what arrangements admission authorities can put in place (DfEE, 1999; DfES 2003; DCSF 2007; DCSF 2009; DCSF, 2010). The latest Code was published by the Conservative led Coalition government in 2012 (DfE 2012a). Although it does not strengthen the regulations, and in some ways it slightly weakens the requirements, it still provides strong regulation. The regulations aim to avoid the difficulties of management experienced in earlier years; actively to prevent schools (except Grammar schools) from selecting students on the basis of social or educational characteristics; and to enhance the effectiveness of the local market including freedom of choice on the part of parents.
English communication is an essential prerequisite for anyone aspiring to enter a prestigious job in a public or private undertaking. Therefore individual who lacks the desired fluency is often deprived of lucrative vocational and professional opportunities even if they are otherwise competent and displays the right approach to the written aspects of the language. This would seems quite disappointing when we realize that in our country only a handful of young men and women can claim reasonably fair competence in conversational English. The English language plays a significant role in connecting the whole world via internet as it has become global language now. If any new advancement, incidents, disasters or innovation happens it may reach to whole world within seconds as it all happens with the help of English language.
the ability to critically analyse, synthesise and communicate knowledge. To develop these higher-order skills, classrooms should provide learners with chances to participate, using critical reasoning, in the construction and analysis of arguments backed with evidence. These opportunities are potentially available in practical tasks, provided teachers are not sidetracked by internal assessment. The new GCSE science curriculum, implemented in September 2016 and first assessed in 2018, has removed the internal assessment of practical work in schools. The practical work conducted in lessons will no longer contribute to a candidate’s GCSE final grades. However, for GCSE sciences, exam boards have identified certain required practical work within each topic area, in each of the three science subjects. Fifteen per cent of the total mark for each qualification will be for exam questions that specifically draw on the experience and conceptual understanding that learners have gained from doing practical work. Schools are expected to provide a written ‘practical science statement’ to the exam board vouching for each learner’s participation in the required practical tasks and completion of their lab books (OCR 2016:79). Fifteen per cent of the total mark for each qualification will be for exam questions that specifically draw on the experience and conceptual understanding that learners have gained from doing practical work, ie their competencies in scientific literacy. Exam boards recommend all learners to complete at least the required practical tasks to prepare fully for the written examinations as there will be questions that assess practical skills (ibid.).
The note only includes the commitments made in the sources referred to and does not offer a comprehensive list of all commitments made by each party. It also should not be taken as providing a list of the parties’ policy priorities; these will become clear once the parties publish their manifestos. The note also does not provide assessment or analysis of the policy commitments.
A number of my interviewees also said that they consequently either water down their provision of education about human rights, or they avoid using the terminology of human rights altogether and instead provide education in this area through informal teaching practices or the general ethos of the classroom or school. This chapter has shown that teachers in both of these situations consider themselves to be providing HRE, yet in many instances they are drawing only upon broad values frameworks or narrow behaviour management processes. Furthermore, due to concerns about appearing unbiased, some interviewees can be seen to be providing education about human rights that is so ostensibly neutral as to challenge the internationally accepted values that underpin them. The quotes from teachers concerning their perceived inability to pass judgement on democracy, racism or Nazi atrocities cannot be taken as indicative of a whole system, but they raise serious questions about English primary education and its ability to address some patently troubling attitudes towards teaching in this area.
Many states have unique legal requirements related to online charter authorizing, reporting, and operating, but no single state has a complete and robust legal framework for online charter schools. Therefore, we believe states could benefit from a model law that draws the best statutory language across the country together so that states can begin to update their laws in ways that increase the focus on quality and outcomes without unnecessarily impinging on online charter autonomies. The development of such a model law is beyond the scope of this paper as it would have to include interviews with policymakers and practitioners to determine how these laws are playing out on the ground. Barring model legislation, policymakers can look to states like Arizona, Colorado, Florida, North Carolina, and Oklahoma. These states have created a mix of strong central online programs, commissioned comprehensive studies, developed detailed contracts with online charter operators, or put in place other unique and proactive provisions for online charter schools.
However, some teachers were unwilling to discuss particularly sensitive issues, such as violent extremism. One outlined why teachers from particular backgrounds might be more or less willing to engage in certain conversations on values and beliefs, or political or social phenomena related to identity: Every school will have their fears and their sensitivities and might say we will only act when something happens... Some staff suggest to me that it might be OK for me to talk about particular topics, coming from a particular ethnic background and being Muslim – I can get away with saying particular things and it won’t be seen that I’m being offensive. Whereas quite a few members of staff might feel sensitive, for example thinking ‘Well I don’t really feel I should say that, is it my place to say that? How will it sound?’ So instead of just going along and trying it, they’re saying, ‘I’m not going to go there.’