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COUNTRY PROFILE - DRAFT FORMAT VERSION 2.0 COUNTRY: REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

COUNTRY PROFILE - DRAFT FORMAT VERSION 2.0 COUNTRY: REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Sparse and partial research and analyze is carried out for various purposes and regarding: basic control, processing and updating of meteorological and agro meteorological data; climate research in Republic of Macedonia as well as research of basic factors which influence the elements of climatic system; urban climate research including interactive relations between polluted atmosphere and climate in cities; application of meteorological information and climate knowledge in the field of water management, agriculture, forestry, transportation, urbanism, civil engineering, space planning, tourism, protection of environment and human health; research of energetic potential from the sun and the wind; phenological observations, measurements and analyses at agricultural crops; agro meteorological operative, informative, methodological and research activities; preparing appropriate information and forecasts on weather and climate influence over agricultural production especially at adverse weather situations (frost, drought and other disasters) etc.
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Republic of Macedonia as a Transit Country for the Illegal Trafficking in the Balkan Route

Republic of Macedonia as a Transit Country for the Illegal Trafficking in the Balkan Route

In the past decade the Balkans, more precisely the territory of the former Yugoslav Federation, was under constant threat of the emergence and development, and in some cases of flaring military situations, which only added to the political disagreements of the emerging countries of the former federation. Some indicators suggest, that in addition to accumulated hatreds of coexistence through the 50- year long influence of military conflict, almost all newly created states had external factors that created successive crises or interruptions. Examples of this are the arming of Croatian forces with weapons of Western countries, support of Albanian terrorist organizations and activities in Kosovo, and the crisis in Macedonia. However, the international community had probably foreseen the consequences of such developments. Thanks to the chaos that arose due to military conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia, some terrorist organizations operating worldwide, found favorable ground for their development including training and training camps, and equipment branches, which were intentional and thrown early on the territories of the above countries (Dimovski, 2005). In this context we may mention the nationwide crisis which emerged in the Republic of Albania in 1997, when thanks to the people’s disobedience, demonstrations and protests, some guerrilla or criminal factors failed to arm the uprising with light and medium conventional weapons, which mysteriously disappeared from the military and police warehouses and facilities of the military and police of the Republic of Albania. So, we can easily conclude that Macedonia is surrounded by conflict regions that represent an immediate danger to peace and stability in the country. The geopolitical content of political behavior of the immediate neighbors to the Macedonian state is expressed in a mixture of ethnic populations and discrepancies with the ethnic national state borders, resulting from the conflict of interests among greater powers for their presence, influence and control of the Balkans (Dimovski, 2007: 128).
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Estimating the country risk premium in emerging markets: the case of the Republic of Macedonia

Estimating the country risk premium in emerging markets: the case of the Republic of Macedonia

Table 2 below gives a systematized view of the results of the above approaches. Obviously the country risk premium varies dramatically in the different approa- ches. The smallest is in the country default spread with respect to country sovere- ign credit rating approach and dramatically above it is the default spread plus the relative standard deviation approach. Which approach should we choose? Of course, choosing the right size of the country risk premium depends on the personal assessment of the analyst and his/her expectations concerning the pro- sperity of the country in the long run. The latest approach gives an abnormal CRP of 17.88% resulting from the high relative standard deviation. We calculated this number using monthly returns of the market index MBI10 and bonds for the last fi ve years. If we had used a shorter period, the relative standard deviation would have been much larger. This number is not constant, and varies dramatically. Also, there is no standardized approach for using this technique, so we suggest that this measure should be discarded as not reliable for the case of the Republic of Mace- donia. Also, the low liquidity on the Macedonian market produced low volatility of the market returns for the analyzed period after the fi nancial crisis, resulting in very low CRP of 0.07% according to the relative equity market standard devia- tions approach. Accordingly, this number is also not a reliable measure in the case of Macedonia.
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REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

Confirmation from the Faculty that he/she meets the conditions for full-time enrolment in the next term; Curriculum and program issued by the Faculty from where the student transfers. The foreign students, in addition to the original documents from the previous paragraph, submit a certified translation of the study program with the course programs, as well as a Decision by a competent authority in the Republic of North Macedonia for recognition of the acquired higher education qualifications abroad (for students who have studied abroad) along with grades equivalency.
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NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Having in mind the situation with the foreign exchange reserves, expertise and desire for improvement, as well as the possible saving that may occur, it is estimated that the second option meets the needs of the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. Namely, as a central bank of the Republic of Macedonia, the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia has an access to certain instruments under favorable conditions with the Federal Reserve System of the USA, other central banks, and the Bank for International Settlements from Basle. The National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia has a custody account with the of Federal Reserve System of the USA, i.e. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. It is also possible for the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia through this bank to participate in the primary and secondary fixed income securities market, under privileged conditions and without restraints in the amount. Also, for a long term, the second option of independent portfolio management is the best choice, because that would offer the necessary knowledge, experience and expertise in the operations with securities, which could later on be used for other purposes, as well as for the needs of the domestic financial system. Also, the material side of choosing the second option must not be neglected, because one-time investment in personnel, software, hardware and organizational structure, means an investment which is an investment which is definitely lower than the fees charged by foreign financial institutions. 6
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The Efficacy of Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia

The Efficacy of Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia

establishment of these funds, but also due to the overall increase in the number of municipalities, most of which were in rural, underdeveloped areas with poor financial resources of their own and were, therefore, dependant on these funds from the central government. In 1996, the Law on Territorial Division of the Republic of Macedonia and Demarcation of the Municipal Boundaries was passed. This law increased the number of municipalities from 34 to 123 plus the City of Skopje and redefined their territorial boundaries. This meant a dramatic reduction in the size and populations of municipalities. The idea was that these smaller units of local government would allow for common interests to be more easily identified in order to solve problems. It was also to further increase the responsiveness of local governments and to have citizens closer to their local governing bodies. This act created a more streamlined
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NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

16. The provisions of these Instructions referring to banks shall appropriately be applied also for the savings houses and the foreign banks' branch offices in the Republic of Macedonia. 17. These Instructions shall enter into force on the eighth day from the day of their publishing in the "Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia", and their implementation shall start from July 01, 2010.

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NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

- provision of data and information on the credit risk exposure of individual bank and savings house, foreign bank branch office, as well as the banking system in general, for the purposes of the supervisory function of the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia (hereinafter referred to as: the National Bank).

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The Efficacy of Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia

The Efficacy of Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia

establishment of these funds, but also due to the overall increase in the number of municipalities, most of which were in rural, underdeveloped areas with poor financial resources of their own and were, therefore, dependant on these funds from the central government. In 1996, the Law on Territorial Division of the Republic of Macedonia and Demarcation of the Municipal Boundaries was passed. This law increased the number of municipalities from 34 to 123 plus the City of Skopje and redefined their territorial boundaries. This meant a dramatic reduction in the size and populations of municipalities. The idea was that these smaller units of local government would allow for common interests to be more easily identified in order to solve problems. It was also to further increase the responsiveness of local governments and to have citizens closer to their local governing bodies. This act created a more streamlined
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FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS For the first time in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, presidential and local elections will be conducted at the same time. This creates a challenge for electoral bodies, which will have to prepare for up to five elections in one polling station. When national and local elections are held simultaneously, the OSCE/ODIHR generally observes local elections only to the extent that they impact on the conduct and organization of national races. In this particular case, however, all OSCE/ODIHR NAM interlocutors underscored the importance of both the presidential and the municipal elections. They expressed their expectations that municipal elections would be intensely contested and have a significant impact on national level politics. Furthermore, all interlocutors clearly indicated their interest in having a full observation of the presidential and the municipal elections to help ensure confidence in both processes.
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Sustainable development in the Republic of Macedonia

Sustainable development in the Republic of Macedonia

Modern understanding of the advancement of society and the improvement of the quality of life of the present generations implies taking into account the natural capacities, that is, having enough natural resources and for the generations that are yet to come. In fact, sustainable development is based on that concept. The advantage that the Republic of Macedonia has and should use is the preserved natural resources, that is, unpolluted soils and waters that also enable the production of healthy food, which guarantees its economic survival. In our country, the production of organic food is already gaining in importance, especially at a time when European countries are struggling with genetically modified foods, and it is seen and experienced as the only way to recover unstable agriculture and restore economic stability.
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Theoretical and Legal Framework of Foreign Policy the Example of the Republic of Macedonia - Official EU Candidate Country

Theoretical and Legal Framework of Foreign Policy the Example of the Republic of Macedonia - Official EU Candidate Country

avoid privileged relationship with any of them. This policy was an expression of the realities that existed in the Balkan neighborhood of the Republic of Macedonia, and was based on negative experiences from the past. Basically, the idea of a sort of neutrality of Macedonia was not new. It was launched nearly a century ago by various Macedonian activists and thinkers. The goal was clear; the repeating of the history when Macedonia was the arena in which various propagandas and interests of the neighbors collided should be avoided. The active policy of equidistance sent a signal to all the neighbors that Macedonia tends to act independently and has no intention to submit to any of its neighbors or to be adapted by them. This approach to foreign policy definitely ended with the new government of Macedonia in 1998. The approach of active equidistance was replaced with the approach of positive energy in foreign policy toward neighbors. Changing the approach of foreign policy towards its neighbors was a result of assessment of altered circumstances when it was time for one more positive approach, i.e. for closer cooperation with the neighbors. The result was improvement of the relations with Bulgaria and Greece in terms of economic cooperation. Already in 1999, in less than a year after the new government, the joint declaration by the Prime ministers (Ljubco Georgievski and Iva Kostov) of Macedonia and Bulgaria was signed. This declaration meant a kind of normalization of relations between the both countries and an opened way for future conclusion of bilateral agreements by accepting the previously prepared compromise clause- signed in the official languages of both countries, Bulgarian - according to the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria and Macedonian - according to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. In this way the problem was solved at official level, which imposed Republic of Bulgaria regarding the non- recognition of the Macedonian language. The policy of "positive energy" was interrupted by the start of military conflict in 2001 after which a broad governing coalition was formed and the whole concentration was on the coping with the crisis. After the regularly held elections in 2002 a new governing coalition was formed, that was also primarily concentrated on dealing with the consequences from 2001. Although a new government was formed, in the period between 2002 until today, after the regular elections in 2006 and the early elections in 2008, there was a lack of a new, publicly promoted approach in the Macedonian foreign policy towards its neighbors.
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Analysis tourist trends of the Republic of Bulgaria in the Republic of Macedonia

Analysis tourist trends of the Republic of Bulgaria in the Republic of Macedonia

In 1991, the number of tourists from Bulgaria who visited Macedonia was 25923 people who had 39425 overnight stays with an average stay of 1.5 days. From Table 1 and Charts 5 and 6 we can notice that from 1991 to 2001 we registered significant fluctuations in the downward trend in the tourist visit and stay of Bulgarian tourists in Macedonia, which is due to insufficient tourist organization, promotion and offer from both sides , but also of the internal military conflict in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia, which caused a decrease in tourists. Thus, in 2001 the number of tourists from Bulgaria dropped to 8484 who had 17177 overnight stays, with an average stay of 2.0 days.
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Teaching Modern Languages in the Republic of Macedonia

Teaching Modern Languages in the Republic of Macedonia

Abstract. This paper represents the system of foreign language education in Republic of Macedonia. The author has surveyed the language education in primary, secondary and secondary vocational school, as well as the foreign languages teaching in public and private universities throughout the country. It is emphasized that Republic of Macedonia even though stands apart from the European Union, yet follows and considers the leading educational tendencies in Europe including the fi eld of language teaching.

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Moissanite Meteorite in Teritory of the Republic of Macedonia

Moissanite Meteorite in Teritory of the Republic of Macedonia

This paper presents for the first time results from the examination of moissanite meteorite found in the Republic of Macedonia using the method SEM-EDS. The examined samples indicate that the mineral is moissanite with very similar structure to the stoichiometric moissanite (Si=28.94%, C=71% ). Key words: moissanite, meteorite, Republic of Macedonia

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Indicators of Democratic Awareness in the Republic of Macedonia

Indicators of Democratic Awareness in the Republic of Macedonia

Since its independence and the coming of the era of political pluralism, a number of young politicians have appeared and acted on the political stage in the Republic of Macedonia. The age of the Macedonian politicians, i.e. whether youth in politics may be an advantage or disadvantage is a frequent subject matter of discussions both in the public and media. In this context, the majority of respondents, i.e. 58, 2% believe in the young politicians as opposed to the remaining 41, 8% that do not believe in them. The data obtained in the course of the survey conducted in the year 1999, indicate that at that time 64% of the respondents believed in the young politicians. So, there is a slight decline in confidence in the young politicians in the last decade. And, eventually let us focus on the opinion of the Macedonian citizens concerning the representation and participation of women in politics and taking into account that the percentage of their representation and percentage in politics reflects the extent of the development of the democratic awareness in any society. A total of 50, 1% of the respondents are of the opinion that half of the political office holders are to be women as opposed to 49, 9% that are against this viewpoint.
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Neolithic art in the Region of the Republic of Macedonia

Neolithic art in the Region of the Republic of Macedonia

Neolithic culture in the Republic of Macedonia, as represented in the Velušina-Porodin and Anzabegovo-Vršnik cultural group, belongs to the Balkan-Anatolian culture complex. It derived on a broad cultural basis from the process of primary neolithization through the predominant participation of monochrome polished and painted pottery. This process took place in the period from 6,400 to 6,100 BC. The research made thus far in the area of Neolithic in Macedonia has not discovered the existence of pre- pottery archaeological findings. These groups are a result of the migration from the south, i.e. from Thessaly. The direction of movement was through the Aegean part of Macedonia towards Pelagonia, and the oldest settlements of this kind are the Big Trnska Tumba and Pešterica. The Neolithic continues to spread north through Pešterica towards the Babuna river valley and Azot in the valley of Skopje. The oldest settlement in the Skopje region is Govrlevo, where the group starts to spread throughout the entire valley and towards the east in Ovče Pole, in the north towards the Kumanovo region, and via the Preshevo watershed up north to the Morava river valley. From Ovče Pole in the east down the Bregalnica river valley, the group spreads towards the Middle Struma region, and goes south down the river Lakavica towards the Strumica region. In Polog, the group is a result of the direct contacts with Pelagonia since the forms of pottery and decorations in the oldest layer of Tumba Stenče are identical with those from the Velušina-Porodin group. In this earliest phase, the contacts between Polog and Pelagonija are evident and real. But in the following phase, Middle Neolithic, the settlements in Polog established direct chronological and historical communication with their counterparts in the Skopje region.
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Ski centers (resorts) in the Republic of Macedonia

Ski centers (resorts) in the Republic of Macedonia

Hotel "Molika" and the Ski Center "Kopanki" are located in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia, located in the area of the National Park "Pelister" on the locality "Begova Cesma" at an altitude of 1420-1900 meters, placed in the splendor of beautiful molika noise. The connection of the hotel and ski facilities is a modern asphalt road, 12 km long to the city of Bitola and the international road between Bitola and Ohrid, while the distance to the airport in Ohrid is 70 km and 170 km to the Skopje airport which, on the other hand, is insignificant distance lovers in a healthy ecological environment, clean air, peace and quiet away from urban areas throughout the year, and especially for white sports lovers and skiers who can enjoy during the winter months on the terrain of Winter center “Kopanki” which is adjacent to the hotel Molika only 100 meters away from the hotel.
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Customs and Tariff Policy of the Republic Macedonia

Customs and Tariff Policy of the Republic Macedonia

„Customs and Customs Policy of the Republic Macedonia“ Abstract The unique global market formed as a result of the opening of economic systems of states and their integration, necessarily entails the need for high levels of tariff protection of domestic industry limits in a realistic way. Task certainly was not easy but it made significant progress establishing harmonized general legal framework for the regulation of the world trade.Achievements concerning tariff barriers had their long journey through history, from the full tariff and non-tariff barriers to the creation of harmonized legal framework that directs world trade in a comprehensive and satisfactory manner. The paper will seek to show the achievements made in this field by the customs and customs policy of the Republic Macedonia.
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Real Estate Prices in the Republic of Macedonia

Real Estate Prices in the Republic of Macedonia

3.2. Apartment Price and Macroeconomic Fundamentals in the Republic of Macedonia The correct choice of the supply and demand determinants is very important for the model specification. The choice of fundamentals in the empirical model for the Republic of Macedonia was based on the previously reviewed literature, with the following variables included: the real per-capita disposable income, the long term interest rate on total loans, the approved housing loans, the rent, the number of new settlers to Skopje, the value added in the construction industry, the number of newly built apartments, the construction costs, and the stock exchange index 18 . Besides the selection of variables, equally important for the analysis is the way of including the variables in the model, i.e. it is important to include the fundamentals simultaneously rather than separately. Namely, many of the studies investigating the overvaluation of apartments include only one fundamental, which might point to an absence of cointegration precisely due to the exclusion of the rest of the fundamentals (Egert and Mihaljek, 2007, Mikhed and Zemcik, 2007).
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