Beyond the developments taking place in place in Wales, criminologists can also contribute to a more constitutionally literate debate across the UK. This includes helping to challenge the orthodoxy of ‘British criminology’; an orthodoxy that persists despite the obvious differences that pertain in Scotland (Mooney et al, 2015) Northern Ireland (McAlinden and Dwyer, 2015; O’Mahony, 2012) as well as those in England in the wake of its own programme of regional devolution. Outside of the UK, sub-state systems in Europe present further opportunities for comparative research on criminaljustice and devolution. This includes developments in Germany where the responsibility for policing and prison administrate are devolved to the Lander (Oberwittler and Hofer, 2005), the autonomous community of Catalonia (Blay and Larrauri, 2015; Franquero and Saiz, 2015), and the Flemish region of Belgium whose government appointed a designated minister for justice in October 2019 (Bradshaw, 2019). Taken together, these developments can help to ensure that criminology is better placed to engage more seriously with the effects made by constitutional change. An impact that includes the emergence of a unique and distinct criminological space in Wales.
During the academic year under review, the MSc in Criminology and CriminalJustice and the MSc in Criminology and CriminalJustice (Research Methods) together received six submissions to the Proctors under Examinations Regulations, Regulations for the Conduct of University Examinations, Part 11, clauses 11.8 to 11.10. Such submissions are made “[i]f it comes to the notice of a candidate’s college before, during or after an examination that the candidate’s performance in any part of a University Examination is likely to be or has been affected by factors of which the examiners have no knowledge” (Examination Regulations 2013, p 34) and, when approved by the proctors, allow the Board of Examiners to take “such action as the Examiners may think suitable”. In total there were six such submissions in relation to five individual candidates, a reduction from last year. These submissions were discussed by the Board in some detail and judgements made about the candidates’ results.
(AJCJ, JC&J, and CCJLS) and also helped to balance out the representation of journals with
respect to topical foci, which was important to ensuring that journals which may be likely to
feature scholarship on legal topics were not excluded from the sample (Rowe et al., 2016),
particularly in light of the dominance of criminology over criminaljustice in top-ranked journals
consolidation year. Once again it is interdisciplinary, evaluating a range of explanations for offending behaviour and victimisation, as well as examining in detail different aspects of criminaljustice such as responses to victims and young offenders. In this year, we also work with you to develop the skills needed to conduct criminological research and encourage you to pursue your own interests – perhaps related to your choice of career – by selecting modules on subjects as diverse as war crimes and genocide and criminal law. Your third year – or fourth should you take advantage of the opportunities we offer to study criminology and criminaljustice abroad – allows you to pursue your own interests further, particularly through completion of a substantial piece of
frameworks associated with criminological research. Overall, students in the course should be prepared for a detailed introduction to the field of criminology and a willingness to constructively engage with numerous issues related to Canada’s criminaljustice system.
The senior author created a coding protocol (available from that author) and determined the coding for any ambiguous cases. The junior authors, graduate students in criminology and criminaljustice, coded the articles. Each article's journal, volume, issue number, and starting page were recorded and each article was classified as to whether it was (a) nonempirical, which would include purely theoretical or conceptual papers, as well as literature reviews with no original empirical evidence, (b) empirical but exclusively descriptive, in the sense that there was no direct testing of causal hypotheses, or (c) empirical and analytical in the sense that it performed some tests of causal hypotheses. The analyses covered all empirical articles appearing in these seven leading journals in calendar years 2001 or 2002.
Various types of program quality measures have been used in these studies, including the productivity of faculty members or graduates, prestige surveys, and citation analyses. Studies not explicitly designed to examine the quality of doctoral programs, such as those identifying the top programs/institutions based on publications in the top CJC journals, were also included. Studies which overviewed characteristics of the programs without clear performance measures were not eligible for inclusion (Felkenes, 1980; Flanagan, 1990; Frost & Clear, 2007). The universe of potential studies was identified through a number of research avenues, including searches of: (1) computerized bibliographic databases (e.g., Sage, ProQuest, EBSCO) and web search engines (e.g., Google); (2) references contained in eligible studies and studies of similar subjects; and (3) a table of content search of the Journal of CriminalJustice Education and Journal of CriminalJustice. Keywords, in various combinations, that were used to search computerized bibliographic databases and web search engines included: doctoral, graduate, ranking, criminaljustice, criminology, prestige, peer review, productivity, journal, and citation. The time frame includes the earliest study written on the subject through 2007.
Each academic year, the Department of Crimi- nology and CriminalJustice has funds available for graduate students participating in profes- sional conferences who are scheduled to pre- sent a paper or poster. Graduate students can request travel funding for one conference dur- ing each academic year. In truly exceptional cases, requests for additional funding for a sec- ond trip will be considered. To apply for funds under this “special consideration,” a student must submit a written request that details why the situation is unique, and what benefits are anticipated for the Department of Criminology and CriminalJustice as well as the individual student. Additional funds are available through The Graduate School and the College of Arts and Sciences.
Novak, K. J., A. M. Fox, and M. Bani-Yaghoub. “Pulling the right levers: Unraveling multiple treatment effects in focused deterrence approaches.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Society of Criminology, Washington DC, 2015.
Fox, A. M., and K. J. Novak. “Violence will no longer be tolerated: Is focused deterrence working in Kansas City?” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Academy of CriminalJustice Sciences, Orlando, 2015.
Research evaluating scholarly productivity and impact is not without detrac- tors, however. A subset of academics have argued that most studies using these aforementioned tools, dubbed “productivity” and “citation studies,” only seem to reify the quality of doctoral program rankings or the influence of the elite scholars within the discipline of criminology and criminaljustice (CCJ). This has raised concerns within the field as noted by Gabbidon (2009) and most recently by the former Journal of CriminalJustice Education editor, Schreck (2011). Yet, others argue that these studies have important utility in that they can arm departments with evidence of excellence to either retain or request additional financial support and to compare themselves to aspirant and peer departments (Frost, Phillips, & Clear, 2007). Individual scholars can also equip themselves with proven evaluation criteria to aid them in the compilation of tenure and/or promotion portfolios (Cohn & Farrington, 2011; Copes, Sloan, & Cardwell, 2012; Frost et al., 2007; Kleck, Wang, & Tark, 2007; Stack, 2002). These same tactics can assist hiring committees when evaluating job candidates. Rather than simply viewing the vast majority of productivity/citation studies as a pat on the back for those individuals and programs that are excelling, the useful information that results from these evaluations allows for us to reflect on the changing nature of the field (e.g. female scholar participation or reducing disparities in race) and ground our scholarly expectations in real-time levels of productivity.
The MA Criminology and CriminalJustice offers a scholarly appreciation of the work and challenges encountered by criminaljustice agencies and aim’s to meet the intellectual needs of those seeking a career in the criminaljustice sector or interested in further study at PhD level. It covers contemporary issues within the study of crime and the criminaljustice process, murder investigation, the threat of global organized crime and financial crime investigation.
The Edict and supplementary edicts (attached as Appendix 1) were sent out to candidates in Michaelmas term 2007 in hard and electronic copy. The Edicts were also put on the MSc Criminology intranet pages. Much of this information had already been available to candidates in the MSc Criminology and CriminalJustice handbook, and the programme specifications (all students receive a hard copy of these documents and they are also available on the intranet).
The institution specifies and publishes requirements for admission into, continuation in, termination from, or re-admission to its criminaljustice/criminology program(s), which are compatible with its educational purposes. Graduation requirements are clearly stated in appropriate publications and are consistently applied in the process for awarding degrees. Degrees awarded accurately reflect student attainments.
12 STRUCTURE AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD BSc (Hons) Criminology and CriminalJustice
The duration of the course is three years in the case of full-time students, or not exceeding seven years in the case of part-time students. It is modular in design, with full-time students normally undertaking six modules per academic year and obtaining 18 modules in total to obtain an Honours degree. Part-time students will normally study at the rate of three to four modules per academic year. In accordance with the University’s credit framework, each module represents 20 credit points. To complete the award, full-time and part-time students need to achieve 360 credit points.
B.6 In addition to the content areas above, an undergraduate program in criminaljustice/criminology includes a systematic examination of the issues of diversity in criminaljustice/criminology through either specific required courses and/or the integration of these issues within the program’s curriculum. Further, programs should provide evidence that students are taught to employ ethical perspectives and judgments in applying this knowledge to related problems and changing fact situations.
Research conducted in Los Angeles found that 60% of employers stated they would not knowingly hire a job candidate with a criminal background (Holzer, 1996). In addition, Pager (2003) has found “that mere contact with the criminaljustice system...severely limits subsequent employment opportunities” (p. 960). It is conceivable that some of these released prisoners will someday aspire to careers in academia (Ross & Richards, 2003) as a result of these diminished opportunities. Additionally, it is also probable that many of these ex-convict academics will decide on the study criminology and criminaljustice. However, the possession of an advanced degree does not magically rid a person of the stigma associated with having been convicted of a felony. The fact of the matter is ex-convicts in possession of advanced degrees often experience a variety of discriminatory practices ranging from governmental legislation (Missouri Statute § 173.392) to discrimination from university administrators (Richards, 2008).
The globalization of world economies, communications, and transportation necessitate criminologists, criminaljustice practitioners, policy makers, and law enforcement personnel to become more globally-minded. Through this certificate program, students learn how the processes of globalization influence crime and criminaljustice across the globe, with emphases on globalization and recent developments in global crime; global trends in policing and security; convergence and divergence in criminaljustice and penal policy; and international criminaljustice, war crimes, and the global protection of human rights. The certificate may be completed on its own or in conjunction with other graduate degree programs including, but not limited to, Criminology and CriminalJustice, Sociology, Public Administration, Urban and Regional Policy, and International Affairs. Students are expected to complete the four course certificate in one year.
The doctoral degree at UMASS Lowell is an interdisciplinary, research-oriented degree. The program was designed to provide a theoretically grounded, methodologically sophisticated, and statistically rigorous education. As such, the curriculum provides for a sequence of courses in theory, methodology, and statistics. The curriculum also builds upon faculty research strengths and offers substantive courses which address the incidence of crime, the prevalence and correlates of criminals and victims, and the effectiveness of current strategies in the areas of crime prevention, policing, the courts, and the corrections system [both institutional and community based]. Throughout the five concentration or specialty areas in which students can specialize, the curriculum stresses evidence driven and “best practices” approaches to numerous substantive topics that are key areas in contemporary criminology and criminaljustice.
In a perfect world, all Ph.D. graduates would obtain a job at a university that only requires them to teach in their specific area(s) of interest. Unfortunately, this rarely is the case. It is highly likely that you will be required to prepare and teach a variety of courses within criminology and criminaljustice, both within and outside of your specific area(s) of interest. The readings on this list will provide you with the background knowledge to teach a number of criminological courses. Taking thorough notes and/or preparing detailed summaries of the readings on this list will not only aid you in passing the exam, but will also provide you with a wealth of knowledge from which to draw when preparing to teach courses you are assigned in your eventual academic appointment.
Several reasons justify offering law courses to non-law students, including criminaljustice and criminology doctoral students. Harris (1986, p. 112) argues that, “empirically, law is a component part of the wider social and political structure, is inextricably related to it in an infinite ways, and can therefore only be properly understood in that context.” The benefits of teaching law outside traditional confines have also been noted in several areas. Teaching law to accountancy students, for example, resulted in a 6 percent rise in those students who “definitely saw law as being relevant to their studies” (Ridley, 1994, p. 283). Cartan and Vilkinas (1990, p. 248) further found that teaching law to managers enabled them to view law as a “living entity which has a future as well as a present and recognizes law as an evolving process with important elements of history, sociology, politics, and economics.” Students outside of law school must “see the place that law has in the object of their study,” to properly understand the wider social and political structure of which law is merely a component, albeit an essential one (Bradney, 1998, p. 83). Within the discipline of criminaljustice and criminology, the teaching of law must be made relevant to the study of the objects of the discipline (i.e., crime or anti-social behavior and the criminaljustice system). If law is to be learned as a tool for understanding a social phenomenon, then it is best taught by those trained in this approach rather than by those trained as advocates of opposing sides in a two-sided conflict.