Top PDF Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom

Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom

Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom

Section Two, “Personal Writing and Social Change,” explores some of the multiple ways in which expressivist theory and practice are connected to larger political and social goals. For Patricia Webb Boyd, in a period when “many may feel unable to control their own lives, much less effect change in larger society,” the question at hand becomes: “How can we imagine creative alterna- tives where students and teachers can … see themselves as active participants in public spheres/discourses who can co-create change rather than be passive con- sumers?” Boyd sees the role of critical expressivism as one that encourages our students to feel connected to their own experiences, and thus to larger goals and communities. Daniel Collins, in his lyric collage, maintains that “expressivist writing theory … upholds the idea that to write is to discover oneself amidst an array of others.” It is through our students’ writing about their lived experience that they can forge connections to a larger culture, and begin to enact change. Scott Wagar and Eric Leake both focus on the relationship between expressivist practice and empathy. For Wagar, the goals of non-violence and recognition of interdependence can be facilitated through a pedagogy based on the insights of theorists such as Mary Rose O’Reilly, who asks “Is it possible to teach English so that people stop killing each other?” A fraught question, but one that is essential to the goals of critical expressivist pedagogy—a pedagogy in which we might “consciously re-frame our work in non-violent terms.” This is not to suggest that we “critical expressivists” have all the answers: as Eric Leake reminds us in his nuanced examination of the role of empathy in successful expressivist teach- ing, “a critical empathy continually reminds us that empathy is always at best a careful and purposeful approximation of another’s experience.” However, by working together with our students, we may find the kind of ground in which our empathy can be at once nourished and examined.
Show more

319 Read more

Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom

Critical Expressivism: Theory and Practice in the Composition Classroom

Section Two, “Personal Writing and Social Change,” explores some of the multiple ways in which expressivist theory and practice are connected to larger political and social goals. For Patricia Webb Boyd, in a period when “many may feel unable to control their own lives, much less effect change in larger society,” the question at hand becomes: “How can we imagine creative alterna- tives where students and teachers can … see themselves as active participants in public spheres/discourses who can co-create change rather than be passive con- sumers?” Boyd sees the role of critical expressivism as one that encourages our students to feel connected to their own experiences, and thus to larger goals and communities. Daniel Collins, in his lyric collage, maintains that “expressivist writing theory … upholds the idea that to write is to discover oneself amidst an array of others.” It is through our students’ writing about their lived experience that they can forge connections to a larger culture, and begin to enact change. Scott Wagar and Eric Leake both focus on the relationship between expressivist practice and empathy. For Wagar, the goals of non-violence and recognition of interdependence can be facilitated through a pedagogy based on the insights of theorists such as Mary Rose O’Reilly, who asks “Is it possible to teach English so that people stop killing each other?” A fraught question, but one that is essential to the goals of critical expressivist pedagogy—a pedagogy in which we might “consciously re-frame our work in non-violent terms.” This is not to suggest that we “critical expressivists” have all the answers: as Eric Leake reminds us in his nuanced examination of the role of empathy in successful expressivist teach- ing, “a critical empathy continually reminds us that empathy is always at best a careful and purposeful approximation of another’s experience.” However, by working together with our students, we may find the kind of ground in which our empathy can be at once nourished and examined.
Show more

320 Read more

Critical Pedagogy and Its Realization in Classroom Context

Critical Pedagogy and Its Realization in Classroom Context

Critical pedagogy with the aim of theorizing practice and practicing theory has proved itself to be of great value; but the application of critical pedagogy is an issue which has to be handled and scrutinized with meticulous care. Throughout the present paper, first a definition of critical pedagogy with its theoretical underpinnings is given. Afterwards, the application of critical pedagogy in classroom context and the ways through which critical pedagogy can be recognized in classroom context are brought into consideration. Some techniques of applying critical pedagogy in the classroom are also introduced. Finally, the present paper argues that how the selection of topics which are both socially and individually of great value and importance and also meaningful to students can function as a strategy for the realization of critical pedagogy in the classroom context.
Show more

7 Read more

Theory into practice, practice to theory : action research in method development

Theory into practice, practice to theory : action research in method development

Some writers have argued that the rigour-relevance gap is un- bridgeable in management research ( Kieser & Leiner, 2009 ). We do not accept these views. We support the very often repeated notion that “nothing is as practical as good theory” ( Lewin, 1951 : 169). What we take this to mean is that, for the most part, theory must be expressed in such a way that it is possible to design practice as a reflection of the theory , even if it is academic researchers who concentrate on initial design and it is practitioners and managers who comment on that design through their experience of it. As Cummings and Jones (2004) argue, knowledge must be actionable if it is ever to be useful to managers. This is very much the basis of the origins of OR as developed and used from WW2 ( Kirby, 2002 ). Theory grows and changes by shifting theory development from ‘pure research’ to practice based research, not as if either were wrong, but rather so that when brought together they enrich one another. In the work reported here we are aiming to act more as a bridge in the value chain of knowledge production ( Starkey & Madan, 2001; Thorpe, Eden, Bessant, & Ellwood, 2011 ) by enrich- ing theory and adapting theory into a form that can be applied in practice. As Gulati (2007) suggests “theory building is a cumu- lative enterprise and, as such, can only happen if we are explicit about both our theories and their impacts on managerial practice” (p780 our emphasis).
Show more

11 Read more

Structure and agency in learning: a critical realist theory of the development of capacity to reflect on academic practice

Structure and agency in learning: a critical realist theory of the development of capacity to reflect on academic practice

Furthermore, choosing the domain of the development of capacity to reflect on professional practice in academic roles allows scope for critique in relation to the notion of ‘reflection’ itself, given that overlaps are present with realist social theory. Dewey’s seminal definition regards reflection as the ‘…. active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends’ (Dewey, 1933, p. 9). But such a notion of ‘reflection’ is one that is open, and in need of additional theorisation as Hatton and Smith (1995), Kreber (2004) and others argue. Further theorists have sought to add specificity. Brookfield (1995), for instance, sees the ability to perceive through different lenses, whether autobiographical experiences, student perceptions, colleague’s views and insights from the literature, as a core aspect of what he terms ‘critical reflection’. Reflection of this nature involves identifying and scrutinizing one’s assumptions, especially those that mask the exercise of power or that work against our best interests (Brookfield, 1995, p. xiii). Van Manen (1977) also articulates critical reflection as focused on issues that pertain to ethics, justice and the wider political and social environment
Show more

11 Read more

Self-determination Theory as a Grand Theory of Motivation in EFL Classroom

Self-determination Theory as a Grand Theory of Motivation in EFL Classroom

Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a) is on this tenet that autonomy-supportive teaching style promotes autonomous/intrinsic motivational regulations among the learners through supporting the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study first presents an overview of self-determination theory (SDT) and its five mini-theories as well as their application to the study of second language acquisition. Then, this study indicates how autonomy-supportive teaching style within self-determination theory paradigm nurtures autonomous/intrinsic motivation, basic psychological needs, personal interests, and integrated values among EFL learners. This study provides evidence on the fact that when teachers become more aware of the consequences of their communicative styles and behaviors in the classroom; they gain a greater capacity to behave in an autonomous way, rather than in an impulsive and reactive way. Moreover, this study indicates how teachers’ awareness toward their behaviors during the instruction is their first step in becoming more autonomy-supportive teachers. Collectively, this study concludes with implications for language teachers in EFL classroom.
Show more

12 Read more

Structure and agency in learning: a critical realist theory of the development of capacity to reflect on academic practice

Structure and agency in learning: a critical realist theory of the development of capacity to reflect on academic practice

The focus of attention employed by the participant in relation to an object of learning is further important to consider in understanding how outcomes of learning vary with respect to the use of personal powers. Marton and Pang (2006) argue that learning involves discerning the critical aspects of the object of learning, as against a background of invariance in relation to other aspects of that object. However in relation to academic practice, the participant plays a role in determining which aspects of their practice are of most significance, given the complexity and context-specificity of teaching. Boud (1999) emphasises that the scope to set one’s own agenda is significantly enhanced when academic development takes place within one’s own work setting. In such a case we suggest that a participant’s own concerns will directly influence their own focus of attention, linked as such attention is to reflexive deliberation and to self awareness in relation to learning. Kreber (2004) found that motivation to maintain a specific focus of attention during reflection depended on whether staff felt it was relevant to them; and in this disciplinary background was found to be more relevant than length of experience. But an intention to comply with the requirements of a task may be less likely to trigger or sustain attention to aspects of one’s own practice; and thus there will be a reduced
Show more

11 Read more

Opportunism in buyer-supplier exchange : a critical examination of the concept and its implications for theory and practice

Opportunism in buyer-supplier exchange : a critical examination of the concept and its implications for theory and practice

The concept of opportunism employed in OM stems from microeconomic theory, where it was introduced by Oliver Williamson to help explain the emergence of firms from pure market trading. Opportunism is an assumption at the heart of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and defined by Williamson as: ‘…self-interest seeking with guile’ (Williamson, 1985, p.47). Because of its contribution to the understanding of the make-or-buy decision process in companies, the concept is of particular interest to the OM, P&SM and Marketing fields where the largest number of published references is to be found. However, the term is employed widely in a variety of other fields: Organisation Science (Conner & Prahalad, 1996), Finance (Douglas, 2007), Strategy (John, 2001), Human Resource Management (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Close examination reveals that the usage of the term in the literature frequently does not match Williamson's (1985) original, idiosyncratic and deliberately narrow definition which he devised in order to explain the emergence of firms from the market. It will be argued that changes in the definition and flaws in the methods used to measure the concept have reduced the validity of empirical data, and practitioner advice derived from such studies may thus generate a misallocation of management resources.
Show more

75 Read more

CONSTRUCTIVE ENGAGEMENT: SECOND LIFE IN THE COMPOSITION CLASSROOM

CONSTRUCTIVE ENGAGEMENT: SECOND LIFE IN THE COMPOSITION CLASSROOM

In addition to designing assignments for my class, there were two more physical preparations that influenced my plans. One was applying for a new classroom, ILC 313. This classroom featured advanced and flexible educational technology–including a laptop for each student, movable seating, and a variety of display options. The other major thing I did was change the class description the students would see when they registered (see chapter four). I wanted students to understand what the class would involve, and I wanted the classroom to be the best it could be when we actually got into it. With this rationale in mind, I contacted the students a few weeks before the class in order to, as I wrote in my email, “welcome [them], and to give [them] some heads-up about what to expect while schedules [were] still fairly fluid.” I included the phrase, “while schedules [were] still fairly fluid,” as a subtle request: “feel free to drop this class if you don’t think you’ll like it.” In my email, I described the classroom as a reflection of the work I hoped to do with them: “the cutting-edge technology of this classroom really reflects my interest in working together as a group to share, demonstrate, and practice important writing principles.” I also described the virtual world nature of the class. By describing the classroom and the nature of the class, I hoped to start the class off as clearly and positively as possible.
Show more

122 Read more

Verifiable Classroom Voting in Practice

Verifiable Classroom Voting in Practice

Among existing E2E voting schemes, we choose DRE-i [10] as the underlying cryptographic protocol to build the VCV system. DRE-i is specifically designed to provide E2E verifi- ability without needing to find a set of trustworthy tallying authorities, hence the system is “self-enforcing”. Further- more, DRE-i does not require any cryptographic operations at the client side (hence obviating the need to install any Java plug-in or use JavaScript to perform expensive cryp- tographic operations in the browser). With the exception of digital signing, all cryptographic operations are performed before the election, thus latency during voting is minimized. Finally, in DRE-i, the tallies are instantly available once the last ballot is recorded, accompanied by publicly verifiable audit data to prove the tallying integrity. All these properties suit the practical requirement of classroom voting.
Show more

9 Read more

Theory of practice

Theory of practice

My interpretation of the effects of the combined early influences on Bourdieu’s thinking is that increasingly during the 1960s he felt trapped within a singular, institutionalised discourse and that, within an academic field and as an ‘intellectual’, he was betraying the primary, domestic, or familial experiences of his upbringing in the Béarn and the primary experiences that he had observed amongst the Kabyles in Algeria. When, in 1972, he re-visited his early Algerian research, he wanted to apply Bachelard’s formula to go beyond the second-degree monitoring of some of his earlier articles towards a third-degree which would sociologically ‘situate’ the eurocentrism of his structuralist analyses. In doing so, however, he wanted to ensure that his practice now would not simply be part of a process of consolidating the self-referentiality of an introspective and socially distinct sociological epistemic community, but, instead, a counter- transfugist action which would liberate primary experience by relativising academic objectivism. It is significant that Bourdieu tried to go beyond his sociological practice of the 1960s by
Show more

19 Read more

Critical Race Theory

Critical Race Theory

In the early years of critical race theory, the realists were in a large majority. For example, scholars questioned whether the much-vaunted system of civil rights remedies ended up doing people of color much good. In a classic arti- cle in the Harvard Law Review, Derrick Bell argued that civil rights advances for blacks always coincided with chang- ing economic conditions and the self-interest of elite whites. Sympathy, mercy, and evolving standards of social decency and conscience amounted to little, if anything. Audaciously, Bell selected Brown v. Board of Education, the crown jewel of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence, and invited his readers to ask themselves why the American legal system suddenly, in 1954, opened up as it did. The NAACP Legal Defense Fund had been courageously and tenaciously litigating school desegregation cases for years, usually losing or, at best, winning narrow victories.
Show more

47 Read more

"The CISG in China - Theory and Practice." Is there a difference between theory and practice?

"The CISG in China - Theory and Practice." Is there a difference between theory and practice?

hierarchy the interpretation was given. Remember there is no real reliance on interpretations of the courts as we are used to. This point is illustrated in Arbitration Ruling No. 75 [39] where the arbitrator did not attempt to define "reasonable time". He merely indicated that the period in question was beyond what is expected in international trade practice. Articles 26, 27 and 28 of ECL as an example allow for the modification and termination of contracts. A contract can be modified, if the state plan on which basis a contract was concluded is amended or cancelled.[40] It is not surprising that Chinese firms look for instructions from authorities rather than follow market or legal rules. It is therefore not the CISG, nor any other domestic law, which is the key to success. The right strategy will determine such an outcome. It may sound rather strange, but in order to do business in China a foreigner cannot just think about problems if things go wrong, he also has to think about problems if the venture goes really well.[41] The real conclusion one can take is the fact that the black letter law is a necessary knowledge in order to get things moving. A foreigner needs to understand and work within the "reality" of law. Prudence and patience are important characteristics when doing business in China. Prudence will dictate which black letter laws need to be observed and which ones will be ignored by authorities. The reality of law becomes apparent. If one studies the [page 21] language used by high officials in their directives we can describe it as "fluidly political".
Show more

9 Read more

Critical Pedagogy in Postgraduate Classroom: Students’ Perspectives

Critical Pedagogy in Postgraduate Classroom: Students’ Perspectives

Postgraduate classroom, in pedagogical discourses, is a physical space where learners can interact with their teachers and other learners, where they can share their experiences, ideas and knowledge, and put them into action for their individuals and collective change. This paper examines whether postgraduate classroom in Pakistan provides learners with the opportunity to widen their intellectual horizon through interactive learning and prepare them for jobs in the competitive knowledge based economy or equip them with ‘inflated credentials’. The data informing this study were gathered during fall 2015 semester from 20 (10 MS/M. Phil and 10 Ph. D) scholars at two public sector universities of Islamabad. Drawing on qualitative data, the paper employed Foucauldian discourses analysis as the key methodological and theoretical tool for understanding how postgraduate students describe their learning experience. Analyzing the data with the insights from Foucauldian discourses analysis (FDA), the paper explores a number of concerns, including the constitutive and constituted nature of teachers’ practices and teachers’ ideology. The study findings suggest that majority of the universities’ teachers are preachers rather than teachers. The paper stresses for the recognition and application of critical pedagogy in our postgraduate classroom. Based on the study findings, the paper suggest that postgraduate scholars should be treated as intellectuals who will engage in dialogue with their teachers and their peers to test their ideas and knowledge against the ideas and opinions of their teachers and class fellows.
Show more

14 Read more

Toward a Critical Stance: Citizenship Education in the Classroom

Toward a Critical Stance: Citizenship Education in the Classroom

Within the budget restrictions of our rural school, the opportunity to travel to an urban centre is rare. Certainly, we have Internet access; however, the reading level of many global education websites makes them inaccessible to many of our young students. Therefore, I have now learned to encourage my students to explore the world through conversation with classroom guests, reasoned discussion and debate within the school community, and critical engagement with media and children’s literature – a process supported by the Ontario Ministry of Education Expert Panel Report on Literacy (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2004), which highlights the importance of critical literacy to focus on issues of “fairness, equity and social justice” (p. 9). In addition, as a teacher in a Catholic school, I refer students to the guidelines of the Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations (Institute for Catholic Education, 1998), which call every Catholic student to become a global citizen who:
Show more

8 Read more

Geographies of a Writing Space: The Study of a Flexible Composition Classroom.

Geographies of a Writing Space: The Study of a Flexible Composition Classroom.

I am extremely appreciative for all the support I have received from mentors, friends, and family as I developed and completed my dissertation. I am so thankful for the guidance I received from my committee chair, Dr. Susan Miller-Cochran, who has been a wonderful mentor to me during my doctoral studies. She not only helped me shape this study and guided me through the process, but entrusted me with the management of the First-Year Writing Program’s “flexible classroom” project. Our design team of Justin Daves, Bob Kadle, and Angela Lord has been a critical part of the project’s success. Without their commitment and hard work, there would be no flexible classroom to study. I am so proud of the work we have done, as it has had positive effects on writing students and instructors and has sparked interest in designing more active learning spaces at NCSU. I would also like to acknowledge the time and attention I received from my committee members Dr. Chris Anson, Dr. Robert Beichner, Dr. Deanna Dannels, and Dr. Vicki Gallagher, as I analyzed data and wrote this dissertation. Their assistance throughout the various stages of this project has been invaluable. Additionally, I would like to thank Dr. Ken Zagacki for his interest in my work and encouragement during my first year at NCSU – a time when I had far more self-doubt than confidence. I am also grateful to Dr. Steve Wiley, who listened and offered helpful advice during my second year as I navigated a sea of interdisciplinary directions so that I could find my niche.
Show more

221 Read more

THEORY OF CRITICAL ELECTIONS

THEORY OF CRITICAL ELECTIONS

A concept of critical elections has been developed to cover a type of election in which there occurs a sharp and durable electoral realignment be­ tween parties, although the techniq ues[r]

7 Read more

Ecumenical expressivism and the Frege Geach problem

Ecumenical expressivism and the Frege Geach problem

deficiencies of such a position at least the view earns a robust connection between desire- like and belief-like features through commitment to a non-Humean metaphysics of mental states. What we are suggesting is that Ridge cannot have his cake and eat it: without a more radical departure in our theory of motivation than he countenances a viable solution to the Frege-Geach problem will elude him. Alternatively, one could retain a commitment to a Humean theory of motivation but then the view will have no substantial advantage over other, non-ecumenical, versions of expressivism that allow for ethical statements to communicate descriptive information. 16 Thus the terrain of moral
Show more

18 Read more

CRITICAL LANGUAGE AWARENESS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

CRITICAL LANGUAGE AWARENESS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

aim to enhance cultural/contextual awareness, to include: awareness of the context of production and reception of texts, knowledge of readerships and understanding of the way in [r]

366 Read more

Against Sonderholm: still committed to expressivism

Against Sonderholm: still committed to expressivism

expressivism, the view that moral utterances express attitudes. Accordingly he characterises valid inferences as ones where accepting the premises and rejecting the conclusion results in inconsistent commitments. Sonderholm points out that as it stands Blackburn’s account is unable to validate certain simple arguments involving

8 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...