However, the issue of how best to foster thinkingskills in learning environments remains problematic. Conventional approach to help students in completing syllabus, memorizing materials and focusing on the examination are still practiced in the school (Rosnani & Suhailah, 2003). Learning activities that foster higher order thinkingskills such as creativity will be eliminated if teachers continue with conventional approach rather than the brain compatible strategies.(Adam, 2013).There are significant effects on teaching method and teachers’ behaviour in increasing creativity among school students (Zahrin, 2003 & Joseph, 2009). In addition to that, research has discovered the educators’ lack of belief and knowledge in creative and criticalthinking (Rosnani & Suhailah, 2003; Smilkstein, 2011). According to the report by Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, the Deputy Prime Minister recently stated that only 3% pre-school teachers possess the formal qualifications and mostly are only on-the-job training or took pre-school education courses not recognised by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency. Consequently, educators are unable to execute thinkingskills in the classroom without appropriate skills.
Criticalthinkingskills can be integrated into school learning processes so that students are accustomed to using their criticalthinkingearly on, not only to solve problems related to learning materials, but also to solve problems related to daily life. Students who are accustomed to using their criticalthinkingskills will be more sensitive to the problems surrounding them and try to find alternatives to solving those problems. Decision-making of solutions taken was also accompanied by strong reasons and proofs and have been considered good and bad.
Early childhood is an exact age where to put the basic life. This age is right to develop a physical activity as the basis in the next development especially for preschoolers (5-6 years old). Preschoolers use their body for learning processes. In this age, children will learn everything by themselves. This period is an important process of transition of movement development and motion skill which encompass body movement passing through the room by walking, running, jumping, rolling over, and climbing. This activity is used by the children to seek and get relation between themselves, room, and other objects in the room (Morisson, 2012). Physical activity is an essential part for the early stage of children and influences many aspects of children’s health. The organization of health proposes that a higher level of physical activity of preschoolers related to the merit of short and long health which is important in physical domain, emotional, social, and cognitive issues in the entire life (Zeng et al., 2017). Motoric skill development is a basic mechanism that supports the involvement in physical activity (Stodden et al., 2012). Motion exploration is important for children in order to have a new experience through a motion activity (Hidayatullah, 2013).
Due to the importance of learning styles and criticalthinking in students' academic performance, a large volume of educational research has been devoted to these issues in different countries. Demirhan, Besoluk and Onder (2011) in their study on criticalthinking and students’ academic performance from the first semester to two years later have found that contrary to expectations the students’ criticalthinking level reduced but the total mean of students’ scores increased. This is due to the fact that the students are likely to increase adaptive behavior with environment and university and reduce the stress during their education (1).
ing to understand the beliefs and attitudes of others, children are making use of a kind of thinking not dissimilar to counterfactual reasoning. In other words, in rela- tion to the false belief task, the thinking required in answering the question ‘Where does Maxi think the chocolate is?’ would be similar to that required in answering the question ‘Where would the chocolate be if it had not been moved?’. Part of Riggs and Peterson’s (2000) methodology is based on the assumption that counterfactual and future hypothetical reasoning place similar executive demands on the child. This assumption is questioned by research carried out by Robinson and Beck (2000), who suggested that young children find the latter eas- ier than the former. In one of their experiments, three and four year-old children had to sort items with and without pictures into two containers. The researcher asked ‘If I draw a picture on this paper, which box will it go in?’, and then ‘If I had not drawn on the paper, which box would it be in?’. Children were much more likely to answer correctly in the future hypothetical task than in the counter- factual one. The authors concluded that when two similar kinds of cognitive
MAY-JUNE, 2015, VOL-I, ISSUE-I www.srjis.com Page 59 order to catch up the students to students of other countries. In this push for better test scores, many students are leaving the education system lacking the criticalthinkingskills that are necessary to succeed in higher education or in the workplace (Smith & Szymanski, 2013). There are several reasons that criticalthinking is not being focused on, and the need to have better scores on assessments is just one of them. The aim of CriticalThinking is to promote independent thinking, personal autonomy and reasoned judgment in thought and action. This involves two related dimensions:
Ulrich and Bryant (2006) asserted that apparel fit and sizing are a complex phenomenon that is multifaceted. They also emphasized that professionals should share their wisdom with fellow scholars and incorporate new technologies. Song and Ashdown (2010) reported that waist area revealed least consistency for fit interpretation. Most reliable information was obtained for alterations and bust area. Hip area did not yield reliable information for misfits. The study used two methods. There was more agreement for some body parts than other for the chosen methods. The preceding discussion suggests that the cited scholars tried new methods, adapted old Methods to design or prepare to design for those individuals who have special needs to allow for better sizing and fit. It is necessary to keep on refining the techniques through creative thinking so that methods could be perfected for better results. Special needs go beyond the challenges that a person may have due to physical handicap. Recreational and competitive activities such as basketball, dancing, figure skating, football, hiking, racecar driving, running and jogging, soccer, skiing, swimming and tennis can also require special clothing features. It is possible to that clothing features required for the recreational activity could be different than the competitive one. Former needs comfort more so than the competitive edge.
In the Monmouth entrepreneurial experiential exercise, the Instructor becomes part of the community, raises money for the University, and creates a product or service idea that lasts beyond the semester. It is a rewarding experience for all concerned. The students obtain real exposure to the risks and rewards associated with the entrepreneurial exercise. The students also see how their functional skills (i.e., finance, accounting, law, etc.) fit into the small business environment. In a time where the country is encouraging entrepreneurship among younger people, this pedagogical form fulfills this goal.
With the increase number of different mobile games, students are more engaged as one way of getting fun thus, others result to drop outs or addiction. Using games with computer generated agents are is of the alternative ways to help the perception of individuals because games also design to create challenges in every level, Gamers will face a lot of problems but solutions are formulated with strategies and algorithmic in nature . In the light of this opinion, it can be stated that computational thinking is related to various factors. One of this factor is the mobile games that is another approach in developing the problem solving skills of students and discover some techniques or strategies in creating certain solution . Teens who play online games are just having enjoyment because they want to feel relief during school hours and students also tend feel stress due to loads of school work like quizzes, reviewing for examination and doing case studies and through playing it will relieve their stress . It is undeniable that playing online games provide them something that no one can provide and according to some researchers it enables the mind of players to be more active and also help them improve their decision making especially those adventure games that keep the players to be alert, active and strategic.
ritical thinking has been received a considerable amount of interest from scholars. In 1962, Robert Ennis provided the very first definition of the criticalthinking as finding the meaning of a statement and to decide whether to accept or reject it (Kazancı, 1989). Another definition of the criticalthinking comes from Johnson (2000). According to him, “criticalthinking is a demonstration of thought that classifies, analyzes and evaluates an interest. Halpern (1993) provides different aspect of criticalthinking as a skill of using cognitive abilities or strategies to increase the achievement rate of intended behaviors. On the other hand, Norris and Ennis (1989) provides a construction of criticalthinking on logical thinking by indicating that criticalthinking is a decision making process that requires logical and reflective thinking on what to do or what to believe.
Research-based learning can be understood as teaching and learning activities guided by the scientific method of enquiry, which therefore involve posing research questions, testing these questions using quantitative and qualitative techniques, and presenting findings within a framework of research integrity, thus supporting students’ reflective practice (Gilardi, & Lozza, 2009; Ambrose, Bridges, Di Pietro, Lovett & Norman, 2010; Wagner, 2014). In the context of a research-based approach, educators can use scenarios or problems relating to local and global problems, with the aim of developing a skilled data-savvy workforce, active and critical learners, and conscious citizens (Bindé & Matsuura, 2005; Borne et al., 2009; Littlejohn, Beetham & McGill, 2012; Eve, 2013).
At this point, I want to cross over to a second philosophical couplet: John Austin and Jacques Derrida. For I would suggest that, through their particular attentiveness to language, these thinkers take further the account of thinking I have just been articulating. To understand why, it is important to recognise that, as Heidegger himself came to suggest in his later work, language is not simply a tool for human use – the ‘outer external clothing’ for inward private thoughts that are in themselves fully fixed and secure in their intentional content. This view of language, in fact, goes somewhat hand in glove in the history of philosophy with the tradition of Subject and Object discussed above. Against this, however, is an alternative conception of language: one that takes language as itself the horizon within which human beings live their lives. This means language is fundamental to our thought and action – in fact to our being human. Moreover, this is not just language in the abstract but the particular language(s) we speak, and it is clear that different languages reveal the world in subtly different ways. In the light of this, it is worth considering the nature of the words and other signs (gestures, etc.) that we use, a topic to which few philosophers have given sufficient attention. Yet Derrida and Austin are notable exceptions.
quantitative risk modeling techniques later in their academic and professional careers. McLellan (2012) found that standardized tests can be used to measure the criticalthinkingskills of account- ing students in Abu Dhabi. Williams and Lhama (2009) analyze online forums and conclude that online discussion promotes student engagement and the development of criticalthinkingskills. Pomonis and Siriopoulos (2009) study how students’ learning strategies have an impact on the acquisition and improvement of criticalthinkingskills when teaching financial management at the University of Patras, Greece. In order to do so the study used Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory together with the California CriticalThinkingSkills Tests three times: two months before the beginning of the course, just before the beginning of the course, and after the final exam. With the exception of Williams and Lhama (2009), all these studies focus on measuring the im- proving of criticalthinkingskills in one particular subject area, and these authors restrict them- selves to one aspect of the learning process. Following Paul (1990), they confine themselves to a specific context. And while from the previous definitions, criticalthinking seems to involve a very complex set of skills that include analysis, deduction, inference, evaluation, and induction, all authors except Pomonis and Siriopoulos used only one method to assess criticalthinking. We contribute to this discussion by departing from these studies in two dimensions. First, we look at the development of criticalskills, not within the realm of one specific subject area, but as part of the achievements of a two year full time MBA program. We used similar standardized tests because we argue that they are better suited to analyze criticalthinking at the program level than at the level of individual subjects (which must be more specific in nature in order to include the logic underpinning the subject). Second, we did not confine ourselves to these instruments. We also applied formative and summative tests on criticalthinkingskills applied to the written analy- ses of cases. We also used the capstone “Management Consulting Practice” experience as a course-embedded assessment instrument that evaluates criticalthinkingskills for action in order to refine our conclusions from the previous measures.
experimental groups, it was proven that the improvement in the analytical skills of the experimental group students was better on average than the control group. Therefore, teaching literary appreciation with CLA was effective, because it provided a positive effect for students in improving their skills to analyze short stories. In addition to that, teaching with the CLA could improve criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness in responding to social symptoms both in short stories and in real life. However, this must also be supported by providing reading materials or texts. The easier the texts are understood then the more critical the students become (Setyaningsih, 2019).
Our regional accrediting body, New England Association of Schools and Colleges, requires outcome assessment of core liberal education outcomes. Because of this mandate, and our new mission at the University to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to thrive and be engaged in a pluralistic, complex world, we have undertaken a project to develop and assess core liberal education outcomes. This paper describes the planning and actions taken to meet these new requirements in our engineering and technology programs. The college has expanded outcome assessment by including five “intellectual and practical skills,” specifically, critical and creative thinking, inquiry/analysis, problem-solving, and information literacy. VALUE rubrics are being incorporated into the process to ascertain the best opportunities to measure student achievement within the engineering and technology programs. An assessment framework is presented and pilot results are discussed.
Criticalthinking is reformist thinking, as it affects the discovery of weaknesses and correcting one’s short- comings (Smith et al., 2019), so criticalthinking should be considered as an internal process whereby the problematic situation of life is critically analyzed and the solving the problems are wisely identified (Liu, Hsu, Hung, Wu, & Pai, 2019). On the other hand, the most important element of one’s personality is the desire to think and to think critically. Criticalthinking helps students solve problems, make decisions in life situations, and develop a stable identity and habit in the person. For a more dynamic society, the more critical thinkers are needed (Bucaro, 2019). Society always needs thinkers who make good judgments on the issues of their community and know when and how to apply thinkingskills in their community, and having criticalthinking in society helps individuals to be informed and cognizant citizens, and Experience genuine freedom, so criticalthinking as an individual’s ability to interpret, analyze, evaluate, and identify social phenomena is a powerful resource in civil and political life (Yu et al., 2015). Given the crucial role of criticalthinking in life, the primary purpose of education should be to train critical thinkers beyond the easy acquisition of knowl- edge. Living in today’s complex society requires people who are capable of overcoming their own issues by thinking, gathering and combining information about their lives in a clear framework and perspective, and evaluate them in a good manner and avoid impossible tasks (Elian & Hamaidi, 2018).
In conclusion, criticalthinkingskills, problem solving skills, metacognitative skills and decision making skills are part of the skills that are in higher order thinkingskills and should be mastered by students at institutes of higher education in preparing themselves for the current job market. A student’s thinking ability can influence their learning styles, learning ability and their effectiveness of learning. The ability to transfer skills across multiple situations is very important and it is acquired all through a person’s life. Skillful thinker will understand how to adapt their learning and successfully find their way in new environment. Therefore, HOTS is the most important skill to enhance the knowledge gained and the students’ success. This study should open a new dimension in looking at “Learning Outside The Box” which begins with a Higher Order ThinkingSkills.