The outstanding contribution of agricultural research towards improving the livelihoods of poor farmers on the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) through the Green Revolution technologies is well documented (Evenson and Gollin 2003; Frankel 1971; Hazell et al. 1991; Lipton and Longhurst 1989; Pinstrup-Andersen and Hazell 1985; Rosegrant and Hazell 2001). During the 1960s to 1980s, the planting in the irrigated fields of the IGP of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties, combined with the application of fertilizer, gave much improved cereal production. As a result India moved from a deficit in the staple grains, wheat and rice, to a secure self-sufficiency. Now, in the face of diminishing groundwater supplies and degrading soils (Kumar et al. 1999; Pingali and Shah 1999), the challenge is to sustain crop productivity gains, while supporting the millions of families on the IGP—most of whom are resource- poor—to diversify their farming systems in order to secure and improve their livelihoods. Central to this challenge of ensuring improved livelihoods and environmental sustainability are the ruminant livestock—particularly buffalo, cattle and goats—that are an integral part of the IGP’s farming systems. For decades beneficial interactions between rice and wheat cropping and ruminant livestock have underpinned the livelihood systems of the IGP. Yet until recently there has been little systematic research to assess the benefits of these interactions, or to evaluate the potential for improvement. Based on a review of over 3000 papers from S Asia, Devendra et al. (2000) reported a paucity of research that incorporates livestock interactively with cropping, and a woeful neglect of social, economic and policy issues. Bio-physical commodity-based crop or livestock research had dominated, a systems perspective was lacking and many of technologies which were developed were not adopted. More recently broad classifications of crop–livestock systems in S Asia and their component technologies have been documented (Paris 2002; Parthasarathy Rao et al. 2004; Parthasarathy Rao and Hall 2003; Thomas et al. 2002). However, it is clear that a better understanding of farming systems and of the livelihood objectives of landed and landless families, including how they exploit crop–livestockinteractions, will be required if we are to be successful in improving rural livelihoods and securing environmental sustainability in the IGP.
Central to this challenge of ensuring improved livelihoods and environmental sustainability are the ruminant livestock—particularly, buffalo, cattle and goats—that are an integral part of the IGP’s farming systems. For decades beneficial interactions between rice and wheat cropping and ruminant livestock have underpinned the livelihood systems of the IGP. Yet until recently there has been little systematic research to assess the benefits of these interactions, or to evaluate the potential for improvement. Based on a review of over 3000 papers from South Asia, Devendra et al. (2000) reported a paucity of research that incorporates livestock interactively with cropping, and a woeful neglect of social, economic and policy issues. Bio- physical commodity-based crop or livestock research had dominated, a systems perspective was lacking and many of technologies which were developed were not adopted. More recently broad classifications of crop–livestock systems in South Asia and their component technologies have been documented (Paris 2002; Thomas et al. 2002; Parthasarathy Rao and Hall 2003 and Parthasarathy Rao et al. 2004. However, it is clear that a better understanding of farming systems and of the livelihood objectives of landed and landless families, including how they exploit crop–livestockinteractions, will be required if we are to be successful in improving rural livelihoods and securing environmental sustainability in the IGP.
The social positioning of individuals and households within society plays a major role in the communities. Social divisions clearly existed in the communities surveyed and resulted in the social exclusion of particular individuals or groups within the communities (e.g., based on caste, class/wealth, origin, gender). The West Bengal clusters had significant numbers of scheduled tribes. Gender inequity still plays a key role across subregions, reflected inter alia by gendered wage rates (Table 15), low female: male literacy ratios (Table 5) and the limited participation of women during the group meetings (Table 2). Table 13 presents some gender indicators across the IGP subregions which allow for a number of observations. First, compared to the other IGP subregions, participation of women in crop activities is significantly lower in the Trans- GangeticPlains, which is linked to status, the more pronounced reliance on hired labor (Table 31) and mechanization (Table 20). Second, women are typically involved in livestock activities across the IGP. For the TGP this contrasts with their low involvement in field-based crop activities, and reflects that livestock activities are more homestead- and/or village-based (particularly in view of prevalent stall-feeding practices). Third, across the IGP, women’s involvement in crop and livestock activities does not necessarily imply they have a say over the income derived from these activities. The reported levels of women having some say over the derived income average only two-thirds the level of their reported involvement (Table 13).
distribution of land and resources undermines the prospects of agriculture providing a viable escape strategy from the prevailing poverty (e.g. Wilson 2002; Kishore 2004).
In the face of these constraints, which were clearly evident during the village surveys, out- migration—a livelihood strategy traditional to this region—continues to play an important role. De Haan (2002) points out that mobility of the rural population of Bihar has been an integral part of the society for many decades, and that migration is not just a response of poor families to their poverty, but that the reasons are more complex with migrants drawn from various social strata. In fact the poorest often cannot afford to migrate (de Haan 2002). A self-evident livelihood strategy of landed families is combining the growing of various crops and keeping ruminant livestock. The surveyed clusters show primarily smallholders cultivating kharif rice—the staple grain—and rabi wheat with small livestock holdings, such that these farming systems are more subsistence than market-oriented. And, in contrast to the high productivity areas of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, there is no general security of irrigation services with which to exploit more production from these small, fragmented landholdings. Similarly many areas are prone to flooding and water- logging (Kumar and Jha 2003). As a result in Bihar there are fewer opportunities for low-risk diversification of cropping and livestock (only about half as much land per farm is planted to forages in Bihar as in the TGP) and fewer opportunities for the landless to secure casual agricultural employment.
For my personal research activities, worse fortune was to follow, because I was soon promoted to newly-created regional positions in research administration, first at Wagga as Director of Research (1981) and then at Tamworth as the Regional Director of Research (1983) for the New England, Hunter and Metropolitan Region, which stretched from suburban Sydney north-west to the Queensland border. Thus, the departure from Wagga of all members of the original pasture/livestock team, their involvement in new topics and my administrative duties impacted on our ability to write up properly the research work that we had completed at Wagga. Several of our joint papers, particularly those on subterranean clover evaluation and the work with dual-purpose crops, were consigned to the Journal of Bottom Drawers. Some of these losses were recovered by the appointment of an admirable successor in my pasture agronomy role at Wagga, Brian Dear, and I made sure that he had a full set of the most meaningful results from our subterranean clover evaluation program. Furthermore, I was at a later time able to pass on the information that we had won on dual-purpose crops to other agronomists and industry bodies (e.g., Radcliffe et al. 2011). However, my warning to early career researchers is clear – ensure that your research is written up in timely fashion or forever regret not doing so!
Abstract: Livestock contribute towards the livelihood of the poor by supporting subsistence consumption at household level. It is an integral part of the livelihood of India’s rural population. As the critical mechanism to cope with crop failure, it helps generate assets and bolsters the financial security of rural Indian farmers, many of whom are among the poorest people in the country. The intensive rearing of livestock led to higher incidences of diseases and involvement of high feed cost due to stall fed system. Raising cattle, sheep or poultry is a risky business – especially if you do not own a herd or flock but only one or a few animals. The biggest risk is disease. Insurance as the key risk transfer must adapt to the coming reality of more commercial farming in India. The Government of India provides insurance against income losses of vulnerable sections arising out of four major reasons such as crop failure, sudden death of family member, unforeseen health expenditure and unexpected death of cattle. This paper intends to identify various schemes and arrangements for the Livestock Insurance in India. It also narrates the financial structure and availability of livestock insurance in Indian context. The last portion narrates the policy recommendations for the development of this sector.
Silkworm Rearing: The silkworm of multivoltine race (Nistari-M) were reared as per the specification and schedule maintained in FAO Manual, Volume – II with mulberry leaves of S1, S1635 and Lune40 varieties separately and named as Test T1 (rearing with S1 leaves), T2 (rearing with S1635 leaves) and T3 (rearing with Lune 40 leaves). Each test group was subdivided into three replications, viz, R1, R2 and R3. After third instars of silkworm rearing, 600 (six hundred) worms for each test batch (200 in each replications) were kept in every crop for late age rearing. Some amount of mulberry leaves were used for feeding worms of each test batch.
opportunities of marketing milk.The paper concludes that the complete success story because there are basic limitation which sevenly constrain the effectiveness of various programmes and policies.The most crusial among there is the scarcity of most essential input feed. The cattle sector in the state is dependent exclusively on the supply of paddy straw.Which is the only source of roughage.coarse grains like millet and sorghum,oilseed and nitrogen rich pulses are pratically unimportnt in Kerala's agriculture.Because of the shift in the cropping pattern in favour of plantation and perennialcrops the area under paddy has been dwindling and concequantly the supply of paddy straw fall short of demand.Green fodde ,on the other hand is yet to be incorporated as part of states cropping system.Added to this the heavy demographic pressure on land which makes it difficult to divert land under food and cash crops to fodder crops.The concequances of this constraint are also reflected in the cattle economy of the state viz the flow increase in the productivity milch animals.The paper suggest that the small and marginal farmers and agricultural labours for whom livestock provide a supplimentry sourse income need to be educated in scientific method of rearing ,feeding and management of animals.
participation is a lack of interest and a lack of perceived benefits.
For most interviewed villagers, the GP does not have any role in planning for the development of their village. For instance, in Bankura, half of interviewed farmers do not know what is the village development plan – though some of them participate to the gram sabha meetings. Some issues of concern to farmers, like water scarcity, are discussed, but farmers feel they have difficulties to make their voices heard (group discussion, January 2010). In the case study area of Bankura, many hamlets are under one GP and there is not a member of the GP in every village. In Etawah District, the participation of interviewed farmers to the gram sabha meetings is relatively higher than in the other districts. Farmers attend the meetings to receive information on crops, seeds and agricultural practices. They do not perceive the GP as a representative organisation responding to their needs but as an executive agent which role is limited to ensure the cleanliness of the streets, install hand pumps and build roads (semi-structured household interviews, June 2009). The gram sabha meetings currently do not provide a venue for discussing rural development or the specific issues they feel need to be addressed to improve or sustain their livelihoods. Similarly, interviewed heads of the GP perceive the role of the GP as implementing government schemes and distributing benefits – i.e. a top down approach rather than the bottom up process claimed by the government.
Carnivore-Caused Livestock Mortality in Trans-Himalaya Tsewang Namgail Æ Joseph L. Fox Æ Yash Veer Bhatnagar
Ó Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007
Abstract The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessi- bility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanc- tuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses signifi-
In conclusion, access to veterinarian services, vaccinations and improved alimentation result in enhanced livestock care, which is perceived positively as reducing animal sicknesses (FG women Bous.; Interviews: man O, Bog.; woman Z, Bog.; woman A, K.B.; amongst others). These practices counteract animal and thus financial losses, as animals are kept as a security, as valuable assets that complement agricultural crop production. Driven by a growing and profitable livestock market, livestock keeping and selling are increasingly important in local crop-livestock systems, being used to compensate bad harvests and allowing farmers to meet their needs and responsibilities, most importantly in relation to their households’ alimentation, health and education. Still, access to and ownership possibilities of livestock are constructed very differently for men and women, as livestock keeping is commonly perceived as a male activity. While women frequently own animals by themselves or jointly with their husbands in all research sites, female animal ownership is forbidden in some households, or as some interview partners put it, in their “compounds”, which are perceived to be owned and controlled by the (male) household head. Generally, female animal ownership has been observed to be a very recent change, as women mentioned to be allowed by their husbands to own animals since about nine years in Koura-Bagre and only since about four years in Toeghin. But even if women are allowed to keep their own animals, they face specific financial constraints to buying and keeping them. Furthermore marketing of livestock is only practiced by men, which means that women need to pass through a male family member, usually their husband, to be able to buy animals or to sell them in order to receive needed cash. Also, livestock health care has been observed to be a male domain, as it is usually men who communicate with the veterinarian and who take animals to vaccination sites.
control, and harvest. For this crop-soil simulation models are employed to predict crop-level responses to different weather situations and soil moisture conditions. Such models are useful to develop decision support information for weather-based crop management. At the farm level, a series of short-term decisions must be made on the basis of knowledge or forecasts of parameters that are derived from weather forecasts, e.g. soil moisture, phenological development stage etc. In such a case, it is important that the farmer is forewarned about the likely impacts and enabled to mitigate negative impacts through an objective understanding of and nutrient supply, biotic stresses and the time of planting and harvesting of the crop. The AAS system has started using crop models to support crop management decision-making, but substantial improvements in modelling capabilities are needed. CERES and CROPGRO models, for different crops, have been incorporated in the Decision Support System for Agro- technology Transfer (DSSAT) crop systems model for use in crop and irrigation management in some agro-climatic zones. Examples on these aspects have been demonstrated by Aggarwal et al (2006), for tropical regions including Asia, where related user-friendly software has been developed.
Yield prediction plays an important role to decide the economy of farmer as well as the country. It avoids the under and over cropping of the particular crop. The production of not only mustard crop but all the agricultural crops is mainly affected by the weather variables. The changing weather condition affects the growth and development of crop causing intra seasonal yield variability. In addition, with weather variations, the spatial variability and crop management practices also plays a decisive role. As a result, yield forecasting represents an important tool for optimizing crop yield and to evaluate the crop-area insurance contracts. Considering yield variability and importance of rapeseed-mustard for farmers an attempt has been made to develop a homogeneous zone in respect to inter annual weather induced variability with help of this large region yield prediction could be done easily. For this study the 33 districts of erstwhile Uttar Pradesh has been selected and rapeseed-mustard data have been collected for the year 1997-2016. In this study a three steps approach has been adopted;1) the prediction of trend yield, 2) estimation of yield deviation and cluster formation and 3) mapping of the clusters in GIS and creation of homogeneous zones. Then these homogeneous zones created on basis of weather induced variability were used for yield forecasting of mustard in this region.
In Indian semi-arid tropics (SAT) in general and central part i.e. Madhya Pradesh state speciﬁcally; there are large yield gaps in most of the rainfed crops between current farmers’ yields and achievable ones. Soil fertility related degradation due to deﬁciencies of secondary and micronutrients mainly sulphur, boron and zinc in addition to macronutrients is mainly responsible for poor crop productivity, and along with poor hydraulic properties of Vertisols is responsible for about 2 million ha rainy season fallows. Soil health assessment of 11 districts in Madhya Pradesh, India has revealed that in most of the districts only few ﬁelds with adequate levels of sulphur, boron, zinc and phosphorus indicating their widespread low levels. Potassium was in general adequate. Farmers’ current blanket fertilization practices focused at macronutrients viz. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium only, thus does not meet the variable soil fertility needs. Through participatory action research on soil test based fertilizer application, farmers realized beneﬁts in crop productivity to the tune of 5 to 45% in the season of application and additional yield by 5 to 27% due to residual effects of S, B and Zn in succeeding three seasons. An economic assessment showed the balanced nutrition a proﬁtable option in the 1 st season itself. In current rainy fallow regions,
Fodder trees are important feed sources for livestock in a wide range of farming systems in Africa. Researchers, extension services and farmers have developed and promoted fodder tree practices in many different countries and contexts. Fodder trees are particularly important in the highlands of Eastern Africa, where over 200 000 smallholders plant them, mainly to feed dairy cows. They can meet production shortages in times of extreme climatic conditions such as droughts. Fodder trees are easy to grow, require little land, labor or capital, have numerous by-products and often supply feed within a year after planting. Key challenges constraining the uptake of fodder trees include limited species appropriate to different agro- ecological zones, shortages in seed and that farmers lack knowledge and skills needed to grow them.
The production of weight gains by yearling stocker cattle in the US SGP depends on the availability of grazing pastures of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) during fall and spring, perennial warm-season grasses such as Bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and old world bluestems ( Bothriochloa spp.) during summer . However, the nutritive value of forage produced by these perennial grasses declines with maturity in early July, which can limit weight gain by stockers during summer without expensive protein supplements . Based on the highly seasonal and variable growing conditions of the region , and the growth cycles of wheat and perennial warm-season grasses, there is no single crop with the potential to provide high quality forage year-round.
Chauhan et al. 2012). Yield losses were reported for rice grown under saturated soil culture, alternate wetting and drying and aerobic conditions compared to puddled rice, but water use efficiency improved under alternate cropping practices (Wassmann et al. 2009). Experimental field studies have shown that conventional tillage or transplanted rice with zero-tillage has a higher yield than direct seeded zero-tillage rice (Saharawat et al. 2010). The same experiments also highlighted that transplanted zero-tillage rice had equivalent yields but improved water savings compared to conventional tillage rice. Crop yields were lower in direct seeded rice with higher levels of spikelet sterility largely attributed to lower moisture content (Saharawat et al. 2010). Puddled rice crops suppress weed crop growth, thus, reducing competition for resources at the time of crop emergence; these benefits are not realised in direct seeded rice which require higher rates of herbicide application (Saharawat et al. 2010). However, given the poor water use efficiency, high water requirements and water losses via seepage and percolation in puddled rice cropping combined with, limited and diminishing water resources and negative impacts on soil conditions there is need for research to identify optimal synergies between numerous resource conserving practices applicable to rice crops. Direct seeded rice delivers water savings compared to conventional tillage, reduced labour requirements overcoming potential labour shortages in Punjab and Haryana and enables more timely sowing of the wheat crop (Chauhan et al. 2012). The reduced duration of direct seeded rice allows earlier planting of the wheat crop, raising wheat crop yields and, thus, contributing to enhanced system productivity despite lower rice crop yields (Saharawat et al. 2010). There is a need to breed rice cultivars for direct seeding which may generate comparable yields to conventional tilled puddled rice; also enhanced seeding rate for direct seeding can mitigate yield losses due to the increased exposure of seeds to pests, birds and rats (Saharawat et al. 2010; Chauhan et al. 2012). Further research on fertiliser applications could also raise yields in direct seeded rice, it is suggested that timing fertiliser applications closer to anthesis could enhance assimilation into grains and, thus, improve yields (Chauhan et al. 2012).