Abstract: We conducted a survey of 170 streams distributed throughout the mountaintop-miningregion of West Virginia (USA) and linked stream data to a temporally consistent and
comprehensive land-cover data set. We then applied a generalized linear modeling framework and constructed cumulativeeffects models capable of predicting in-stream response to future surface-mine development within the context of other landuse activities. Predictive models provided precise estimates of specific conductance (model R 2 <0.77 and cross-validated R 2 <0.74), Se (0.74 and 0.70), and benthic macroinvertebrate community composition (0.72 and 0.65). Deletion tests supported the conclusion that stream degradation across the region is the result of complex but predictable additive and interactive effects of surface mining, underground mining, and residential development. Furthermore, we found that as stressors other than surface mining are factored out completely, the surface-mining level that results in exceedance of the 300 µS/cm conductivity benchmark increased from 4.4% in the presence of other stressors to 16.6% when only surface mining was present. Last, extrapolating model results to all unsampled stream segments in the region (n = 26,135), we predicted high levels of chemical (33%) and biological (67%) impairment to streams on the current landscape. Of this total impairment, however, <25% could be attributed to surface mining alone. These results underscore the
pacted or destroyed by mountaintopremoval min- ing (see Ref. 36 EIS, Appendix I). Surface mining is converting the large expanses of interior for- est found in Central Appalachia into a fragmented patchwork of smaller forest patches with a higher proportion of forest edge habitat. In numerous stud- ies examining the impacts of urban development or agricultural intensification on streams, authors have suggested that land-cover alteration affecting more than 10% of the watershed area leads to significant losses in stream biodiversity. To date, there have been no studies that explicitly link the cumulative extent of mountaintopmining to the water quality and bi- ological community structure of impacted streams. Such information is critically important for guid- ing regulatory decision making. New research by Petty et al. 90 suggests that mining severity (prox-
changes in the CentralAppalachians during this period were related to coal mining (Sayler, 2011).
Mountaintopremoval, which includes the formation of valley fills, is a form of surface mining. The EPA defines this type of mining as “removal of mountaintops to expose coal seams, and disposing of the associated mining overburden in adjacent valleys” (U.S. EPA, 2013). Mountaintopremoval and valley fill (MTR/VF) mining is very controversial due to the known negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems and the environment. MTR/VF mining was introduced in the 1970’s as a response to the oil crisis. MTR/VF is preferred over other techniques since it is a relatively efficient and inexpensive way to extract coal to meet high demands. The environmental concerns regarding MTR/VF led to the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act in 1977 (SMCRA). The purpose of the act is to establish a set of standards to mitigate the effects on the environment from surface mining. Although MTR/VF has become much more prevalent in the past two decades, the long-term effect of this technique is still largely unknown.
areal units such as census tracts, ZCTA is disadvantageous in two aspects: (1) ZCTAs are irregular shapes and in some of the tiny ZCTAs, their SMRs are possible outliers because of extremely small number of residences; (2) fewer socioeconomic factors were available at the ZIP code level and therefore we may fail to adjust for some confounding effects in our study. In addition, through calculating expected mortalities in each ZCTA, we adjusted for sex and age as potential confounding effects to the mortality risks, but ignored other demographic confounders, for example, race. Based on our experience, black people are highly segregated in the Pittsburgh region and clustered around the downtown area, one of the hot spots for air pollutants (Figure 27 ). Such a spatial coincidence between air pollutants and race groups may confound our estimation of pollutants’ mortality risks.
Sports involving impact to the head such as American football, boxing and ice hockey provide an opportunity to explore the effects of multiple concussions. Peerless and Rewcastle  noted that boxers appear to make a rapid and full recovery from a single slight concussion, but after repeated episodes, there is a gradual appearance of permanent sequelae. The risk of sustaining a concussion in American football has been reported to be four-to-six times greater if the player has already sustained a concussion . Permanent brain injuries due to multiple concussions have been reported in ice hockey players . In a study employing neuropsychological testing, researchers suggested that cumulativeeffects of concus- sion might be detectable in amateur soccer (i.e. Association football) players ; however, other researchers have reported no adverse effects associated with partic- ipation in competitive soccer . In a large study involving college American football players, athletes with a history of two or more concussions reported more preseason (i.e. baseline) symptoms, and they performed more poorly on two tests designed to measure information processing speed than athletes with no previous concussions . In the most frequently cited study, Gronwall and Wrightson  reported that trauma patients, some with multiple concussions, scored significantly lower on an auditory processing task than patients with only one concussion. In addition, a recent study demonstrated statistical differences in post-concussion symptoms and cognitive event-related potentials at baseline for young amateur hockey players with zero versus three or more concussions .
Both Vicki Holzer and Eron Howell have expressed an interest in managing Old Glory for 2009. The site and date have yet to be determined. Memorial Day weekend will not be used next year due to the CentralRegion Cham- pionship being held at the Jo Tate ride the same weekend. 7. The meeting adjourned at 6:30 p.m.
Midstream Hg, AS, Pb, Zn
Table 4: Sampling structure of communities under study
3.4 Research Design
The study also considered field survey for getting its primary field data. Individuals considered to be involved in “Galamsey” activities were contacted and these individuals were able to give very specific locations where the activities were done within the communities. This approach was considered very suitable because it offered the opportunity to meet directly with people involved in “Galamsey” operations. It should be stressed here however that, not all people were willing to talk. In several instances, I had to keep searching for people to give me information, which changed my sampling strategy to “who was willing to talk”. This approach was to help collect water samples to answer our first research question which was, to find out the concentrations of Mercury, Arsenic, Zinc, and Iron in the Offin River at certain specific communities located in the centralregion of Ghana and to determine which of these towns have higher concentrations of these metals aforementioned and possible reasons why. Analysis of response from questionnaire also helped to achieve this objective.
The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has become fairly commonplace within both the hospital and community setting. The removal of these devices is often a task performed without much teaching and the procedure to follow is passed on from one nurse to another with little or no research on which to base actions. This article describes the potential complications associated with CVC removal and methods to prevent them. It will also give the nurse research-based procedures to follow when removing the various types of CVC. These written procedures should be used as a training guideline only. Practical training and supervision until competent is still required.
lone example of an Indiana bat maternity colo- ny from the High Allegheny Mountain region of West Virginia, USA, where climate condi- tions were believed too cool to support a colo- ny (Brack et al. 2002), occurred following an intense, stand-changing wildfire in West Vir- ginia (Johnson et al. 2010). That being said, evidence of improved habitat conditions for bats from prescribed burning as a forest man- agement or ecosystem restoration tool is large- ly circumstantial. Although it is reasonable to posit benefits of fire to bats, in the absence of measures of bat recruitment and survival or changes in physiologic condition, most re- searchers have concluded that their data con- clusively reveals only the plasticity of many bat species to readily use burned landscapes as opposed to any conferred ecological advantage (Boyles and Aubrey 2006, Johnson et al. 2009, Johnson et al. 2010, Karp 2013). Nonetheless, some negative aspects of fire relative to bats in the East have been raised. Though believed to be an uncommon occurrence, smoke entry into caves and mines from dormant-season burning when bats are hibernating has been noted (Car- ter et al. 2002). For non-hibernating migra- tory species such as the eastern red bat (Lasi- urus borealis Müller), potential mortality from the inability to rouse from torpor while ground-roosting during dormant-season burn- ing in the upper and mid-South could occur (Perry 2012). Dickinson et al. (2010) showed that smoke and heating during early growing season fires in the centralAppalachians could exceed acceptable physiological thresholds for the northern long-eared bat. Rodrigue et al. (2001) observed that Myotine bats day-roost- ing in trees are disturbed during burning as flames approach roost sites.
For a large forested watershed, climatic variability and for- est disturbance are two primary drivers of hydrological vari- ation. In order to separate the effects of climate variability and forest disturbance on annual mean flow, the “modified double mass curve” developed by Wei and Zhang (2010b) was used to eliminate the influence of climatic variability on annual mean flow. According to the annual watershed water balance, streamflow is determined by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, because change in soil water storage over an annual scale can be assumed to be con- stant and minor (Zhang et al., 2001). Thus, we firstly de- fined an integrated climatic index named “effective precipi- tation” (Pe) for streamflow generation, referring to the differ- ence between precipitation and evapotranspiration (Wei and Zhang, 2010b). The annual evapotranspiration was estimated by Eq. (1) (Zhang et al., 2001), a modification of Budyko’s evaporation made by adding the additional vegetation factor w, which has been proven to be a sound solution for wa- tershed scale evapotranspiration estimation (Donohue et al., 2007; Li et al., 2007; Oudin et al., 2008). Given the limited long-term data in this large watershed, the Hargreaves equa- tion (Hargreaves and Samani, 1985) was applied to compute potential evapotranspiration (Eq. 2). It requires only mean, minimum and maximum air temperature, and extraterres- trial radiation (Shuttleworth, 1993; Sankarasubramanian et al., 2001), which are available for the study watershed. E = P [ 1 + w(E 0 /P ) ] / [ 1 + w(E 0 /P ) + P /E 0 ] (1)
In EC process, the electrodes of Al and Fe were used. They are easily available, low cost, and undergo better dissolution . The published data of some authors pointed out to the benefits of Fe electrodes, while others pointed out to the advantages of using Al anodes. It is also pointed out that Fe is relatively cheaper . Fe forms more denser flocks of coagulated contaminants as compared to Al because it is heavy in mass . Furthermore, Fe has better complex formation nature with inorganic/organic pollutants than Al . However, it is also reported that Al/Al electrode combinations effectively utilized for the removal of dyes and Fe/Fe electrode worked better for COD and phenol removal, while Al/Fe and Fe/Al electrode combinations were successfully applied for the treatment of paper mill wastewater . It is found that around 9 carbon atoms are complexed by one Fe atom, whereas 3 carbon atoms are allowed for complexation by an Al atom. It is also determined that ‘‘coordination’’ numbers of Fe or Al largely depend on the wastewater to be treated. Therefore, the efficiency of the type of electrode is depend upon the type of effluent . In this work Fe-Fe electrode system provided the data of higher removal of Y145 dye as compared to Al-Al electrode system. Therefore, Fe-Fe electrode system will be proved more effective for the removal of the dye in the real effluent.
emerging adults due to (a) the research showing that many disorders develop in adolescence, (b) the higher rates of substance use and suicidality, (c) the low reported rates of condom use, and (d) the overall increased usage of mental health services through hospitals, particularly EDs in rural communities. Based on the extant research on the rates of anxiety, substance use, and suicide in adolescents in rural Appalachia, the physical health consequences of mining and MTR, the relationship between physical and mental health, and the findings from research on the mental health consequences of environmental disasters in rural areas, it was hypothesized that there were a higher odds of adolescent and emerging adult ED cases diagnosed with self-harm, substance abuse, and STIs within rural areas, Appalachia, and communities with MTR
My research concentrates on tools working with cumulative effect. Its objective consists in modeling the mode of effect by finite element method and intelligent mathematical software, simulation of the process, and comparison of results with practical results.
Creation of the model is the most difficult and most important part of the engineering. A well created model allows simulation of the explosion process which can be well applied in designing firearms, their ammunitions, in development and modernization of existing firearms. Simulation is absolutely necessary for optimization and analysis of the product.
field acts on the charged particles in the shower in a process called the geomagnetic effect, separating the particles and creating a changing current, and thus electromagnetic radiation. Additionally, particle separation due to excess charge creates currents within the particle shower, called Askaryan radiation . Both these effects generate coherent radio-frequency radiation, and the strength and polarization of this radiation is influenced both by the total charge of the shower and the Earth’s magnetic field . Additionally, the electric field strength of the impulse scales linearly with the energy of the original parti- cle and the inverse of the distance. The field strength also depends strongly on the angle of measurement from the original interaction, with signal strength decreasing away from the Cherenkov angle given by cos θ C = βn 1 where n is the refractive index of the material and β = v/c . These impulses can be
In Chapter 3, we have seen that individual-specific models are suitable when individual traces are very dense but fail to predict the behavior of individuals for which we have few data samples. In this chapter, we are interested in the modeling challenges faced when data about the behavior of each individual is very sparse. This can be the case, for example, when the sampling rate is very low or the observation period very short. In such scenarios, the naive approach of building independent individual models fails because generalizing from few samples leads to severe over-fitting. We can, however, take advantage of the collective behavior in order to enhance individual models. This solution comes at the price of a simplifying yet reasonable hypothesis: We assume that individuals can be assigned to mobility groups so that individuals of the same group share similar mobility patterns. To illustrate this approach, we present our work about the modeling of population mobility based on the analysis of Call-Data Records of Orange customers in Ivory Coast. This mobility model is then used to anticipate and influence the mobility of individuals in order to mitigate effectively the spread of an epidemic.