Black-tailedGodwitsbreeding in France are found in a rather small number of sites, almost all of which are Special Protec- tion Areas (Robin & Dulac in press). With 80 pairs, Marais Breton (36,000 ha) in Vendée is the site with the largest population (Robin & Dulac in press). This may relate to the mosaic of habitats available there (Fig. 3A). Adults nest in the slightly raised grasslands, but often move with their chicks to flooded areas or freshly dried pools (Fig. 4A). The small sizes of agricultural fields and low-intensity farming allow for patches of tall vegetation where chicks can feed and hide. Although pairs preferentially use freshwater habitat for nest- ing, some go to the shoreline of saltmarshes with their chicks. Marais Poitevin, 85 km further south, is a wetland of 100,000 ha on the southern border of Vendée. Previously known to support large flocks of staging waders in spring (Joyeux & Guéret 2010), since 1960 this wetland has been transformed, dammed and drained to make way for large- scale intensive cultivation (cereal growing). Here, most pairs are located in patches within Special Protection Areas where
Sheep farming is an integral part of the national economy of Russia. Sheep breeding in some cases the only source of such products as wool, lamb, milk, sheepskins, hides, lard, lanolin. Analyzing the changes in the industry over recent years, it should be noted that in the first place, stopped in the country, the decline in the number of sheep and goats. In 10 years, a critical minimum of 14.8 million head, which was celebrated in the country in 1999, managed to increase the number of sheep and goats in all categories of farms of more than 7 million head. To date, the total number of sheep and goats in all categories of farms of more than 22 million head. By 2020, it should be 27 million sheep and lamb production in slaughter weight - 220 thousand tons. (The national Union of sheep breeding, 2015). The low level of production quality lamb in the formation of a cold balance of the country puts the Russian Federation in the dependence on foreign countries with highly- developed meat specialization. (Aboneyev at al., 2011) The largest sheep population in the world are bred in China - 138,9 million, India is 74.5 million Australia - 73.1 million and Sudan - 39.3 million In Russia at that period there were 19.8 million heads. China produces lamb more than Australia, New Zealand, UK, India and Turkey combined. Its share in world production of mutton is 24.9%. Together all of the aforementioned countries, including the Sudan (2,6%) and Russia (2,1%) produce more than half of world production of mutton 52,3%. There are several countries that produce more than 100 tons of mutton per year. Syria, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, France and Iran, their total share in the world production of lamb is 1094,7 thousand tons or 13.3%.
Only three COI barcode haplotypes were found within L. l. limosa, 92% of all samples and showed the same haplotype. The L.l. islandica contained only a single haplotype where L. l. melanuroides showed two different haplotypes. The lack of subspecific variation in COI barcode has been noted for other bird species, too, with various explanations being given, including selective sweeps or genetic drift through population bottlenecks . However, because the HVR data did contain variation, we suggest that for our case it is probably an artefact of the lower substitution rate in COI compared to the HVR region of the mtDNA [6,62]. How the lower substitution rate for COI for birds compared to other groups might be explained is another matter. Even though the resolution exhibited by the COI barcode is less than the resolution of the HVR data, the subspecies are distinguishable by both parts of the mtDNA. L. l. limosa is divided into two large star-like haplotype clusters in the HVR median joining network. These clusters are not supported geographically, as both haplotype clusters are present at nearly all the L. l. limosa sample locations. The two L. l. limosa haplotype clusters in the HVR mtDNA (Figure 4; cluster a and b) do not completely correspond with the L. l. limosa genetic groups found in the nuDNA (Figure 2). Interestingly, both mtDNA regions (COI, HVR) show genetic differentiation between one L. l. melanuroides haplotype and L. l. limosa individuals to be much higher than that between L. l. limosa and L. l. islandica individuals. A single individual from Iceland (H072) contains a HVR haplotype that closely resembles that of L. l. limosa individuals. To confirm that this was not due to contamination, we re-examined the microsatellite results from this extract. The microsatellite genotype of H072 was unique and contamination of the extract was thus ruled out; the lowest genetic distance found in all pairwise comparisons with H072 was 8 differences. Furthermore, we repeated the HVR PCR and sequencing for this sample twice, with no change in the results. This could have been caused by a misidentification of a L. l. limosa individual as a L. l. islandica. While this individual was caught on its nest in Iceland which is a location believed to harbour breeding L. l. islandica only, a recently published paper demonstrates the overlap of migration routes of L. l. islandica and L. l. limosa, and advocate that current overlap in breeding areas is also possible . Furthermore, they demon- strate that identifying L. l. limosa individuals from L. l. islandica individuals based purely on morphological differences sometimes fails, due to the highly polymorphic nature of Black-tailedGodwits . If H072 was indeed misidentified this would mean that L. l. limosa individuals are breeding at L. l. islandica breeding location and might even hybridize with L. l. islandica individuals. The fact that H072 was not partitioned in the L. l. limosa cluster in the
Regardless of what created them, three distinct migration patterns are apparent among Dutch-breedinggodwits and this complicates an already difficult and deteriorating conservation scenario. Agricultural inten- sification in Dutch meadows has been widely identified as playing a significant role in the reduction of breeding success and overall population declines in Dutch-breed- ing Black-tailedGodwits (Kentie et al. 2013). It also could play a significant, but as yet unknown, role in the ability of adults to obtain sufficient fuel resources before their southward migration given their apparent use of agricultural habitats during this period (Piersma et al. unpubl. data). The extent of available habitat at major spring stopover sites in France has declined in recent years – one of the two sites used by individuals in this study (Baie de l’Aiguillon, France) has lost more than 50% of its wet grasslands to the cultivation of corn – and when combined with continued late-summer hunting pressure may mean that these sites do not provide sufficient resources for adult godwits during this period (Kuijper et al. 2006). Coastal sites in Spain, Portugal, and Morocco are facing similar fates as more and more freshwater is diverted to agriculture, reduc- ing both overall habitat quantity and quality, as the freshwater wetlands required by L. l. limosa are turned brackish (Kuijper et al. 2006). Inland sites, such as the rice fields of Extremadura, Spain, and the estuarine ricefields of the Sado and Tejo rivers, Portugal, are currently more stable and artificially maintained (Lourenço & Piersma 2009). However pressure from illegal hunting, potential changes in agricultural prac- tices, and the lack of alternatives makes reliance on these sites unsatisfactory in the long-term (Lourenço & Piersma 2009, N.R. Senner pers. obs.). Finally, the rice fields and wetlands in West Africa that provide winter- ing habitat for the majority of Dutch-breedinggodwits are changing. Coastal rice fields and natural wetlands in the Senegal River Delta – which were used by 10 of the 13 godwits that spent the winter in West Africa in this study – have been reduced in size by more than half since the 1980s (Wymenga & Zwarts 2010).
Anthropogenic alteration of natural wetlands is having a major impact worldwide with consequences (both negative and positive) for migratory species such as continental black-tailedgodwits. The majority of continental black-tailedgodwits breed in grassland meadows situated in north-west and Eastern Europe (March – July) after which they migrate southwards for the non-breeding period (mid July – February), finding forage resources within wetlands and agricultural rice fields. On their migratory route black-tailedgodwits pass through France and either stage or spend the non- breeding period in southern Spain and Portugal. Many will make the Saharan crossing to overwintering sites in West Africa, namely; the Senegal Delta and coastal region of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone and central Mali.
The Dutch breeding population of Black-tailed Godwit Limosalimosa has been decreasing for several decades (Teunissen & Soldaat 2006). More intensive conservation measures than included in the current agri-environment schemes (Kleijn et al. 2001; Verhulst et al. 2007; Willems et al. 2004) seem necessary to maintain viable populations on farmland (outside reserves), where at the mo- ment still about two thirds of the Dutch popula- tion breeds. In answer to this realization, three NGO’s in the field of bird and nature conservation protection and agri-environment projects (Vo- gelbescherming Nederland, Landschapsbeheer Nederland and Natuurlijk Platteland Nederland) initiated the project ‘Nederland-Gruttoland’. Dur- ing 2003-2005, an experimental form of collective ‘mosaic management’ was put into practice, that was designed to be compatible with modern dairy farming yet yield suitable conditions for reproduction of meadow birds, especially Black- tailedgodwits. Aims of the project were (1) to demonstrate that this form of management is economically feasible within the farm practice, and (2) to test whether it is effective for God- wits.
number and the year of selected seedlings release, the name of a hybrid family in parentheses, for example, “5-012 (23 x 15).” This record means: the selected hybrid seedling was the fifth; it was selected in 2012 from a family 23 x 15. The numbers 23 and 15 correspond to the notes written in the journal of hybridization, indicating maternal and paternal plants. Then the breeder indicates in another special register the number of seedlings, its detailed description, its location on the plot, and the name of the hybrid family. If the inflorescence of the selective seedling was cut, the label should be tied close to the soil in order to avoid losing it while digging. When digging corms and cormlets of selected seedlings all of them should be collected including the smallest ones, because they also are the valuable breeding material. It is important not to commingle the corms and cormlets of other gladiolus cultivar.
Poisoning is one of several ways to address any damage caused by black-tailed prairie dogs. Grain bait treated with zinc phosphide is one of the most commonly used and available poisons in South Dakota. One prairie dog colony acre requires 1/3 to one pound of zinc phosphide poison, depending on prairie dog density (Andelt 2006). Success rates of zinc phosphide vary depending on application and colony poisoning history (Hygnstrom and Virchow 1994, Tietjen 1976). Thus, variability in poisoning effectiveness may irregularly affect the colony signature interpreted from an aerial photograph. Uresk and Schenbeck (1987) determined, however, that the change in colony size after poisoning could be determined via aerial photographs due to vegetative growth on burrow-entrance mounds. This vegetative growth, however, may take years (Uresk and Schenbeck (1987), resulting in an
We collected small ( ≈ 1mm 3 ) skin samples from toe-pads of museum skins of 34 godwits from the years 1901–1931 from the Zoological Museum in Copenhagen. The skins were all collected at sites in Denmark. DNA from the skin samples was extracted with DNeasy TISSUE Kits from QIAGEN following the manufacturers’ protocol in an archive-DNA clean laboratory at the Royal Ontario Museum (see e.g. Baker et al., 2005). Birds were sexed with the primers M5 (Bantock et al., 2008) and P8 (Griffiths et al., 1998), which prime for a shorter amplicon of the intron than the combination P2 and P8 (Bantock et al., 2008). The benefit of this method is that it has a higher success chance in partially degraded museum DNA. More importantly, it was shown to contain the same genetic polymorphism of the CHD1-Z in moorhens (Bantock et al., 2008). We ran negative controls in both the DNA extraction and PCR to exclude arti- facts. To verify that the genetic polymorphism observed with this new primer is the same as the one measured with the method of Griffiths et al., (1998), we additionally genotyped seven female (two with the Z* allele) and six male (three of them with the Z* allele) contemporary DNA samples with known genotypes as controls with this method. For each contemporary bird, only data of one capture occasion was used to prevent pseudoreplication. Body mass variation can result from variation in size or variation in nutritional stores (van der Meer & Piersma, 1994), and to differentiate between these two possibilities we estimated size-corrected body mass (hereafter called ‘condition’). Step-wise linear regression was carried out with body mass as dependent variable and tarsus-toe length as predictor variable and sex as fixed factor. We used the standardized residuals of this analysis as an index of condition (F 2,275 = 300.2, R 2 = 0.69, P< 0.001). Data on all plumage traits (bars score, orange score, white head, white spots, black spots, back score, breeding feathers) were combined in a principal compo- nent analysis. We extracted only factors with eigenvalues >1. The first two principal components (PC1, PC2) explained 63% of the variation in plumage traits (PCA: KMO = 0.74, χ 2 = 631.96, P < 0.001). Birds that scored high on PC1 had more breeding feathers on their back, were more orange and had a larger extent of black bars on their belly; they also had less white plumage in head and neck. Birds that scored high on PC2 had more black spots on their neck. Principal component scores were normally distributed. We found no significant effects of PC2 and therefore do not report on this component from here onwards.
Long-tailed tits spend the non-breeding season in family groups of 10^15 birds, who occupy a £ock range. Flocks break up in early spring; males occupy part of the £ock range, and females either disperse to other ranges to ¢nd a partner or remain within the £ock range and pair with a male from that £ock. All birds start the season breeding independently in pairs, but nest failure is frequent (Hatchwell et al. 1999), and if a pair fails after early May they may become helpers by moving either individually or together to help another pair care for their o¡spring by feeding nestlings (Gaston 1973; Glen & Perrins 1988). All pairs breeding in each study site were known, and the majority (80^90%) of birds in each population were colour- ringed before breeding started. Pairs were readily identi¢ed during breeding because both sexes build the nest, the male feeds the incubating female on the nest, and both sexes feed the nestlings. Furthermore, paired males and females maintain close contact when foraging (mean distance between partners outside the fertile period ˆ 7.2 § 2.8 m, n ˆ 24 pairs), and helpers appear only during the nestling period. Therefore, we are con¢dent that we assigned all pairings correctly. We monitored the breeding success of all pairs in the study populations (see
Our understanding of evolution has been transformed in the 50 years since Hamilton  published his seminal paper on inclusive fitness theory. Hamilton’s insight that selection operates on genes that share common interests with copies of themselves carried by other individuals revolutionized the study of social evol- ution in its broadest sense [2–5]. Among its many consequences for the field of evolutionary biology, Hamilton’s conceptual leap motivated the instigation of many long-term field studies of avian and mammalian cooperative breeding systems [6,7]. One of the earliest themes to emerge from these studies, leading to the early acceptance of the process of kin selection as a key driver of vertebrate sociality, was that cooperative breeding involving apparently altruistic care by non-breeders generally occurs within family groups. The factors promoting the formation of family groups have been extensively reviewed elsewhere [8–12], but regardless of the phylogenetic, ecological and life-history correlates of cooperation, relatedness is a very common (although not universal) feature of such systems [13,14]. This view has been reinforced by recent studies demon- strating that cooperative breeding systems are characterized by low promiscuity [15,16], a pattern that is also evident in the most complex and sophisticated societies, found among eusocial insects, that have evolved via a ‘monogamy window’ [17,18].
Heavy livestock grazing has had detrimental effects on some winter-spring Mule Deer ranges, but many cattle ranges in the southern interior are now covered by coordinated range management plans. However, many spring deer ranges are on private lands that have become less suitable for deer because of heavy grazing by cattle. In these areas, it could be beneficial to provide land owners with more information about the role their lands play in the survival of Mule and Black-tailed deer.
In species where sexes are morphologically difficult to distinguish, molecular intronic markers have been used to assign sex (Griffiths et al. 1996; 1998, Ellrich et al. 2010, Saino et al. 2010). The Chromo- Helicase-DNA Binding (CHD1) gene, present on both the Z (CDH1-Z) and W-chromosome (CDH1-W) in birds, is widely used for this purpose. By simultaneous Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the CDH1-Z and CDH1-W loci are amplified and the length difference between the resulting allele fragments is used to distinguish male and female genotypes. Males will show two allele fragments of the same length (ZZ), whereas females will show allele fragments of different size (ZW). There are an increas- ing number of studies reporting length variation in the PCR-amplified fragments of the CHD1-Z locus (Dawson et al. 2001, Montell et al. 2001, Lee et al. 2002, Agate et al. 2004, Jarvi and Farias 2006, Casey et al. 2009, Schroeder et al. 2010), variation that is expected to be selectively neutral. Nevertheless, other studies have reported correlations between intraspecific variation in the CHD1-Z gene and fitness components. In Common Moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) a polymorphism in the CHD1-Z gene was associated with increased mortality in heterozygous male chicks (Lee et al. 2002). In Ovenbirds a polymorphism in the CHD1-Z gene was found to correlate with male body mass (Toms et al. 2012). In Black-tailedGodwits (Limosalimosalimosa), normally amplified CHD1-W and CHD1-Z alleles fragment have lengths of 393 and 378 bp, respectively, whereas a polymorphism on the CHD1-Z gene resulted in a third possible allele fragment of 374 bp (Z*) (Schroeder et al. 2010). Accordingly, Black-tailed Godwit males have three different genotypes (ZZ, ZZ* or Z*Z*) and females two (ZW, Z*W). Based on a sample of 284 Black-tailedGodwits from Friesland, The Netherlands, the rare Z* allele appeared to be positively associated with several fitness components, but homozygote Z*Z*genotypes were not found. Males and females with the Z* allele had less extensive breeding plumage, and females bred earlier and had larger eggs than birds without the Z* allele. There was also an association with breeding habitat type, such that in areas managed as meadowbird reserves (extensively agricultural land) the Z* allele was found in 14% of the birds whereas no birds with the Z*allele were found in modern, intensively managed agricultural land.
Breeding of Black Slavonian pigs on the family farm Marić
Summary: BreedingBlack Slavonian pig is an autochthonous breed of pigs formed in the second half of the19th century in the area of Osijek-Baranja county. This breed has been the most significant breed in Croatia until the first half of the 20th century. Because of its lower production properties in the first half of the 20th century, the breed was suppressed from cultivation by modern breeds and high-performance hybrids. Nevertheless, in the last ten years, the number of breeders of this breed has increased and it began to be valorized through the production of dried meat products. The dried meat products of this breed are good quality and can ensure competitiveness for the manufacturer. Marić family farm from Bilje that breeds Black Slavonian pigs and convert them into dried meat products are examples of good practice.
Throughout the calibration, glacier extent, surface elevation and debris cover were prescribed from observations, in order to capture three important feedback mechanisms: 1 ) the positive
climate-elevation feedback, 2) the negative feedback due to glacier retreat and 3) the negative feedback due to increasing debris cover. The positive climate-elevation feedback is caused by glacier thinning, which exposes the glacier surface to higher temperatures (and lower precipitation), which in turn increases the thinning further. In contrast, glacier retreat exerts a negative feedback on glacier mass balance, as the deglacierized areas are lowest in elevation and thus characterized by mass balances below the glacier wide average (due to debris cover, the mass balances of the deglacierized areas are not necessarily most negative). With the glacier wide mass balance more positive after the retreat, future retreat is suppressed, exerting a negative feedback. Finally, glacier thinning enables fast debris accumulation on the glacier surface, due to more intense gravitational processes (which add more debris to the glacier) and decreasing ice flow (which slows down debris evacuation). Growing debris layers (thick in the case of Black Rapids Glacier) in turn will moderate melt and thus thinning, decelerating further debris accumulation and thus exerting a negative feedback. The three feedbacks affect the geodetic balances, and in the case of the climate-elevation feedback also the in situ mass balance measurements (due to the elevation lowering of the index sites). To facilitate a meaningful calibration, the feedbacks were included in the model through our time series of glacier extent, surface elevation and debris cover. Upon completion of the surface mass balance model calibration, we ran the glacier model without prescribing the glacier evolution (extent, surface elevation) from observations.
Une vaste étude conduite entre 2010 et 2012 a permis de dresser un état des lieux de “la semence biologique en France”. Les résultats concordent avec l’hypothèse que les débouchés commerciaux des cultures de ventes conditionnent les choix de semences et les types de variétés utilisées (variétés anciennes, locales ou modernes). Les pratiques et attentes des producteurs approvisionnant les circuits courts de distribution diffèrent radicalement de celles des producteurs approvisionnant les circuits longs. Cette étude montre que l’offre et l’utilisation des semences biologiques se sont significativement améliorées entre 2009 et 2011. La grande majorité des producteurs biologiques utilise volontiers des semences biologiques avec en moyenne, une part comprise entre 45 et 70% pour les cultures de céréales et entre 75% et 100% en maraichage. Toutefois, le nombre total de dérogations à l’utilisation de semences biologiques reste élevé en France : une marge de progrès est possible pour améliorer l’offre et l’utilisation des semences biologiques. A cet effet, des freins et leviers ont été identifiés au cours de l’étude. L’ensemble de ce travail a débouché sur un plan d’action comportant un volet économique, un volet recherche-développement et un volet réglementaire. L’ensemble du secteur de l’AB dépend du développement d’une offre en semences biologique large et adaptée.