2. Haramaya University, College of Agriculture, School of Animal and Range Science, P.O.Box; 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
The objective of this paper was to review the currentdynamics of animalconservation and development in developed and developingcountries. The global population is expected to increase from 6.2 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050 year. Reports indicated that currently 7040 local breeds of animal diversity have been identified in the world in which most of these have been found in developingcountries. Food production to support the ever increasing population needs to increase by at least 60% and 85% globally and in developingcountries respectively. Reports have shown that high producing livestock breeds have been increased while suppressing the low producing animals regardless of their adaptability to the changing environment. Various scholars indicated that the risk status of 36% of animal breeds remained in a questionable event not because of natural selection but human case. Besides; references have shown that there were experiences of fast structural change with high proportions of breeds at-risk and already extinct confirmed to include 38% of chicken, 35% of pig, 33% of horse, and 31% of cattle breeds globally. Plus, Scholars have approved that there are many breeds listed under endangered such as African penguin, African wild dog, Ethiopian wolf, Ethiopian sheko cattle, Ethiopian Dinnar donkey, Asian elephant and Persian leopard. Similarly, evidences have explained that the American paddlefish, Fossa, whale shark, Mountain zebra and cheetah found to be under vulnerable conditions. .Many researchers have noticed that most animalconservation programs and methods have been developed suited to developedcountries. References have indicated that livestock could
In order to find out what NMAs should and can do, we have looked for examples of initiatives pursued by NMAs (or other medical organisations) which are somehow related, directly or indirectly, explicitly or not, to the right to health and MDGs. We have also done a brief literature review on the moral grounds and practical motives for such work. Given the limits of time and resources at our disposal, we have not produced an in depth study of the moral and practical foundations of the NMAs role. Nor is the list of initiatives we present as examples of good practice comprehensive. We could also not visit the initiatives and interview the people affected to establish if they actually work in practice. Within the limits of a desk review such as this, we have rather tried to highlight a few examples of activities we managed to retrieve which, at first sight, seem to be going in the right direction and could perhaps be emulated by other NMAs.
For many countries, the tourism sector represents a significant source of economic growth. The positive effect of tourism on local and national economies depends on the nature of the tourism product: a bundle of goods and services, the majority of which are location specific. As a result, the economic impact of tourism is linked to its unique characteristics: an ample and interrelated set of locally provided services directly and indirectly linked to the tourist experience (accommodation, restaurants, bars, cultural attractions, local transports, health services, waste management, and so on). From an empirical point of view, the impact of the tourism sector at a regional and national level has been widely explored by scholars. Many of these scholars investigate the Tourism-Led-Growth (TLG) hypothesis, which specifically refers to the economic impact of international tourism arrivals, receipts, or consumption in developed or developingcountries. A fundamental literature review of TLG empirical analysis has been performed by Sinclair (1998); however, since the 1990s, the number of studies on this topic has increased remarkably (Bimonte et al., 2012). The majority of TLG studies focus on a single country; however, a few consider more extensive samples (for European countries, see Paci and Marrocu, 2014; for countries worldwide, see Lee and Chang, 2008, and Figini and Vici, 2010). Overall, applied research reaches the conclusion that the relationship between tourism and economic growth is positive and particularly robust when countries are small or specialize in tourism (Vanegas and Croes, 2003, Brau et al., 2007).
The field of Information and Communication Technologies and Develop- ment (ICTD) examines the relationship between contemporary information and communication technology (ICT)s and societal development. By defi- nition, such inquiry requires not only a deep understanding of the ICTs as artefacts and systems themselves, but also direct engagement with the nature of development. An initial review of ICTD literature indicates that there is a lack of explicit engagement with the nature of development, and with existing development theories from other fields, in ICTD literature. Rather, develop- ment is often treated as a “black box” that can be incorporated into an ICTD study without much further interrogation. This is problematic in light of (i) the rich and complex historical discourse surrounding development, (ii) the persistently contested nature of development in contemporary academic and policy debates (particularly in the context of developingcountries), and (iii) the potentially pervasive practical and policy ramifications of differing con- ceptions of development. Furthermore, conflicting theories of development are to be expected in the field of ICTD itself, given its diversity in terms of (i) the disciplines from which its scholars originate, (ii) sectors involved in the field, and most importantly, (iii) the geographical spread of its scholars. Fail- ing to explicitly interrogate the development theories underlying ICTD studies renders discourses in ICTD vulnerable to conceptual muddling, misinterpre- tation, incommensurability, and most importantly, diminished relevance in a world where there is undoubtedly diversity in how ‘development’ is understood. The present study seeks to address the above-mentioned problematique by examining engagement with development in ICTD literature against the
The Urban concentrations of health-damaging pollutants are often among the highest in the middle-income countries, and preventive and protective measures are still at an early stage. It is also relevant to low income countries, where air pollution problems tend to be more localized, but can very sever when they do arise (McGranahan and Murray, 2003). A review of evidence from Developed nations substantiates the harmful effects of air pollutants on health, even at levels considerably lower than those observed in many mega cities of the developed world. Difference in relation to the level of exposure and co-exposure to different pollutant mixture, the pollution structure, the Nutritional Status and the lifestyle observed in developing nations suggest that the adverse effects of air pollution may be even greater than those observed in developed nations (Romieu, 2003).
Abstract - Electronic wastes is a fastest growing waste stream presently in the world due to the exponential growth of electronic products and its market intrusion and day by day development and upgrade of electronic products turns the existing one into e-waste. The constitutions of e-waste such as non-metallic and metallic parts are simply disposed off to the environment without any prior treatment or any management practices; the improper disposal causes much potential hazards to the environment and all living beings. Therefore, the disposal of e-waste requires a technical understanding that leads to a proper management such as source segregation, collection, transportation, separation of useful products to reuse, recycling and recovering the necessary parts to introduce in the further manufacturing processes which help to reduce further generation of e-waste. This paper aims to explore the present situation of Indian e-waste management practices and comparing it’s with the selected developed and developingcountries e-waste management practices to adopt the best suitable practices for the Indian conditions. After an extensive literature survey and understanding the ground realities of Indian e-waste management practices, and though it has a strong legislations and implementation policies, India requires a technical cum structural cum non-structural facilities which encompasses from maintaining a strict enforcement for the illegal import of e-waste from developedcountries, creating awareness and providing technical training to the people who involved in an informal sector which helps them preventing from the health hazards and also it gives economical benefits and follow the extended producers responsibilities and take-back policy with incentives which leads India in a successive sustainable pathway to face the environmental and socio-economical crisis.
The development of technology and information influences the needs of society and the transformation of the labor market so that higher education is involved in intense competition, including higher education. For this reason, this study observes the higher education system in both developed and developingcountries, especially in the teaching of decision support systems (DSS). The method used is descriptive and critical studies by considering the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and adjusted to the literature review, consists of two main stages: planning and implementation. The research founds that the higher education system in developedcountries is ready to face globalization. Developedcountries also prepare higher education systems for their students to be able to master 21 st century skills, such as creative, innovative, ability to think critically,
Biotechnology provides possible solutions to many economic, social, and environmental problems. Agricultural biotechnology has been practiced for a long time, as people have sought to improve agriculturally important organisms by selection and breeding. This includes forage plant breeding to raise and stabilize yields; to improve resistance to pests, diseases and abiotic stresses such as drought and cold; and to enhance the nutritional content of nature pasture and for conservation of animal feed resources. The shortage of feed developingcountries and the increasing cost of feed ingredients mean that there is a need to improve feed utilization. Aids to animal nutrition, such as enzymes, probiotics, single-cell proteins and antibiotics in feed, are already widely used in intensive production systems worldwide to improve the nutritive value of availability of feeds resource and the productivity of livestock throughout the years. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were to review the opportunity of application of biotechnologies in improving animal nutrition in developingcountries. This paper was design to review on the opportunities of development of biotechnology in animal nutrition
This paper uses a dynamic growth model to estimate the impact of liberalization on economic growth in the short-run and long-run. It is important to know both of these effects as the liberalization itself is a process to impact the economic growth, which is normally judged in the long run. In this paper, the estimated results show that, overall, liberalization has a positive impact on the growth of per capita GDP, however the extent of this impact differs to the stage of economic development and income level of a country. The findings show that if a low income country becomes open, on average, it benefits at least 7% more compared to other countries, indicating not all income group countries benefit equally by the trade liberalization. Therefore, policy makers should note well this differential impact of trade liberalization on growth. Furthermore, the significance levels were different across the two models indicating the results should be considered with caution.
The results were processed by applying Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 19 to facilitate the understanding of data and information gained from the questionnaires. Nine barriers presented in Table 2 were developed by parents to prevent their children from being actively creative. Parents were initially asked to rate their degree of reliance on the barriers that prevent the enhancement of creativity factors which they impose upon their children. Questions were asked in such a way as to inhibit parents from taking a negative view of questions which deal with barriers that they are erecting.
This study investigated the impact of institutional quality on FDI inflows by controlling the effects of inflation, GDP per capita, trade openness as a percentage of GDP, infra- structure, and agriculture value-added as a percentage of GDP in developed and devel- oping countries. We separated developingcountries segregated into low and lower-middle-income countries, and developedcountries into upper-middle and high-income countries for the sample period of 1996 to 2016. We used six governance indicators as a measure of institutional quality to examine their impact on FDI. We ob- served high correlation among the institutional indicators, and thus constructed an in- stitutional quality index using PCA and adopted the system GMM to address the endogeneity problem in the institutional index and other variables. We find that indica- tors of institutional quality such as control of corruption, government effectiveness and political stability have positive and significant impacts on FDI inflow in developingcountries but that other indicators of institutional quality have positive but insignificant impacts on FDI in these countries. Moreover, all indicators of institutional quality posi- tively and significantly affect FDI in developedcountries. Our results establish that in- stitutional quality has a greater impact on FDI in developedcountries than in developingcountries. We also estimated the impact of the institutional quality index on FDI in developing and developedcountries. The institutional quality index has a positive impact on FDI for all groups of countries, but the magnitudes of the coeffi- cients is larger for developedcountries than for developingcountries. However, lnGDP per capita, trade openness as percentage of GDP, agriculture value added as a percent- age of GDP and infrastructure have positive impacts on FDI in developingcountries while inflation impacts FDI negatively in these countries. Variables such as infrastruc- ture and trade openness have a positive impact on FDI inflows in developedcountries. The value-added share of agriculture as a percentage of GDP, GDP per capita and infla- tion all negatively impact FDI in developedcountries.
Finally, exchange rate volatility and monetary policy in many countries influence cotton production and price levels. For example, the devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 by 100 percent against the French franc boosted cotton production in CFA countries, augmented by a strong U.S. dollar that climbed to a peak against the Euro in February 2002. However, this trend has since reversed, affecting the profitability of cotton production in the African Franc Zone (Estur, 2004) . Based on an orderly correction in the US current account deficit in 2006, the World Bank expected an annual 5 percent ef- fective decline in the US currency through 2008 (Busi- ness News, 2006) .The long term depreciation of the US dollar reflects the long term decline in commo- dity prices, and also the world’s historically higher rates of inflation. On the other hand, appreciation of Chinese
Since the tourism business affects economic growth, it can indirectly affect the quality of the environment as well. In economic literature, the relationship between per capita GDP (economic growth index) and environmental degradation (air pollution) as a reverse U are known as the EKC. According to this curve, in the early stages of economic development economic growth will be accompanied by increased environmental degradation and air pollution due to various factors such as high priority of production and employment towards the clean environment, low production technology, low level of environmental awareness, etc. But after reaching a certain level of per capita income, this relationship has reversed and increased economic growth will improve the quality of the environment, which can due to an increase in the level of production technology, increased environmental awareness, the adoption and implementation of strict environmental regulations, etc. Also, at higher levels of income, the country's economic structure is shifting to cleaner industries and technology and the development of service sectors, which can be one of the reasons for the decrease of pollution at higher income levels.
The importance of this study to the finance-growth literatures cannot be over- emphasized. Firstly, it provides rather a more comprehensive approach to the analysis of finance and growth as it examined the effect of both banking sector and stock market developments on economic growth. Secondly, it addresses the problem of the choice of suitable measure of financial development by constructing the principal components of banking and stock market development. Finally, it probes Rajan and Zingales (2003) postulation by investigating the concurrent liberalization of both trade and capital account.
To date, there are two careful macroeconomic case studies on specific terrorism-ridden economies. Both studies are careful and utilize methodologies that could be applied to other countries – e.g., Colombia – that have experienced a prolonged campaign of terrorism. For the Basque region, Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003) tried to estimate the per capita GDP losses that are attributable to a twenty-year terrorist campaign. Because the Basque region differs from other regions in Spain, the authors had to construct a “synthetic” comparison region by taking a weighted average combination of other Spanish regions. The weights were chosen to yield the values to key growth variables – e.g., real per capita GDP, investment share of GDP, population density, and human capital measures – that are nearly identical to those of the Basque region prior to its terrorism. The authors demonstrated that the Basque and synthetic regions displayed similar per capita GDP values prior to 1975 and the start of the terror campaign. Thereafter, a GDP gap opened that averaged 10% over the next twenty years. During high-terrorism episodes, the gap exceeded 10%, while, during low-terrorism episodes, the gap closed somewhat. This is a clever methodology where the synthetic region serves as the counterfactual control.
We consecutively present the regression results for each of the three dependent insurance variables. The regressions aim to explore the robustness of the group comparison tests by assessing the individual and joint significance of the factors identified in section 3: economic, demographic, social/cultural, and institutional/market structure factors. Given their overall structural relevance for the sector, we include a core set of both economic and demographic variables in all regressions as baseline controls: economic development, population size and density, and inflation (LGDPPC, LPOP, LPOP_DENSITY, INFLATION). We employ pooled OLS regressions on annual country-level data for the period 2000-08. We substitute sample averages for each year in the dataset for factors for which only a few observations per country are available: LLIFE_EXP, LINCOME20, and LCONTRIB_RATE. Thus, these variables are time-invariant. We report robust standard errors in two variations: unclustered, and clustered at the country level. Year-fixed effects and a constant were estimated but are not reported.
General-tax financing does have disadvantages, however. For providers of public health services, the payroll tax is a more dependent and secure revenue source because it is more insulated from political budget discussions and, in general, less cyclical than general taxation. Payroll-tax financing creates a sense of entitlement so that governments may find it more difficult to cut health services or reduce the basic package of services offered. In developingcountries, increasing general tax allocation to the health sector to replace payroll-tax financing will be difficult because tax collection capacity and “fiscal space” are limited. It will certainly prove difficult without governance improvements in existing social insurance systems.
With respect to firm size effect, Wong (1989) finds that stocks of small firms earned higher returns than stocks of big firms. The results of the studies by Martani et al. (2009), Bagella et al. (2000) and De Groot and Verschoor (2002) corroborate the findings of Wong (1989) in Indonesia, UK, India, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Rutledge et al. (2008) reveal negative return for small firms during bear market in China. Chen and Chien (2011) claim that size effect is apparent for small firms with higher risks in the month of January in Taiwan. Lischewski and Voronkova (2012) argue that though small stocks perform better than big stocks, they do not capture entirely the total equity premium in the Poland stock exchange. Kassimatis (2008) suggest that the firm size could be accounted for the changes in market risk in Australia as a result of the business cycle variation. On the other hand, Fama and French (1998) claim that the value premium is pervasive in the cross section of stock return in international markets. Drew and Veeraraghavan (2002) find that stocks with higher book-to-market value ratio, i.e., the value stock earns higher returns in Malaysia. The findings of Drew and Veeraraghavan (2002) are supported by the studies of Cakici et al. (2013), Athanassakos (2009), Ooi and Liow (2004), Davis et al. (2000) and Daniel and Titman (1997) in developing and developedcountries. Bali and Engle (2010) point out that book-to-market value is a priced factor in US which moves closely with the investment opportunities that induce additional risk premium on individual stocks and portfolios.
For a more sophisticated inference analysis based on estimation methods such as 2SLS and GMM it is necessary first of all to check the relevance of the instruments chosen. In an overidentified model like ours, where the number of instrumental vari- ables exceeds the number of explanatory variables, we can use the Sargan’s test to verify the validity of the instruments selected. The Sargan’s statistic, which is a particular case of the Hansen’s test for overidentified restrictions, is distributed as a Chi-Squared with K - L degrees of freedom, where K is equal to the number of instruments and L is equal to the numbers of endogenous regressors in the original model, under the null hypothesis that the error term is uncorrelated with the instru- ments. Therefore, in the present setting, we have two degrees of freedom, having for each regression equation three instruments and one endogenous regressor. The validity of the instruments for all four institutional indicators of both developed and developingcountries has been tested. The result is similar for all, that is a p-value higher than the standard level of significance of 0.05, thus we cannot reject the null hypothesis and we can conclude that the overidentifying restriction is valid. Con- sequently, even though this test has low power and provides no guarantee that the instruments used are valid, it brings further evidence to support the direction of our results.