Computers, Mobile phones and the Internet have become part of our life. As most human activities are part of computer and mobile networks, many traditional crimes have also changed their modus operandi and certain new crimes have come into existence. Most of these instruments permit their users a high degree of privacy. The technology does not distinguish between use and misuse, cyber criminals enjoy privacy too. The internet is a global medium while laws are mostly local. This makes investigation agencies difficult to find jurisdiction when a cyber crime originated out from a different country.
In the 1960s, the first studies related to cyber-crime have been seen in newspaper articles and in this period this crime involved computer abuse, computer sabotage, computer espionage and illegal use of computer system. The first scientific study on this type of crime has started around the year 1970. In the mid-50s, a large number of businesses and state agencies created the processes of computer data (PCD), automated departments, which deal with administrative data entry. The main risk in that period was introduced electro-mechanical breakdown and poor computer programming (OECD, 2011, pg. 15).
Cyber crime is a generic term that refers to all criminal activities done using the medium of computers, the Internet, cyber space and the worldwide web. There isn‟t really a fixed definition for cyber crime. The Indian Law has not given any definition to the term „cyber crime‟. In fact, the Indian Penal Code does not use the term „cyber crime‟ at any point even after its amendment by the Information Technology (amendment) Act 2008, the IndianCyber law. But “CyberSecurity” is defined under Section (2) (b) means protecting information, equipment, devices computer, computer resource, communication device and information stored therein from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction. 1.3 What is Cyber Law? 5
Cybercrimes actually means: It could be hackers vandalizing your site, viewing confidential information, stealing trade secrets or intellectual property with the use of internet. It can also include ‘denial of services’ and viruses attacks preventing regular traffic from reaching your site. Cybercrimes are not limited to outsiders except in case of viruses and with respect to securityrelatedcybercrimes that usually done by the employees of particular company who can easily access the password and data storage of the company for their benefits. Cybercrimes also includes criminal activities done with the use of computers which further perpetuates crimes i.e. financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail, spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking, unauthorized access to Computer system, theft of information contained in the electronic form, e-mail bombing, physically damaging the computer system etc.
Cyber-crimes have to potential to threaten a country's security and financial position. Countries have suffered due to cyber-crimes like hacking, copyright infringement, espionage, financial theft, intellectual property theft, cyber extortion, social engineering identity theft, online gambling, online sale of illegal articles, cyber fraud, forgery, spam, phishing, data diddling, steganography, cyber terrorism, child grooming, child pornography etc. Also, privacy violations have occurred when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage in cybercrimes. When one nation engages in cyber-crimes against another nation, it is called cyber-warfare. The international legal system is attempting to address cyber-crimesrelated to governmental and non-governmental actors through the International Criminal Court (Pitts, 2016).
critical perspective that should be considered. As indicated by Department of Electronics and Information Technology, the internet is an effective apparatus that ought to be utilized for advancement of society and development of the economy . The Internet is a key component of national foundation.Most of the internet users use internet without understanding the dangers associated with it. As per the technological changes the internet users need to update themselves frequently. Along with individual responsibility the government needs to take efforts for cybersecurity management and protecting the cyber space. In today’s scenario the major factors for Cyber-crime and threats are lack of awareness, lacunas on technological aspects, poor management of cybersecurity, and lack of cybersecurity knowledge and careless attitude. 3. ICT INITIATIVES IN SMART CITIES Smart Cities are new ideas that are developing everywhere throughout the world. IBM began with the idea of a smart city in their venture Smarter Planet Initiative in 2008, and gradually all country began thinking on a similar line. The greater part of the created countries began looking into for smart cities and contributed intensely to it. ICT has a vital impact on usage of smart cities. Smart cities make utilization of various technologies, for example, Wi-Fi, sensor technology, anyplace whenever communication and savvy frameworks to deal with the administrations required and to take care of the issues. It
be overwhelming to realize that your MasterCard information is sitting in the hands of a mysterious hacker, and for organizations that get hacked, the stakes are likewise high. It can rapidly turn into a PR bad dream and, in particular, an organization can rapidly lose trust with its clients. However, the pressing requirement for cyber-security is making an abnormal state tech field that prepared IT aces can discover their way into on the off chance that they pick up the correct involvement. Organizations are hoping to contract individuals, instead of utilizing software, to guarantee that their data and client information stays as private as would be prudent. Cisco directed a report on security and found that there is a lack of cyber- security masters for organizations to employ. The report likewise expresses that with a specific end goal to battle security dangers, organizations require individuals, not software or computers, to help ensure their organizations and clients.Be that as it may, as more individuals enter the information technology field, it is ending up more focused. You will need to guarantee you have a college degree in computer science or related field. However, Ira Winkler of Computer World prescribes that understudies don't have some expertise in Cybersecurity.
printed publicity materials; and Internet-based communication and phone services are growing faster than landline communications. The availability of ICTs and new network- based services offer a great number of advantages for the society but not without a number of disadvantages, with cybercrime as one. Cyber-Crime ('computer crime') is any illegal behaviour directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. In a wider sense, 'computer - related crime' can be any illegal behaviour committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network. The term "cyber- crime" according to Ali and Mehdi, (2010), is the use of a computer and the internet to commit a criminal act such as identity theft, domain theft, Internet auction fraud, blackmail, forgery, embezzlement, online gambling, defamation, pornography, and web sex with minors, violation of intellectual property, cyber terrorism, etc. These are activities primarily directed against computers or network resources, although there may be a variety of secondary outcomes from the attacks. Cyber-crimes have become a real threat today and are quite different from old-school crimes, such as robbing,
The Oxford Dictionary defines a social network as “A dedicated website or other application which enables users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc.” This could be in form of social media websites, blogs, and chat rooms. Anonymity and fake identity are the hallmark of the cybercrimes. Lack of awareness among netizens, poor security features associated with these websites and overuse of social media has enabled cyber offenders to engulf these innocent people into fraudulent or any other criminal transactions. 
Both the experts felt that the security measures taken by banking and companies are not much impactful. “Honestly nothing on internet is safe. Banking verifications and sessions inquiry has been processing but when it is linked with other online website, it can be hacked very easily” opines expert 1. As mentioned earlier, irrespective of safety measures, if an individual is not aware of how to deal with personal information that he/she share in internet or public domains, there is a chance of getting cheated. The experts delineated on the new trending concept called ‘Ethical Hacking’, which has a great scope to address the concerns related to cybercrimes and to have a secured cyber world. The ethical hackers, on behalf of owners or organizations attempts to penetrate a computer system or networks to counter attack the hackers, to find out security vulnerabilities which can be exploited by the hackers. Thus, the experts in the interview insisted on the role of government in initiate proper mechanisms to train and produce more and more ethical hackers for a holistic approach of cybersecurity.
The cyber crime prevention model and theoretical basis of this research suggested that it was not only computer-related, which can have an impact upon an individual's perception of online activities, but also posited the sociological purpose, where an individual's Education, Training and Awareness skills can influence the users' online behaviours. The results of this research allow us to determine the effectiveness of the sociological part of preventing cyber crime and minimizing victimisation; while most of the existing literature to-date, typically focus on technical prevention and improving the computer security, victimization and the experience of fighting the cyber crime. This research, therefore, provided some answers to questions relating to online activity. The proposed cyber crime prevention Awareness, Edification and Guidance (AEG) model has four dimensions. These dimensions are:
We intend to simulate a real world cyber-environment to study the users behavior in computer related tasks. By the means of capturing how the end user interact with the given user interfaces and programs, it is possible to analyze this behavior. It is often necessary to design this simulation environment in such a way that it mirages the real world environment so as to collect data without interfering the users. For an example: specifically in cyber environment, we cannot present an interface very new in design and still want user to behave like the one that they have been habituated to. However, simulating everything is not our goal. Instead we simulate only those user interfaces that can provide us insight about the cyber behavior of the user such as ability to harm others, decide to take risks or be benign, follow security etc. We also assume hypothetical scenario where user’s task is to respond to the given scenario as described below.
The increasing volume and sophistication of cybersecurity threats–including targeting phishing scams, data theft, and other online vulnerabilities–demand that we remain vigilant about securing our systems and information. The average unprotected computer (i.e. does not have proper security controls in place) connected to the Internet can be compromised in moments. Thousands of infected web pages are being discovered every day. Hundreds of millions of records have been involved in data breaches. New attack methods are launched continuously. These are just a few examples of the threats facing us, and they highlight the importance of information security as a necessary approach to protecting data and systems.
This research has much significance because it bears the weight of the future of ICT and in particular in Malaysia. The internet and its clump of technology has brought much development to the country and the world but along the way cybersecurity must also be addressed. The roles of cybersecurity will not only be made clear but also it will be viewed as a significant part of ICT protection. The researcher would also like to initiate this research to be a start of a new focus in the field collaboration of technology management and cybersecurity.
India is expected to become a key target of cyber criminals since they plan on using malware to attack point-of-sales devices and mobile wallets in 2017. There have been many cases of bank thefts, which cost the nation millions of dollars. The increasing scale and severity of these attacks are not hard to guess since every hour 15 ransomware attacks are spread in India, with one of every three Indians falling victim to it. Moreover, despite all their tries, banks have still not been able to stop them. Below is an image of the “WannaCry ransomware” attack that occurred in India. As you can see the hacker gives the time frame, the victim has to give the money, and they would like $300 worth of bitcoins for the victim to get their files back
Internet is essential for development for both social and economic sectors to form vital infrastructures. Due to the increased use of Internet Cyber Threats are evolving and increasing rapidly. Two interrelated objectives of CyberSecurity aims for strengthening cyberSecurity for the economy and protecting cyber space reliant societies again cyber threats. But, to achieve these two objectives in parallel is complex, and probably the main challenge of CyberSecurity policy. With this objective, this paper analyses the background, characteristics, current research work, counter measure techniques and future research perspectives of Cybersecurity. Initially, mobile cloud computing is highlighted and then features and recent survey issues has discussed. Finally future trends have been discussed .
Cyber crime continues to deviate down different paths with each novel Year that passes and so does the security of the information. The newest and disturbing technologies, along with the new cyber tools and threats that come to light each day, are challenging organizations with not only how they secure their infrastructure, but how they require new platforms and intelligence to do so. There is no proper solution for cybercrimes but using recent techniques to minimize the cyber crime in cyber space.
transfers to other banks; daily turnover was about $500 billion. Authorities said that to avoid causing suspicion, Levin dialed in from his house in Russia late at -2- night. Conducting transactions during New York business hours would less likely raise alarms. Levin apparently used valid user IDs and passwords of other banks, among them Banco del Sud in Argentina and Bank Artha Graha in Indonesia. How he got those passwords, given Citibank's extensive security, is unclear. Inside help seems likely, but Citibank claimed that no employees were involved. When Citibank noticed the transfers, they contacted the FBI authorities, who were working with Citibank tracked Levin making illegal transfers. They were further assisted by Russian telephone company employees, who helped them trace the source of the transfers to Levin‟s employer in St. Petersburg, Russia. Levin was finally arrested at Heathrow airport, London in March 1995 as he stepped off an incoming flight from Moscow. Thirty months later in 1997, he was extradited to New York - the extradition and the actual charges underscore the legal problems encountered with the multi-jurisdictional nature of cyber-crime. Vladimir fought extradition for 30 months, but lost, and was transferred to the US for trial. When Levin was extradited to the U.S. in 1997, he was described in the newspapers as the mastermind behind the Internet's first- ever bank raid. Some security experts dispute that claim, however. Levin, they say, used telecommunications systems, not the Internet, to break into Citibank. He was able to intercept Citibank customers' phone calls and, as the customers authenticated their accounts by punching in their account numbers and PINs, obtain the information he needed to commit the fraudulent
Internet governance (IG) concentrates on the application of new information and communication technologies and techniques to traditional or new practices of government also identifying opportunities and constraints on deployment with governmental authority. (What is Internet Governance and Where Does it, 2005). The Internet governance was introduced in the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) process and the development of principles, norms and programs that shape the evolution and the uses of the internet. The complexity of implementing Internet Governance regime that is issued, which involve five dimensions to internet issues such as infrastructure, Legal, Economic, Development, and Socio-cultural. Thus, many actors play a role in each these dimensions both in the private and public sector, which includes civil society activities and etc. However, with new cognitive tools that can reduce the complexity and help to introduce or create common approaches system with guiding principles. (Internet Governance issues, Actors and Divided, 2005). The cybercrimes cover any criminal act dealing with computers, networks and Internet. Regularly, most of cybercrimes involved the use of a specific malware system that controls computer networks in the region. Most of the perpetrators of cyber crime are from outside the United Arab Emirates so to reduce the cybercrimes; we must cooperate with other international agencies from all over the world. (Menting, 2015)
the rapidly-changing situations, given that diverse entities are involved in cyberspace with their own security measures. Thus, it is meaningful to build an information-sharing mechanism that is multi-layered, consisting of multiple layers including technology, law enforcement, policy and diplomacy. In particular, it is important to develop cooperation among Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs), which are responsible for operational responses, such as detecting cyber incidents, analysing malwares and IP addresses and taking actual responses; cooperation among law enforcement agencies which exercise investigative authorities and are responsible for preventing further damage; cooperation at the policy level which would facilitate quick understanding of the overall picture of an incident and necessary policy responses; information-sharing at the diplomatic level to avoid unexpected escalation into potential conflict; and cooperation among researchers engaged in research and development on leading-edge technology. Indian Government should actively work toward establishing a multi-layered global mechanism for information-sharing and will enhance its preparedness for the event of cyber incident. 12.3. Appropriate Response to Cybercrime International cooperation needs to be strengthened in order to