DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS IN THE AIR TRAVEL PLANNING DOMAIN D A T A C O L L E C T I O N A N D A N A L Y S I S IN T H E AIR T R A V E L P L A N N I N G D O M A I N Jacqueline C Kowtko, Patti J Price[.]
While debates on the suitability of the current regulatory structure of ethics bureaucracy within academia continue, for now researchers must work within the framework that they are provided and succumb to the processes necessary in order to achieve the correct permissions to undertake their work. In light of this, this article has outlined the key con- cerns for researchers choosing to analyse travel blogs. As outlined in this article, there are a range of methodological research approaches utilising the Internet as a means of datacollection that are emerging in parallel with the increased use of the Internet in society. While these data may yield valua- ble data that previously may have been unavailable to the researcher, however, it is clear that the current ethical bound- aries are unclear. This article therefore contributes to the lim- ited body of methodological literature addressing blog analysis as a method of datacollection, addressing some of the current ambiguities surrounding ethical online research and subsequently providing a set of flexible, yet informed guidelines for researchers to work from. This can be argued essential in a world of increasing scrutiny in research ethics. Declaration of conflicting interests
and multisite project clinical teams utilize comprehensive age- and disease-specific measures that are implemented as widely as possible and checked regularly for reliability. PBE data are merged into a central study database for analysis and hypothesis testing. Study findings are then implemented into clinical practice for validation testing with the ultimate goal of integration into standard care. PBE studies are designed to improve on traditional observational studies by 1) examining large, diverse patient populations; 2) involving clinicians in the research design and datacollection; 3) using carefully selected patient characteristics for analysis to avoid bias; and 4) standardizing datacollection and treatment documentation at all research sites. PBE methodology is ideal for conducting “pragmatic” trials that are designed to measure the overall benefit produced by a treatment in a naturalistic clinical setting. 9 Reviews in the pain medicine literature indicate
Studies on wind measurements conducted under the supervision of Professor F.O. Akuffo of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology using historical data from the GMA and captured in Akuffo (1991 as cited by Nkrumah, 2002) suggest that the average wind speed across the country is 1.7m/s. The study also indicated that a maximum monthly average wind speed of about 3.4 m/s came from the Eastern coastline of the Accra plains. These measurements were taken at a height of 2 m above ground level. NEK UMWELTTECHNIK GmbH of Switzerland in March, 1999 in collaboration with Future Energy of Koblenz, Germany as client and service provider respectively installed two masts 10m and 40m in each of three selected sites namely Prampram, Ningo and Ada. These three towns are all located in the Accra plains along the eastern coastline. This project undertaken by NEK UMWELTTECHNIK GmbH received
The travel time datacollection method is used to assist the congestion management. The use of traditional sensors (e.g. inductive loops, AVI sensors) or more recent Bluetooth sensors installed on major roads for collecting data is not sufficient because of their limited coverage and expensive costs for installation and maintenance. Application of the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in travel time and delay data collections is proven to be efficient in terms of accuracy, level of details for the data and required datacollection of man-power. While datacollection automation is improved by the GPS technique, human errors can easily find their way through the post-processing phase, and therefore data post-processing remains a challenge especially in case of big projects with high amount of data. This paper introduces a stand-alone post-processing tool called GPS Calculator, which provides an easy-to-use environ- ment to carry out data post-processing. This is a Visual Basic application that processes the data files obtained in the field and integrates them into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for analysis and representation. The re- sults show that this tool obtains similar results to the currently used data post-processing method, reduces the post-processing effort, and also eliminates the need for the second person during the datacollection.
The GPS-based techniques employed by the Universi- ty of Delaware have evolved into an automated system, which provides more realistic experience of a traffic flow throughout the road links. However, human error and the weaknesses of using GPS devices in urban settings still have the potential to create inaccuracies. Additionally, the current GPS test vehicle technique contains features that may present sources of inaccuracy. The measured routes are divided by nodes or “control points” into sev- eral segments in order to more precisely determine sources of congestion in the network. How accurately should these control points be determined to achieve more uniformity for each pass before it begins to affect accuracy too severely? Also, are these control points ne- cessary in the analysis of the data at all?
The ability of network operators to perform inter-domain TE can be boosted by the introduction of more powerful information analysis systems and flexible interfaces for network datacollection. The former can be possible thanks to the proliferation of archi- tectures and technologies designed for big dataanalysis [Agrawal et al. 2011]. The latter can be the result of the recent demand for networks supporting the Software Defined Net- working (SDN) model. SDN promotes the decoupling of forwarding and control planes from the physical infrastructure, therefore facilitating the creation of programmable net- working systems [Casado et al. 2012]. The demand for SDN has pressured manufactur- ers to implement into their systems more flexible protocols and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), such as NETCONF/YANG [Bjorklund 2010]. Additionally, the intro- duction of SDN-like features in the network design cycle can create an environment prone for the analysis of network data. Therefore, network operators will have in the near future the necessary resources to analyze inter-domain traffic data.
sector, GDP of manufacturing sector, and GDP of electricity sector as independent variables. The analyses suggests a positive influence of air transport on economic growth, a long run equilibrium relationship and a causal unidirectional relations from air transport to economic growth. Their study is limited to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to determine the relationship between economic growth and air transport. In that same year, Owoputi examined aviation industry development in Nigeria economy. His study emphasized the benefits of the air transport sector, which creates three distinct types of economic impact- contribution to GDP, jobs and tax revenues generated by the sector and its supply chain. The economic benefits relate to the passenger using the air transport service. Statistically, his study lacked testable fact to really examine the contributions of aviation industry development in Nigeria economy. In addition, the study relied on past-published data and was devoid of statistical analysis. In the year 2014, Muhammad et al. conducted a study on analysis of the economic benefits of Gombe International Airport in Nigeria . The study was limited to the impact of air transport on GDP and employment creation. It was also limited Gombe International Airport. A more plausible result would be obtained if other economic variables were considered and conducted on the entire airports in Nigeria.
Travelling, especially to international destinations, has increased significantly over the years and is expected to increase even more over the next two decades. As a result, more people are exposed to travel-related risks, influenced by the travel destination, itinerary, duration of the trip, and the medical history of the traveller. With adequate pre-travelplanning and a timeous pre-travel risk assessment, measures can be taken to mitigate risks and safeguard the traveller’s health. This paper provides an overview of the continuum of travel medicine with a focus on interventions to prevent and manage travel-related infectious diseases, common conditions related to travel as well as specific travel needs and risks.
literature points out that planning for active travel in general is most effective when it takes a systems approach (Garrard, 2011), and is reflective of the uniqueness of specific neighbourhood features not just limited to roads or sidewalks, but land uses and built environment features within the broader area (Larsen et al, 2009 McMillan, 2007). Identifying where features are located allows researchers and facilitators to work with the individuals who have the required contextual knowledge or expertise -- be it children, school administrators, business owners, city officials, or community partners (Buliung et al. 2011). CLPM is effective in identifying neighbourhood characteristics that can focus the scale of STP activities, or broaden them to wider horizons. For example, the findings from these schools could be forwarded to local policy makers to assess the merits of policies that restrict the siting of fast food sites. Additionally, the partnerships within STP can be developed through the mobilization of Block Parent groups or other
The Safe Airtravel For COPD (SAFCOP) study was approved by the ethics committee of Marmara University (approval no.: 09.2018.283). A questionnaire was developed by the authors (BE; HA; MA) to understand the level of knowledge and current practice of pulmonologists for airtravel in patients with COPD. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: the ﬁ rst part was for the demographics of the survey participants (age, gender, medical school graduation year, active practice dura- tion in pulmonology ﬁ eld, number of patients/week), the sec- ond part dedicated to understand the current practice methods for pre ﬂ ight evaluation and the last part consisted of manage- ment of two case scenarios with different disease severities according to previous recommendations. 6,7
survey completion. When a PT was the first symptom attributable to LAM, it was included in the calculation of PT incidence during the exposure period, which started with the first symptom. We considered 2 differ- ent hypotheses to compute PT incidence: 1) the risk of PT is constant across the whole LAM population, 2) the risk of PT is variable from one patient to another. A standard Poisson regression (model 1) was used to com- pute the incidence according to the first hypothesis. To compute PT incidence according to the second hypoth- esis, we used 2 different regression models to estimate the variable risk : a negative binomial regression (model 2), and a Poisson regression with a random inter- cept (model 3). In each of these models, only an inter- cept was considered (mean model). Model 1 is equivalent to calculate the ratio of the total number of observed PT and the sum of all exposure periods. In model 2, we hypothesized that the incidence was distrib- uted as a gamma distribution (the negative binomial dis- tribution can be viewed as a Poisson distribution where the parameter is itself a random variable distributed as a gamma distribution). In this model, the estimation of the intercept leads to an estimation of the mean inci- dence rate (over the patients). In model 3, we supposed that the intercept was normally distributed and therefore the incidence followed a log-normal distribution. In this model, the estimation of the intercept leads to an esti- mation of the median incidence rate. Patients were with- drawn from the analysis if the date of the first symptoms, the date of LAM diagnosis, or any date of PT were missing. Transplanted lungs were not consid- ered at higher risk for PT and were withdraw from the calculation.
While the majority of studies of airtravel choice behaviour make use of re- vealed preference (RP) data, an increasing number of analyses are now carried out on stated preference (SP) data 2 . While posing certain problems in terms of response quality (Louviere et al., 2000), studies using SP data have the advantage of being based on accurate records of all information presented to respondents, which is not generally the case with RP data. As such, it should come as no surprise that SP studies are generally more successful in retrieving significant effects for crucial factors such as air fares and frequent flier benefits.
In the process of the study, the authors were guided by general scientific and private-law methods of cognition, in particular, technical and legal, comparative and legal, sociological and other research methods. The main methods used in this work were the systemic and structural methods that made it possible to establish the features of liability for harm caused to the life and health of a passenger, for loss, shortage, and damage to baggage in air transportation. The technical and legal method is used to analyze a set of legal rules governing the powers of air transportation organizations and the respective states. The sociological method substantiated the conclusions, proposals, and recommendations for improving legislation, establishing control both within air carrier organizations and from the side of member states of international agreements in air transportation.
The main estimation results are summarised in Table 1. The results show the expected negative impacts of increases in travel time, the logarithm of cost, and the number of injuries, with all effects attaining high levels of statistical significance. Looking at the results for the three individual models, we observe significantly higher fit (in terms of adj. ρ 2 ) for the model estimated on the time vs cost data than for the remaining two components, with a further small decrease for the safety vs cost data. Additionally, it is clear that the scale in the safety vs time and the safety vs cost data is significantly lower than that in the time vs cost data, a situation that is reflected in the direct scale estimates in the joint model. These results would suggest a lower degree of error in the model for the time vs cost component (i.e. a more deterministic choice process), which is consistent with the notion that respondents are familiar with trading time against cost, where this is not necessarily the case for the survey components involving safety.
For the implementation of BRT there is a need for road widening. Road widening has not only been considered under the ambit of City Development Plan (CDP) for BRT but also for reducing traffic congestion on roads. The total budget for the implementation of road widening was around Rs. 1,340 Crores. Although the translation of such projects in terms of emissions inventory is relatively possible, the concentration estimates from those inventories is a great task. Experience of such dispersion models while evaluating use of AERMOD and sensitivity analysis has provided ample scope for the use of engineering estimates of such translation of emissions to ambient air concentration in Pune and was used here as a cumulative 15% rollback. The incidence and health valuation estimates are provided in Table 6.
dangerous and extra quantity of substances which includes gases, particulate matter, and biological molecules are inserted into atmosphere of Earth. This can cause complex and severe diseases to humans; it may also cause harm and damage to other living organisms and food crops, and may destroy the natural and built ecology and environment. Human activities and natural processes both can generate air pollution to a great extent. Unfortunately, India is among those countries with maximum number of most polluted cities in the world with one of the worst Air Quality Index (AQI) especially, on the festival of Diwali; the air quality index of Delhi and NCR has reached to a new higher levels . Lately, the air pollution in Delhi and NCR has gone through many changes in terms of the level of pollutants and the control measures taken to control it.
The importance of this work is indicated by a substantial academic literature on individual and household migration in the UK (Champion, 2007) and internationally (Stillwell et al., 2016). Consumer data can augment classical studies with conventional sources through a combi- nation of ﬁ ne spatial resolution, updateability, and additional co-vari- ates such as income and house prices. Patterns can be related to the latest social and market forces, such as austerity and Brexit, or major infrastructure investments like Crossrail and HS2 (Transport for the North, 2015). For example, the immediate impact on social mobility through the introduction of a new ‘bedroom tax’ in the UK (British Welfare Reform Act, 2012) could be assessed e.g. by comparing from year to year or from one quarter to another, without waiting 9 years for a new census, by which time further interventions will have compli- cated the picture. House price data have been available in the UK at a ﬁ ne spatial scale for some time (landregistrydata.gov.uk) but these data lack the interactions which are accessible through consumer data for the property market. Other studies using panel data can also provide insights into residential location decisions (e.g. Ettema and van Nieuwenhuis, 2016) but these are expensive to generate and hard to translate across locations due to their restricted sample size.
Both accuracy and acceptability are high for all annotation tasks except for the accuracy of task/subtask annotation in the map reading domain. Most of the errors come from the annotation of the grounding subtasks. Since its corresponding ac- tion is quite difficult to observe, subjects may not have a concrete definition of grounding and were more likely to produce errors. In addition, they were less critical when judging other subjects’ an- notations. Consistency in applying the form-based dialog structure representation shows that the re- presentation is unambiguous and could potentially be identified through a machine-learning approach. When comparing among components, concepts were annotated more consistently than tasks and subtasks in terms of both accuracy and acceptabili- ty. One possible reason is that, a concept is easier to observe as its unit is smaller than a task or a sub- task. Moreover, dialog participants have to clearly communicate the concepts in order to execute a domain action. The subjects usually agreed on tasks and top-level subtasks, but did not quite agree on low-level subtasks. The low-level sub- tasks are correlated with the implementation of a dialog system; hence, the designs of these subtasks are more subjective and likely to be different.
In a sheet metal type industry, a basic flow chart generally shows the routes covered by, say, 85% of the components processed (Burbridge (1971)). The purpose of factory flow analysis is to find the remaining 15% of exceptional component routes, classify them, and then try to modify as many as possible so that they fit the basic flow chart. All simplification is concerned with the elimination of unnecessary variety, and factory flow analysis is concerned with reducing the number of unnecessary interdepartmental routes, in order to simplify the flow system. For Factory Flow Analysis it is only necessary to know the series of departments visited by each (sub)routing. Based on the Pareto analysis of the most common (sub)routings, described in the previous chapter, the flow chart of the main flows in 2015 is constructed. This flow chart is added to Appendix C. Based on the practical insight, all routings that are practically not possible are