Batteries are evaluated with their charge capacity (Q), voltage (V), current (I), cycla- bility (charge and energy efficiency), energy density (mAh.g −1 or mAh.L −1 ), power density (Wh.g −1 or Wh.L −1 ) and cost. These parameters are a function of chemical (µ)/ electrical ( E) and mechanical (σ) interactions among cathode as well as chemical ~ and physical properties of anode, cathode and electrolyte as the three main compo- nents forming a battery cell. In lithiumbatteries, lithium ions migrate from anode to cathode in discharge and vice versa in charge. The electrodes act as a medium for redox (reduction/oxidation) reactions and are host to lithium ions. The battery capacity is determined by minimum lithium-hosting capacity of cathode and anode materials/components. The cycling rate is determined by electrolyte conductivity and the voltage.
KANTO chemical) was used as the electrolyte. The electrolyte was used as received without further purification and was stored in an Ar-filled glove box. Electrochemical measurement was performed using a 2-electrode coin-type cell (CR2032, Hoshen). A 200 m thick Li-ribbon (Honjo Metal Co., Ltd) was used as the counter electrode. A piece of monolayer polypropylene (2500, Celgard) was used as the separator. The electrochemical behaviors of active materials were investigated by the charge- discharge polarization test using a battery cycler (WBCS3000, WonAtech) at ambient temperature. The charge-discharge polarization was normally conducted under a constant current density of 0.05 C for activation and 0.2 C for cyclability test, in the voltage range of 0.01 - 1.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). We calculated the C-rate using the theoretical capacity of the Sn and graphite mixture to consider fully activated as Li 22 Sn 5 and LiC 6 .
Rechargeablelithiumbatteries consisting of a metal-oxide based positive-electrode and a graphite based negative-electrode are currently common electric sources. As positive-electrode materials, rare metal-free and low-polluting safe materials are recently becoming more desirable, due to concern about their resource scarcity and environmental effects. One of the candidate categories is a series of redox active organic materials that do not contain any scarce metal resources [1–6].
The temperature for the decomposition of precursors, metal acetates containing lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt, was observed using by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), as shown in Fig. 1. Most of hydrate in precursor was vaporized around 130 o C and then, the decomposition of acetate started around 300 o C and finished before 500 o C. Therefore, we decided that the temperature and time for preheating was 400 o C and 4hours to decompose the acetate fully and then form the layered oxide.
Synthesis and characterization of a tri-layered solid electrolyte and oxygen permeable solid air cathode for lithium-air battery cells were carried out in this investigation. Detailed fabrication procedures for solid electrolyte, air cathode and real-world lithium-air battery cell are described. Materials characterizations were performed through FTIR and TGA measurement. Based on the experimental four-probe conductivity measurement, it was found that the tri-layered solid elec- trolyte has a very high conductivity at room temperature, 23˚C, and it can be reached up to 6 times higher at 100˚C. Fabrication of real-world lithium-air button cells was performed using the syn- thesized tri-layered solid electrolyte, an oxygen permeable air cathode, and a metallic lithium anode. The lithium-air button cells were tested under dry air with 0.1 mA - 0.2 mA discharge/ charge current at elevated temperatures. Experimental results showed that the lithium-air cell performance is very sensitive to the oxygen concentration in the air cathode. The experimental results also revealed that the cell resistance was very large at room temperature but decreased rapidly with increasing temperatures. It was found that the cell resistance was the prime cause to show any significant discharge capacity at room temperature. Experimental results suggested that the lack of robust interfacial contact among solid electrolyte, air cathode and lithiummetal anode were the primary factors for the cell’s high internal resistances. It was also found that once the cell internal resistance issues were resolved, the discharge curve of the battery cell was much smoother and the cell was able to discharge at above 2.0 V for up to 40 hours. It indicated that in order to have better performing lithium-air battery cell, interfacial contact resistances issue must have to be resolved very efficiently.
Redox flow batteries are considered to be realistic candidates for medium- and large-scale energy storage applications, in terms of scalability and safety. Conventional redox flow batteries, however, use expensive and rare metals (e.g., vanadium) as the active redox species, which has become the main barrier to their wider deployment and deeper market penetration. The use of alternative species that are abundant, low-cost and readily sourced is clearly desirable. Recent developments in organic- and air-based batteries offers some promise in this respect. Many of the recently used organic active species possess reasonable solubilities, multi-electron-transfers and highly negative electrode potentials (comparable to those of aqueous metal-air batteries). In aqueous metal-air batteries (e.g., zinc-air), the electrodeposition process often restricts the storage capacities (< 1000 mA h cm -2 ), leads to large overpotentials and can even lead to early short circuits due to the formation of dendrites. The
Lithiummetal can be used as a cathode material because it has a very high theoretical specific capacity of 3860 mAh/g, but lithiumdendrites are easily produced during the charging process. The diaphragm is easily pierced, which results in a short circuit due to the contact of the cathode with the anode; this can cause significant heating and even combustion of the battery, which may lead to safety problems. On the other hand, during the charging and discharging cycles, lithiumdendrites fall off easily, leading to the loss of active substances and reduction of the battery cycle life. Therefore, determining how to inhibit the formation of lithiumdendrites is a key issue to improve the safety and recyclability of lithiumbatteries. Researchers have found that the formation of lithiumdendrites can be significantly hindered by using three-dimensional nanostructured graphene sheets or nitrogen-doped graphene as conductive substrates for lithium deposition.
rechargeablelithiumbatteries. Effects of filler type, filler content, surface area (primary particle size), surface chemistry, and PEO oligomer molecular weight on ionic conductivity were examined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were employed to understand the role fumed oxide fillers play in Li + transport in composite electrolytes. Effects of filler type and oligomer molecular weight on rheological properties (e.g., apparent viscosity, elastic modulus, and yield stress) were studied by steady state and dynamic rheology measurements. Lithium/lithium, Li/Li(Ni), and full-cell cycling in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study interfacial stability between fumed silica-based composite electrolytes and lithium with various surface chemistry of fumed silicas. Cell performance of fumed silica-based composite electrolytes in lithium full cells was evaluated to simulate practical rechargeablelithiumbatteries. Effects of cathode components such as active materials (intercalation metal oxides), carbon conductors, and current collectors on cell capacity were investigated. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide guidance and suggestions for design and synthesis of electrolytes that are suitable for rechargeablelithiumbatteries. The development of a practical rechargeablelithium battery also requires optimization of cathode compositions for particular electrolytes, but is beyond the scope of this research.
Lithium-ion batteries, which are based on the intercalation process of lithium in to carbonaceous anodes, perform well in terms of cycleability. But they suffer from low energy density problems, due to which attempts to improve the capacity and energy density of lithium-ion systems become highly essential for their wider acceptance towards multifarious applications. Recently, ternary lithiummetal nitrides of both antiflourite [Li 2-n MN n type] and hexagonal structure [Li 3 N type] were
in the early 1980’s [12-15]. In this approach lithium ions can be shuttled (or rocked) from one sponge to another as the cell is cycled. Such a system avoids the use of lithiummetal, and consequently the safety of the system is enhanced. This battery system is known as lithium-ion, or rocking-chair , or a SWING battery . The cathode sponge is composed of a transition metal oxide, similar to those used in the original rechargeablelithiumbatteries. The anode should have the lowest possible potential close to that of lithium electrode in order to ensure the cell voltage is as high as possible. In the early stages, LiW 0 2 , LigFe 203 , LiqMogSe^ etc. were considered [12, 17, 18]. However, the potentials of these were too close to the cathode resulting in low cell voltage. The practical benefits of Li-ion technology were not realised until the Sony corporation in the late 1980s [19-21] found that although many carbons will not accommodate lithium, certain forms will do so and hence can be used as reversible lithium intercalation materials [22-24]. Fig 1-1-1 illustrates the charge and discharge processes in a lithium ion battery based on a LiMn 204 cathode and a graphite anode. The latter can accommodate up to one lithium for every six carbons.
To overcome worldwide critical energy demand and environmental pollution issues, development of sustainable, clean, and renewable energy technologies are of significant importance. Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeablelithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeablelithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) powders, which are currently used as
One of the most promising energy storage solutions for future automotive technology is the rechargeable battery. Compared with other resources such as flywheels, capacitors, biofuel, solar cells, and fuel cells, rechargeablebatteries are more portable and provide quick energy storage and release [3- 5]. Moreover, it is more difficult to use these other resources globally than it is to use rechargeablebatteries, due to the operating environment limitations for these other energy sources . Compared with capacitors, rechargeablebatteries have lower self-discharge rates [3, 5], thus holding their charge for longer periods of time. Therefore, to best serve as a future automotive technology, rechargeablebatteries should have both high energy and power densities , the ability to output high current for a long period of time, and to be fully charged quickly. The durability and environmental friendliness of rechargeablebatteries is also very important. They should work for several years safely under different climatic conditions, and even if involved in an unfortunate car collision. Fundamental Science in Li-ion Battery Materials
Among the rechargeablebatteries, Li-ion batteries have dominated the field of advanced power sources due to their high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities . In this study, we provide an overall comparison of commonly used cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. There are four mainstream cathode materials in the present market: LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 , LiNiO 2 ,
Thesis Report University of Twente Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Integrated State of Charge Circuit for Rechargeable Batteries Jasper Velner MSc Thesis August 2008[.]
ABSTRACT: Batteries are a major technological challenge in this new century as they are a vital method to make use of energy efficiently. Nowadays Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) appeared to be one of the most crucial energy storage technologies. Today’s Li-ion technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and still on the track of fast development. The success of lithium-ion technology will depend mainly on the cost, safety, cycle life, energy, and power, which are in turn determined by the component materials used for its fabrication. Accordingly, this review focuses on the challenges of organic based materials and prospects associated with the electrode materials. Specifically, the issues related to organic based batteries, advances and opportunities are presented. This review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the polymer-based material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and specifically highlight its recent significant advancement in material design, challenges, performance and finally its prospects. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in organic electrolyte materials and the electrode for the battery as energy device storages. Some of these concepts, relying on new ways to prepare electrode materials by the use of eco-efficient processes, on the use of organic rather than inorganic materials to overcome environmental issues associated with their use. Organic electrodes are essential for solid electrode batteries because they can make device cost-effective, allow flexibility, and can also enable the use of multivalent ions without the problems typically associated with inorganic compounds.
Now a day’s Non Renewable energy sources are being destroyed. Due to this more consumption of fossil fuels for automobiles. Increasing awareness of air quality and inter- est in innovative vehicles stimulate the research activity to improve the propulsion systems by reducing the vehicle emissions.Vehicles which predominantly use Electric batteries for energy storage ,Electric motors and controllers for their operation are known as Electric ve- hicles.Electric vehicles are speedily gaining importance once again in today’s world. Owing to mainly three reasons; they do not produce exhausts and toxic gases, they are noiseless vehicles; and limitations of non renewable re- sources, and they are promising vehicles for future . The brief study of hybrid solar vehicle of efficient in our daily life because now day’s pollution and fuel rate is very big problem many people having fuel vehicles. Use of solar
Cost benefit analysis showed that a vehicle application remanufactured battery could be produced for about 60% of the cost of a new battery using reasonable and conservative assumptions about capital costs for equipment and factory facilities to support the remanufacturing process. Applications for repurposed batteries are currently less well defined than for remanufacturing. Thus research and development expenses are a primary component of cost. It was shown that under conservative assumptions for other costs, that repurposing is economic for approximately $82.65 per kWh in research and development costs, well within the range for such costs previously estimated in the literature. In addition, for a lower bound in R&D expenses of $50 per kWh, the lowest economic sales price is shown to be $114.05 per kWh also well within the sale price range stated in the literature. Disassembly of individual cells for recycling was determined to not be economic unless the market price for lithium salts increases about twentyfold to $98.60 per kg, which some believe is possible due to demand outstripping current supply of this metal. Because recycling is required as eventually each cell in each battery will no longer be usable in any application, it is clear that original, remanufacturing, and repurposing applications will likely need to bear some recycling expenses.
z Avoid using, placing or storing the equipment in places subject to strong sunlight or high temperatures, such as the dashboard or trunk (boot) of a car. Exposure to intense sunlight and heat may cause the batteries to leak, overheat or explode, resulting in fire, burns or other injuries. High temperatures may also cause deformation of the casing. Ensure that there is good ventilation when using the battery charger to charge the batteries or power the camera.
• Battery performance deteriorates at low temperatures (espe- cially with alkaline batteries). If you are using the camera in cold areas and batteries are running down faster than they should, you may be able to restore performance by placing batteries in an inner pocket to warm them up prior to use. But be careful that you don’t put the batteries into a pocket together with a metal key chain or other metallic objects, as these objects may cause batteries to short-circuit.
electron conducting ability, hierarchical pore structure and low density, many carbon materials show outstanding specific capacity and high charge overpotential. In a carbon-based lithium-oxygen battery, discharge products are decomposed above 4.0 V in which carbon and electrolyte will also be decomposed. This will induce improved overpotential and shortened cycle life. So that carbon material loading with sufficient bifunctional catalyst is relatively excellent choice because catalyst will lower Li 2 O 2 decomposition voltage. Precious metal, metal oxide, metal sulfide, metal nitride