The Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) regulations bring Health and Safety (H&S) 1 management, on an obligatory basis, into the planning and design of construction work in the UK. Thus the contractor is no longer left with the sole responsibility for safety during construction. The aim of the CDM Regulations is to bring about a culture change in the construction industry by requiring all those involved in the development and construction process to consider both health and safety issues. Baxendale et al.  argue that the philosophy behind this is to establish a team that will have the competence and resources to manage the project without undue risk to health and safety. The appointment of a planning supervisor, namely the CDM coordinator following the new CDM regulation 2007 release, is central to a client‟s responsibilities. The CDM coordinator should be appointed as early as possible to allow adequate time to address issues during the planning and design stage, including the preparation of the pre-tender stage health and safety plan . The regulation also recognizes other parties, including the client, designer, principal contractor and sub-contractors, as having responsibilities for health and safety management on a construction project. It highlights the importance of multi-party collaboration for safe construction. The level of awareness of the distinctive duties and how well these are coordinated during the various phases of the construction project underpins health and safety . Researchers
The prevalence of the network paradigm in all sectors of human activity is connected not only to important changes in the ontology, the methodology and the design and construction tools, but also to changes in the relations between design and construction. Within the above frame, the present essay will attempt to describe the methodology and the learning environment to develop the skills of designers so that they can correspond to the new data shaped by the network paradigm. Firstly, the basic steps of the teaching plan will be described. This is a continuous process which includes modeling, construction analysis, interdisciplinary collaboration, standardization, control, production and assemblage. Next, the general frame of the teaching environment will be outlined. This involves Collective Innovation labs (CI labs), the combination of craft workshops and innovation and creative technology spaces. The presentation involves a holistic proposal of continuum design-construction teaching methodology that includes the ideological, methodological and spatial framework.
This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an aero-engine starter-generator and its associated power electronic converter. A high-speed, dual-channel permanent magnet machine and a machine-facing converter have been developed for a small civil turbofan application . The overall architecture of the electrical system into which the starter-generator and the machine- facing converter are incorporated along with a network-facing converter and various network elements is shown in Fig. 1. This generation system is designed to deliver a continuous power rating of 95 kW into the DC network while in the generation mode. In the starting mode, the machine is expected to produce 50 N m of starting torque to drive the engine.
In this design approach the rated frequency is set to 50 Hz. The permanent magnets used in these designs are rectangular neodymium magnets (NdFeB) which are rare material used in the construction process of this Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator.
Abstract: In this paper, design and construction of model battery charging control for stand-alone wind driven self-excited induction generator SEIG) is present. Apart from an energy transfer function from wind turbine (WT) with stand-alone SEIG, the proposed model battery charging control can also be an active power in linear loads with stand-alone for a three-phase four wire system. Initially, mathematical modeling of the wind turbine with stand-alone SEIG is given. The simulation based on mathematical equations obtained from the model provides electrical characteristics of the wind turbine source that which will be use as the battery charging control input of the inverter. Secondly, the main system has been virtually create in order to actualize the conversion from DC to AC and the main power circuit employs insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) formed in a three-phase full bridge. Thirdly, the control circuit is discuss and has been design and the control method used is voltage control with microcontroller for stand-alone linear loads that is simple. Finally, the obtained results are discusses in order to verify the correct operation as the system is designed.
Abstract: This thesis describes the design and construction of digital multi-meter using PIC microcontroller. In this system, a typical multi-meter may include features such as the ability to measure AC/DC voltage, DC current, resistance, temperature, diodes, frequency and connectivity. This design uses of the PIC microcontroller, voltage rectifiers, voltage divide, potentiometer, LCD and other instruments to complete the measure. When we used what we have learned of microprocessors and adjust the program to calculate and show the measures in the LCD, keypad selected the modes. The software programming has been incorporated using MPLAB and PROTEUS. In this system, the analogue input is taken directly to the analogue input pin of the microcontroller without any other processing. So the input range is from 0V to 5V the maximum source impedance is 2k5 (for testing use a 1k pot). To improve the circuit adds an op-amp in front to present greater impedance to the circuit under test. The output impedance of the op-amp will be low which a requirement of the PIC analogue input is.
helium has relatively high thermal penetration depth caused by the high thermal conductivity. This is preferred as it allows a relatively large channel width to be used which simplifies the fabrication. The mean pressure of the thermoacoustic engines is proportional to the power density, and hence, the mean pressure needs to be as high as possible (Swift, 1988). High power density leads to high power generation and efficiency. However, there is a trade-off between the thermoacoustic power density and the fabrication as high pressure requires a lot of fabrication considerations related to pressure vessel design codes. These considerations are associated with the pressure sealing and heat exchanger channel width. Adding to these considerations is the fact that the hot parts of the engine will reach 400˚C, and hence the metal used for construction will have reduced strength. Therefore, the mean pressure used in this project was limited to 28 bar. The linear alternator available for this project was a Q-Drive Model 1S132M, which has an optimum frequency in the range of 50-60 Hz. The linear alternator frequency and the working gas defined the length of the engine. The relatively high speed of sound of the helium and the limited frequency of the linear alternator results in a long wavelength. As will be shown later, the actual length of acoustic path in the device is 16.1 m.
Water fountains have been used for thousands of years for utilitarian and aesthetic purposes. Fountain design provides an excellent opportunity for multidisciplinary projects for engineering and art students. In this paper, a falling water system is designed for an indoor fountain with a special effect feature. This system produces letters of the alphabet, simple shapes, and symbols with water jets. A microcontroller is used and programmed to create and sequence through interesting arrangements of water displays. This paper offers the hardware and software parts of light fountain control system that adjusts the water heads. The fountain hardware system consists of Arduino MEGA 2560, relays, water valves, power supply to operate the electrical circuit, in addition to the iron structure of the presentation of the shapes. The software part consists of the visual basic language written in a PC device and C-Language written on Arduino device to control the falling water system. The experimental results are tested for different alphabetic words and graphical shapes.
The analog signal from particle detector is transferred to the high-speed sam- pling ADC for analog-to-digital conversion in real time into FIFO (First-in First-Out) within FPGA. In this design, 14-bitAD6645 is used as a waveform di- gitizer at a sampling rate of 62.5 MHz.
In order to create high power ultra short pulses it is of vital importance that the system does not introduce second- and higher order dispersion as shown in the previous paragraph. The used pulse amplification system, called chirped pulse amplification (CPA), is based however on introducing chirp in a controlled manner. Therefore modelling of the dispersion is an important issue. Modelling of the set-up was mainly performed in programmes like the Disperse-O-Magic (DOM)  and by a numerical model in Mathcad . During the construc- tion period of the regenerative amplifier, the design was altered and a review of the model had to be performed. The laser system consists of a stretcher, amplifier and compressor. Because different gratings are used in the designs of the stretcher and the compressor they don‘t fully compensate for each other. In this manner higher order dispersion, introduced by the materials used in the set up, can be compensated . The easiest way for fine tuning the dispersion of the system to a minimum, can be performed by changing the parameters of the compressor. The mathematical models used showed some ambiguous re- sults. DOM for example shows an optimisation number, but this number is only based on the GVD. This means that it is possible to compensate a false prop- erty by another, creating more than one unique solution. With Mathcad the circulation of many versions caused some misunderstandings, apparently minor differences in the program creates large differences in the result. Two of these solutions have been built without satisfactory results. Another program based on an analytical model of the dispersion behaviour of the system has been writ- ten in Maple. This to fully comprehend the physics and to find an unambiguous solution to this problem.
A generator for providing pulses or accurately predetermined characteristics for calibration purposes is described. Possible applications for such a pulsegenerator include calibrating pulse analyzers, oscilloscopes, amplifiers and attenuators. Designs are possible for duplicating photomultiplier Geiger and similar pulse- forms with exponential characteristics and for use in testing and adjusting equipment used in nuclear research. This generator is similar in principle to one described by Stone, but additional construction and design details for purposes of assuring predicted accuracy are described in this report. This generator is designed to work into an impedance of 52 ohms, and to deliver a pulse which is the algebraic sum of two exponential voltage functions, one rising and the other decaying. The time constant of the rising exponential can be selected in steps of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 microseconds by a switch on the front panel. The time constant of the decaying exponential is fixed at approximately 100 microseconds. A carefully measured and monitored supply voltage is compensated on each position of the rise time constant switch so that the pulse amplitude will be varied by means of a Helipot on the panel from zero to 50 volts. A choice of either polarity is available. Accuracy of a selected 1% pulse amplitude and rise time constant is believed to be better than 1%, although calculations and measurements of components were made to 0.1% tolerances.
ABSTRACT: An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. Since 2008, there is an increase in the production of electric vehicles due to the advances in batteries and due to concerns about increasing oil prices. This project concerns the design and construction of pulse motor free energy generator (PMFEG). A pulsed motor, unlike normal A/C or D/C types uses short pulses of current to drive the motor, which makes it spin. This system is a new idea to generate electricity without making use of any common external sources. PMFEG conserves the input energy at high efficiency and store it and feed it back to the system and thus produces a mechanical output which can be used as a primemover. The input is given to the system using a battery, it generates pulsed and mechanical output which can be used to charge another battery. The output appears to be far greater than the input provided which results in greater efficiency. Hence the pulse motor free energy generator is a decent, powerful , low cost, high efficient and well-looking topology of a free energy generator, which can be used to charge the electric vehicles and the batteries can be charged from systems inside the car itself. By using this non conventional charging methods the efficiency of electric vehicles increases and thus we can avoid the frequent visit to charging stations.
IP cores have clock latencies. Therefore, calculation process performed by the hardware generates random time intervals every 30-digitization period. The maxi- mum random time interval generation rate is limited to the values, which are smaller than 7 million samples per second. As the inter event dead time is a source of error, the maximum possible output pulse generation rate with an error less than 5 per cent was measured equal to 6 MP/s for one channel architecture. Since there is a single random number generator in the design, while there are eight output channels, random pulse generation rate can- not exceed more than 750 kP/s for each channel. This is the only possible limitation imposed by multichannel implementation.
Shift register is the key element to translate the parallel data to serial form or vice versa in digital circuits. It is commonly used in many applications, such as digital filters communication receivers, and image processing ASIC’s. It can also a function as delay circuits and digitalpulse extenders. In the existing system, the conventional N-bit unidirectional shift-register was proposed and it consists of N number of master-slave flip-flop with multiple 2-to-1 multiplexers. Also, the conventional clock signal methodology was promoted to transfer data from one stage to next stage. It occupies more silicon area and increases the power consumption of the shift register. To eradicate the above said difficulties a novel 256-bit bidirectional shift-register using BD-PLs is proposed. It simplifies the BD-PL structure by removing the contemporary signals (Qb, DR_b, and, DL_b) and also reduce the number of full swing clock signals applied to each stage. The modified method will reduce area and power consumption of the bidirectional shift register. The proposed method will be implemented using the XILINX Software technology.
Open-loop motion controller type generates reference signals, which is generally used for CNC systems such as water-jet cutting, machine tools, laser-beam cutters and welders. The reference signals from the controller can be transmitted as a sequence of reference pulse or as binary word in a sampled-data system . The interpola- tor and signal generators are normally implemented in PC-based system with assembly language in order to save memory data and improve computing speed  . In this system, the digital differential analyzer (DDA) method   or stairs approximation method   is used in hardware interpolators. Although the pro- gram design of geometric path planning is simple in PC-based control, the restriction of interpolation execution time of PC-based system makes it difficult to expand multi-axis motion system. Moreover, the design of inter- polator and pulse generation based on one interrupt clock employed in these methods causes path error and cannot generate constant instantaneous velocity . In , a simple motion control approach is proposed by using two separate interrupt interval times at each interpolation step to generate constant velocity along geome- tric path. Although the precision is improved, this method still has error of half basic length unit.
However, a key issue with using the look-up table method is power consumption, since a digital waveform with a bigger frequency will increase the Read- only-Memory (ROM) size and this may increase the power consumption (Mashayekhi et al., 2008; Gan et al.,2009; Veredas and Pfleiderer, 2006; Hao Li et al., 2009). Consequently many researches have been conducted that aimed at reducing the ROM size (Meher, 2010; Dickin and Shannon, 2010; Azizi and Najm, 2005).
In a solid-state Marx generator, as an example, the semiconductor switches operate to control the charging and discharging of its capacitors such that they charge in parallel then discharge in series across the load -. The modular buck-boost converters in  generate HV pulses with proper turn ON/OFF operation of the semiconductor switches. Half- bridge modular multilevel converter (HB-MMC) cells are used in  to generate HV pulses from a low-voltage supply by charging the cell-capacitors sequentially, which are then discharged in series across the load. Modified HB-MMC cells are used in -, as one phase-leg of the three-phase HB- MMC topologies used for HVDC application, to generate HV pulses from a HV dc supply. A series diode between adjacent cells modification affords sensorless operation of the MMC cell-voltages, when employing a specific ON/OFF switching sequence.
It should be considered that in each module, the voltage of each capacitor cannot drop to less than 50% of the intended voltage. Also, during the charging procedure one switch and one diode of the module is in the path. 2. 2. Operating Principles Figure 3.a shows the configuration of the proposed pulsed power generator for n modules. This structure consists of two half-bridge converters and a few switched capacitors cells in between which are connected together in series. The capacitors’ charging method for the proposed structure is in a way that its current stress is lower than MG structures. Using the input voltage source in forming output pulse is another feature of this topology. Moreover, the switches do not tolerate negative voltage when they are off. As a result, there is no need to use any series diodes along with the switches.
Synchronous motor is a rotating machine. Synchronous motor can function as a generator and as a motor. Generator supplies current to the load resistance connected to the output of the engine is driven at a speed which is given by a prime mover which may be a turbine or engine. Motor, it is a mechanical load driving at a certain speed when input terminal is supplied by a dc voltage. The generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. motor while also converting electrical energy into mechanical energy (K.dutta 2012). They are synchronous, AC, permanent magnet motors, which are very flexible and efficient. They do require complicated control electronics. The rotor contains great permanent magnets. There are no coils of wire in the rotor and no electrical connections to it. This increases reliability over DC motors which have windings in the rotors. All windings are in the stator. The control electronics passes an alternating current through these windings to turn the rotor. This current must be "synchronous" with the rotor's movement. This synchronous motor operated only at synchronous speed. The principle operated for synchronous motor as locking method. When the magnet that has south and north face each other they have attracted between two poles. If magnet 1 is rotated the magnet 2 also rotates in same direction with same speed because there has attraction as shown in figure 5. For this condition called magnetic locking.