Figure 18: schematic section of the lid/ supporting ring
Displacement tank – There are a number of different options for the size/shape of the displacement tank and therefore the construction method varies between them greatly. If the displacement tank is to be hemispherical the foundation can be made in a similar way to that of the digester or more simply by creating a slab of concrete 7- 10cm thick. The top end of the digester slurry outlet pipe should be encased by the foundation floor. It is important to maintain a watertight seal around the pipe so a waterproof mortar mix should be used to create a sealing collar. The walls of the structure should be constructed in the same way as those of the digester and the opening should again be manhole sized. Regardless of the design it is important to note is that the outlet pipe of the digester should be fully accessible from the top of the manhole of the displacement tank to allow for pipe unblocking with a rigid pole if necessary.
“The possibilities are endless but the main integration points are document control, project management, schedule, accounting and, most recently, building model objects.”
PDM offers full integration with Prolog, as well as with AutoCAD ® for design review, an E-plan room for construction and a comprehensive cradle to grave archive process for closeout and facilities management. It also provides access to Thomas Reprographics and the MHC/ReproMAX national network of plan room and reprographic centers and integrates with MHC’s Network, Dodge and Sweets. Additionally, PDM users can search the MHC Network - Global Directory for subs and vendors and then synchronize that information with Prolog or other tools.
The Construction Safety and Health Monitoring (CSHM) system  was created as a detector of potential risks and hazards, and a warning sign to areas of construction activities that require immediate corrective action.
Leveraging the Internet advantages, the web-based CSHM enables remote access, speedy data collection, retrieval, and documentation. A knowledge base was included in the design to enable online expert advice and instructions. CSHM allows the user to monitor the project performance over a certain period through analysis of the scores given to some selected parameters. Key data can be transformed into charts, curves, and tables by the database. Data is reported through Trend/Movement, Comparing between Projects; and Executive reports. The CSHM accelerates the monitoring and assessing of performance safety and health management tasks within organizations. Both of these examples are focused on managing safety at the project-level.
The assignment of this masters thesis, was to design and construct a laser that generates an ultrashort laser pulse, and in case of sufficient available time, it would be an option to shoot the laser pulse at some material and measure the influences of this material on the properties of the pulse. But with experimental physics one has to rely on the used machines, in this case only three devices needed some unforeseen attention. It started with performing maintenance on the pump laser for the regenerative amplifier. After this laser had been serviced, the power supply of another pump laser started to generate errors. Fortunately this occurred not all the time, and did not cause large delay in the develop- ment of the experiment. After construction of the regenerative amplifier, the compressor had to be designed. During the construction of the compressor, it appeared that the grating surfaces were severely contaminated. After at least one month I succeeded to find a method to clean them again. During that month I started to characterise the output of the regenerative amplifier. These actions where aborted abruptly once the gratings were clean again and construction of the compressor could be started.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This project is aimed at designing an electrical energy generated using sound energy system. After construction, the realized system was found to pick noise/sound and convert it to electricity. The resulted voltage produced depends on the intensity of the sound propagated and picked up by the condenser microphone. The theoretical background of the used components was reviewed which include condenser microphone, piezoelectric crystal, operational amplifier, battery, and 555 timer. Related previous projects and their drawbacks as well as the improvements that this system provides were explained. The design of each unit was carried out starting from the power supply unit which contains two 3.7V Li-ion batteries and regulated to 5v dc at the output using a voltage regulator which is used to power condenser microphone, Op – Amp, and 555 timer. The piezoelectric crystals produce charges as a result of vibration generated by a sound. The description of the construction details and tests performed on the project were presented and their corresponding results obtained from the design analysis which shows the amount of electricity produced at various places of different sources of noise.
This paper presents the design and construction of Low Speed Axial Flux Generator with stationary bike that utilizes locally available materials. This cannot depend on weather conditions, fuel and can use anytime at anywhere without pollution. By taking the stationary bike it will be like doing physical exercise which can lead us to being well. The goal is to design, fabricate and test the performance of the AFPM generator for renewable (Green) energy power generation. In this project, consists of three main parts: AFPM generator, stationary bike and control unit. AFPM generator contains two rotor disks, permanent magnets, stator support, windings, and car hub bearing. This AFPM generator is coreless generator which does not have any core in the stator. And then generating efficiency is high as there is no hysteresis loss. This generator attains a maximum efficiency of nearly 93%. This AFPM Generator can also be linked with Windmill, Hydropower and Stationary Bike to generate renewable electrical energy. The desired output electrical energy will be rectified and charged the 24V battery by digital charged controller. The battery will convert DC to AC with 500W Inverter to utilize rural electrification.
Sylvester Emeka Abonyi, Okolie Chukwulozie Paul, Emmanuel Chinagorom Nwadike Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
AC Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage from national grid and prevent discontinuity of daily activities or disruption of business operations. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. This work develops a design, Construction and Characterize fuelless AC Generator that generates electrical energy from an alternator interfaced with an inverter.
This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an aero-engine starter-generator and its associated power electronic converter. A high-speed, dual-channel permanent magnet machine and a machine-facing converter have been developed for a small civil turbofan application . The overall architecture of the electrical system into which the starter-generator and the machine- facing converter are incorporated along with a network-facing converter and various network elements is shown in Fig. 1. This generation system is designed to deliver a continuous power rating of 95 kW into the DC network while in the generation mode. In the starting mode, the machine is expected to produce 50 N m of starting torque to drive the engine.
Abstract: This thesis describes the design and construction of digital multi-meter using PIC microcontroller. In this system, a typical multi-meter may include features such as the ability to measure AC/DC voltage, DC current, resistance, temperature, diodes, frequency and connectivity. This design uses of the PIC microcontroller, voltage rectifiers, voltage divide, potentiometer, LCD and other instruments to complete the measure. When we used what we have learned of microprocessors and adjust the program to calculate and show the measures in the LCD, keypad selected the modes. The software programming has been incorporated using MPLAB and PROTEUS. In this system, the analogue input is taken directly to the analogue input pin of the microcontroller without any other processing. So the input range is from 0V to 5V the maximum source impedance is 2k5 (for testing use a 1k pot).
helium has relatively high thermal penetration depth caused by the high thermal conductivity. This is preferred as it allows a relatively large channel width to be used which simplifies the fabrication.
The mean pressure of the thermoacoustic engines is proportional to the power density, and hence, the mean pressure needs to be as high as possible (Swift, 1988). High power density leads to high power generation and efficiency. However, there is a trade-off between the thermoacoustic power density and the fabrication as high pressure requires a lot of fabrication considerations related to pressure vessel design codes. These considerations are associated with the pressure sealing and heat exchanger channel width. Adding to these considerations is the fact that the hot parts of the engine will reach 400˚C, and hence the metal used for construction will have reduced strength. Therefore, the mean pressure used in this project was limited to 28 bar. The linear alternator available for this project was a Q-Drive Model 1S132M, which has an optimum frequency in the range of 50-60 Hz. The linear alternator frequency and the working gas defined the length of the engine. The relatively high speed of sound of the helium and the limited frequency of the linear alternator results in a long wavelength.
The structural link between design and construction is central to the teaching of design (Papalexopoulos, 2008, 2014; Kolarevic, 2003). The information generated during the design process is inextricably linked to the manufacturing process. The digital files produced during the design phase control the operation of the production machines (machines for cutting formulating, three-dimensional printing, robotics etc.) while simultaneously they constitute a base for the management and organization of the project. Design information now entails construction information and production information (Papalexopoulos, 2006). At the same time, the design incorporates digital data of the production of structural elements. The construction analysis constitutes a suitable methodology for the structural correlation of design and construction as it contributes to the design of objects, on the one hand based on the properties, and on the other based on the relations of the individual parts of the construction. In this way, it is possible to face the changes arising so much during design as during the construction of the project. These changes may concern matters of geometry, material properties, organization and construction, project budget etc. The logic of construction analysis may be applied to the total project or the individual construction units and the structural elements of the construction. To be mentioned, among other, the research efforts of: • Institute for computational design and Construction in Stuttgart Europe, especially the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilions, • Abedian School of Architecture in Brisbane Australia, especially the “CELLULAR TESSELLATION” Pavilion,
Water fountains have been used for thousands of years for utilitarian and aesthetic purposes. Fountain design provides an excellent opportunity for multidisciplinary projects for engineering and art students. In this paper, a falling water system is designed for an indoor fountain with a special effect feature. This system produces letters of the alphabet, simple shapes, and symbols with water jets. A microcontroller is used and programmed to create and sequence through interesting arrangements of water displays. This paper offers the hardware and software parts of light fountain control system that adjusts the water heads. The fountain hardware system consists of Arduino MEGA 2560, relays, water valves, power supply to operate the electrical circuit, in addition to the iron structure of the presentation of the shapes. The software part consists of the visual basic language written in a PC device and C-Language written on Arduino device to control the falling water system. The experimental results are tested for different alphabetic words and graphical shapes.
Art & Design
8a. Educational aims of the programme and potential career destinations for graduates:
The BA Hons 3D DigitalDesign & Animation is an undergraduate programme designed for students interested in the field of 3D digitaldesign and animation. The programme encourages students to think about the design and creation of 3D environments, character design and the use of CGI and moving image in a diverse and interdisciplinary way and provides a rich and varied environment for them to develop their individual creative and aesthetic sensibilities. Creative process is central to the teaching of this programme, combined with an emphasis on the development of craft and technical skills. Students will also acquire the knowledge and understanding of the critical and cultural dimensions of their discipline, master communication and informational skills, and develop the critical awareness required to articulate their learning in this area. 3D DigitalDesign & Animation graduates can look forward to a career in publishing, film & special effects, media and design or games consultancies in the UK and abroad. They may also work within the fields of architectural and medical visualisation. Some graduates will successfully build their own freelance practices, while others will move on to postgraduate courses.
China has taken 3D printing to an even larger scale, printing the world’s first house, and apartment blocks. The process involves building up layers of concrete in the same method as a traditional 3d printer would, so far this has enabled them to erect walls and flooring for structures at a more cost effective rate. However the method is still experimental and not available for commercial use for a least a few more years, one researcher in California even mentions that “One should realize that initially 3D printing can build the basic shell of the building. There is much more that goes into a house” . The design of these houses remains very simple, and industrial, and they are purposed towards low income or use as emergency shelters. It’s important to note that this production process is unable to produce roofing for the structures due to limitations, and arguably restricts the creation of complex forms.
integrated with digital technology. As students progress through the programme, projects will become client and audience led, so that cultural knowledge and methodology of investigation will be important. Since different skills and knowledge will be required for the projects, the programme will help students decide on the direction they wish to pursue in the workplace. In due course, the HND is likely to evolve into a Foundation Degree. The BA (Hons) programme will follow the same pattern in the first and second years. A work placement in the summer will help students to become professional in their understanding of workplace procedures. The third year will develop their conceptual, analytical and research abilities. The Essay Project will deepen their knowledge of the context from which design arises and the major projects will manifest their research, analytical and creative skills, resulting in a strong portfolio of work which will enable students to gain employment in graphic design.
This generator is similar in principle to one described by Stone, but additional construction and design details for purposes of assuring predicted accuracy are described in this report. This generator is designed to work into an impedance of 52 ohms, and to deliver a pulse which is the algebraic sum of two exponential voltage functions, one rising and the other decaying. The time constant of the rising exponential can be selected in steps of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 microseconds by a switch on the front panel. The time constant of the decaying exponential is fixed at approximately 100 microseconds. A carefully measured and monitored supply voltage is compensated on each position of the rise time constant switch so that the pulse amplitude will be varied by means of a Helipot on the panel from zero to 50 volts. A choice of either polarity is available. Accuracy of a selected 1% pulse amplitude and rise time constant is believed to be better than 1%, although calculations and measurements of components were made to 0.1% tolerances.
Fig 8. Rotor of a Non salient pole alternator
Rotor of water wheel generator consists of salient poles. Poles are built with thin silicon steel laminations of 0.5mm to 0.8 mm thickness to reduce eddy current laminations. The laminations are clamped by heavy end plates and secured by studs or rivets. For low speed rotors poles have the bolted on construction for the machines with little higher peripheral speed poles have dove tailed construction as shown in Figs. Generally rectangular or round pole constructions are used for such type of alternators. However the round poles have the advantages over rectangular poles.
 A.Vinod, A.Kashyap, A.Banerjee, and J. Kimball, “Augmenting energy extraction from vortex induced vibration using strips of roughness/thickness combinations,” in Proc. 1st Marine Energy Technology Symposium, 2013, pp.1-10.
 Jiabin Wang, G. W. Jewell and D. Howe, "A general framework for the analysis and design of tubular linear permanent magnet machines," in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1986-2000, May 1999.doi: 10.1109/20.764898.
The output from the HC counter (A/64) and the inverted output from the last LSI counter (A/N) are passed to the bottom PCB for synchronization to the 80MHz reference oscillator. The ECL flip-flop, 1/2 U202A, is clocked by A/64; if the D-input (A/N) is high (indicating that the LSI count is complete) then the Q-bar output of the flip-flop will go low. This eliminates the jitter of the LSI counter, as the ECL output is synchronous with the HC counter's transition. The final synchronization is done by the 2/2 of U202A. This flip flop is clocked by the ECL output of the synchronous two-bit ECL counter (20MHz toggle rate). Its output will change states synchronously with the first clock input after the Q- bar output of the 1/2 of U202A goes low. The outputs of 2/2 of U202A going low signal the end of the digital count. The channel will stop counting and the analog delay for the channel will be started.