Abstract: The use of waste materials in road construction can reduce the difficulties in disposal of such wastes. This paper aims to study the performance of pavement asphalt in which a fractional aggregate is replaced with crushed glass. In this paper, some considerable properties of asphalt mix i.e. stability, flow, specific gravity and air voids are investigated. One sample is prepared without adding glass for different percentages of bitumen. On other hand samples are prepared by adding crushed glass to the mix with 5%, 10%, and 15% by aggregate weight. The results are then analyzed. Thus crushed glass can be used in asphalt pavement with optimum replacement ratio of 10% by weight of total aggregates. Hence, the results show that the properties of glass-asphalt mixture are improved in comparison with normal asphalt pavement. It is concluded that the use of waste glass in asphalt pavement is desirable.
Zaydoun T. Abu Salem, Taisir S. Khedawi, Musa Bani Baker and Raed Abendeh (2017) The above study is about the performance of asphalt concrete mix, where fractional fine aggregate is substituted with different percentages of crushed glass materials of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20 %. They expected that the recycling and use of waste glass in asphalt mixes is feasible. They used various materials in research i.e. Asphalt, Aggregate, Crushed waste glass. The methods used in this research are Conventional fine hot mix aggregate gradations, as specified in AASHTO M29 (ASTM, 1994), Marshall Mix design. The procedure indicated by the standard American Institute MS-2 Manual (2008) and ASTM were used to determine the optimum asphalt content for the mixture. Hence, got the conclusion that max. size of 2.36 mm waste broken glass can be used in asphalt concrete and the optimum replacement ratio is of 10%. Also the strength index, high temperature stability and water stability achieved the standards of the asphalt mix design. Hence, using waste glass in hot mixed asphalt will decrease pollution and environmental problems. The most common applications of modified asphalt mix are as surface pavement (surface coarse) for residential streets, secondary roads, parking lots, sidewalks and curbing. 
method of producing an engineering component. Hence, without casting automobile, household appliances and machine tools would have become costlier. Method for making cast metal parts can be classified into three groups. The molding processes that use a permanent pattern and expendable mold, molding processes that use expendable pattern and expendable mold and the molding processes that use permanent mold. An expendable mold or pattern is the one that is used only once and discarded. The mold can be made of green-sand, core-sand, dry-sand, plaster of Paris or shell molding method using any of these, the same method is employed in the construction of the pattern and mold. [Brace et al, (1957)]
Mix design of the concrete is done strictly as per the specification of the IS 10262: 2009. According to IS code specification mix of M30 grade is designed, 5 different types of mix are prepared with different percentage of Glass powder and crushed sand as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate. CC mix is prepared with 0% of Glass Powder, and crushed sand or we can also pronounce it is controlled concrete; GP20 mix contains 20% of the Glass Powder. While GP30, GP40 and GP50 contains 30, 40, 50 and of Glass Powder respectively, similarly CS20 (crushed sand) mix contains 20% of crushed sand, and CS30, CS40 and CS50 of crushed sand respectively, another combination is glass powder and crushed sand mix with natural sand, 5 different types of mix are prepared including CC mix and combination of glass and crushed sand as NCG20, NCG30, NCG40, NCG50 respectively.
In the marine economic development strategy, the maritime industry plays an important role, in which seaports are the development nucleus, the focal point for receiving and transporting import and export goods and circulation to all parts of the country. Shipping is currently responsible for up to 90% of import and export goods and a part of goods to regions, is the main artery in the transport and distribution system of the economy. Currently, Vietnam shipbuilding industry is still facing many difficulties and limitations. First of all, according to the information shared by Mr. Dam Dinh Vinh, expert of International Ship Brokerage Company Maersk Broker, the shipbuilding market around the world is currently very fierce as demand for shipbuilding is declining. Prices in all ship segments are relatively low and shipyards in general are competing fiercely in all areas such as ship type, pricing, financial and service issues. Regarding internal limitations, the construction capacity of Vietnam's shipbuilding industry currently only reaches 30-40% of design capacity. Supporting industry is very important for shipbuilding industry, but the progress of supporting industry development is slow, investment is spread, the localization rate is not reached. In terms of human resources, shipbuilders with international certificates are very few compared to the requirements. In terms of design, according to experts, the technical design stage currently only meets the requirements for small and popular vessels. Vietnam does not have a model test tank of international standards to develop new designs, all technical designs of export vessels still buy from foreign countries. This is the weakest point of Vietnam's shipbuilding industry today and will be a weakness in the coming time if there is no policy to prioritize investment and train design engineers. Metal is a material that has beneficial properties for construction: high strength, ductility and high fatigue resistance. As a result, metal is widely used in construction and other engineering industries. In its pure form, due to its low strength and hardness, high ductility, metal has a very limited use range. They are mainly used in the form of alloys with other metals and metals, such as carbon. Iron and its alloys (steel and cast iron) are called ferrous metals; the remaining metals (Be Mg, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc.) and their alloys are called non-ferrous metals. Depending on the use and condition of
It cannot be denied that fuzzy control has confirmed the important position in modern control engineering so far. Fuzzy control gives remarkable accuracy and performance because of its simplicity in the structure of the system. Widespread applications of fuzzy control in areas such as automation and control systems in industry, military, control in the transportation sector, structural control in the field of construction , ...  - . In the next section, we will design PI-classical and FLC-sugeno controllers for resistor heat exchanger and simulate system performance in Matlab/simulink environment. Simulation results are used to compare and evaluate the control quality through the parameters between PI-classical and FLC-sugeno controllers. Thereby, the FLC-sugeno controller is superior to the PI-classical controller.
V. V. Mane et al.  The principle of manufacturing a casting involves creating a cavity inside a sand mould and then pouring the molten metal directly into the mould. Casting is a very versatile process and capable of being used in mass production. The size of components is varied from very large to small, with intricate designs. Out of the several steps involved in the casting process, moulding and melting processes are the most important stages. Improper control at these stages results in defective castings, which reduces the productivity of a foundry industry. The casting process has a large number of parameters that may affect the quality of castings. Some of these parameters affecting quality are controllable, while others are noise factors. There are several guidelines for the design of green sand casting parameters.
Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a byproduct produced in the manufacture of pig iron. If the cooling of the slag is done with a large excess of water, granulated slag is formed which is used in the manufacture of blast furnace slag cement. If cooling is done with a limited amount of water in such a way as to strip streams I mass, it produces a porous, honeycombed material, which resembles pumice. Sometimes, the molten slag is rapidly agitated with limited amount of water and the stream and gas produced are made to get entrapped in the mass. Such a product is also called foamed slag or expanded slag.
Powdery ore was employed in the metal reﬁning process because the powder has a larger surface area, per unit volume. The large surface area can accelerate a reduction, which indicates that the reduction maintains its high rate at a lower temperature. Both the Fastmet and Tatara methods utilized this principle and these processes can reduce iron ore at low temperatures. The reducing dose was limited by the supplied energy in these processes. We can reduce large amounts of ore to remove this limit, which is the concept of the furnace. This concept proposes that microwave heating can supply a much larger amount energy than the conven- tional heating can. It is easy to control the energy ﬂow, and the process is able to supply large amounts of energy and provides a considerable beneﬁt for industrial processes.
This study is an attempt to use the blast furnace slag in road construction or in the sub grade or in the wearing course (the coats). The study involves the use in the sub- grade of natural materials and careers available in the vicinity of the site, the slag is introduced with a percent- age and the result of successive Proctor determining the optimal percentage of dairy used. For asphalt mixture used in proportions, aggregate and binder to wait for bet- ter mechanical characteristics is selected by introducing a percentage of slag in the formulation, while retaining single type of bitumen for the first time.
This research is centered on the design of a diesel fired heat-treatment furnace using locally sourced materials. The design philosophy is to eliminate the use of heating elements requiring electric power which is poorly supplied in the country. Design drawings were produced and mild steel was used for the fabrication of the furnace casing, while the other components needed for the design were selected based on functionality, durability, cost and local availability. The furnace was assembled by lining the inner wall of the casing with refractory blocks made from heated mixture of kaolin, clay, sawdust and water after which the inner pot and electro technical devices (temperature controller, light indicator etc) were positioned. Testing was subsequently performed to evaluate the performance of the furnace. It was observed that the furnace has a fast heating rate (61.24 0 C/min to attain a pre-set temperature of 900 0 C); and a fuel consumption rate less than 1.41litres/hr. It was also observed that the furnace has good heat retaining capacity; can be easily maintained and safe for use.
Subsequently, we investigated the effect of initial particle size of the slag/glass mixture on the crystallization behavior during the hydrothermal reaction. Figure 12 shows the X-ray diffraction analysis of the 30 mass% BF slag70 mass% borosilicate glass mixtures with 180250 µm particle size after hydrothermal reaction for different holding times. Compared with the results for the slag/glass mixture with 3263 µm particle size, the degree of crystallization was much lower in the slag/glass mixture with large particle size even after hydrothermal reaction for a long time, although a signi ﬁ cant amount of hydrate crystalline phase was detected in the slag / glass mixture with small particle size. This indicates that when large slag and glass particles are used, the chemical components in these particles react with the
Abstract— Increasing demand for energy requirement has attracted considerable attention among researchers to develop efficient energy storage. One of the energy storage devices is supercapacitor, has great potential for it’s capability to deliver more power than batteries and store more energy than conventional capacitor. For making such Supercapacitors various types of carbon materials like activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, carbon aerogel, carbon derived carbon, graphite, etc are use as a electrode material. To produce this type of carbon special furnaces are required. This furnace has it’s own parameters in terms of pressure, temperature, weight, power, dimensions. So it was decided to develop new kind of furnace which can make high quality carbon for energy storage devices such as mainly used for supercapacitor.
2 Failure to control one of the process parameters can lead to give an impact in Bell casting operation. In order to overcome this failure, this project was to estimate the most influential process parameters and process optimization in Bell casting operation.
Patterns are a form, template, or model which can be used to make or to generate things or parts of a thing. Patterns are used to mold the sand mixture into the shape of the casting. They may be made of wood, plastic or metal. The selection of a pattern material depends on size and shape of the casting, the dimensional accuracy, the quantity of casting required and the molding process. Because patterns are used repeatedly to make molds, the strength and durability of the material selected for patterns must reflect the number of castings that the mould will produce. Patterns are usually coated with a parting agent to facilitate their removal from the moulds. 
The molten metal that is injected into the die will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the die cavity. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies, the final shape of the casting is formed. The die can not be opened until the cooling time has elapsed and the casting is solidified. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the metal, the maximum wall thickness of the casting, and the complexity of the die. A greater wall thickness will require a longer cooling time. The geometric complexity of the die also requires a longer cooling time because the additional resistance to the flow of heat.
Researcher’s attempts were carried out at Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites are being considered for their surpassing mechanical and tribological properties over the conventional aluminium alloys, and therefore, these composites have gained extensive applications in automotive and aerospace industries. In this investigation, the fabrication of 6061Al composites with different weight percentage of Al2O3 particles up to 0-9% was processed by liquid metallurgy route. For each composite, reinforcement particles were preheated to a temperature of 200°C and then dispersed in steps of three into the vortex of molten 6061Al alloy rather than introducing all at once, there by trying to improve wettability and distribution. Microstructural characterization was carried out for the above prepared composites by taking specimens from central portion of the casting. Microstructural characterization of the composites has exhibited fairly uniform distribution of Al 2 O 3 particulates.
3. The main aspect in designing steel and glass joints is to consider the special material properties and behavior of glass. 4. Glass fractures brittle without a forewarning. These properties and behavior concern normal float glass as well as laminated glass and safety glass.