In currently acknowledged models of the design and construction process (inter alia RIBA 1980; British Property Federation 1983; Hughes 1991 provides a comprehensive review) and in recently published client-focused guides (CIRIA 1995), this stage of a project is given scant consideration, when compared with the latter stages. However, the models assume that clients have already established ‘the need’ when approaching the construction industry. Whilst there is little evidence to suggest that this is not the case, it would seem reasonable to assume that the knowledge possessed by speculative building developers and con- sultants could assist any client in these early stages of a project. The problems associated with the translation of this need through the conventional briefing stage of design (O’Reilly 1987) have the potential for substan- tial elimination via such an approach.
. Later a rope-geared elevator with multiple pulleys was developed. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke. The design of the Otis safety elevator is somewhat similar to one type still used today. On March 23, 1857 the first Otis passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City. An elevator shaft was included in the design for Cooper Union, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented. The shaft was cylindrical because Cooper felt it was the most efficient design. The first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880. The development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides. The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Elevators are classified based on their hoist mechanism; elevators can be rope dependent or rope-free. There are at least three means of moving an elevator; traction elevator, hydraulic elevator and climbing elevator.
An internship is a cooperative program between BYU-Idaho Design and Construction Department and approved Experience Providers (employers). Professional internships cor- relate actual work experience in the building construction industry with the architecture and construction coursework. Internships approved by the internship coordinator provide students with knowledge of career opportunities and actual work experience in prepara- tion for employment after graduation. The ideal internship would take place during the student’s off-track semester and be a full time, paid, employment opportunity. The length of time for your internship experience is intended to be equal to a 14 week semester, 40 hours per week or approximately 560 hours. Students should complete this internship course no later than between their Sophomore and Junior years for Construction Manage- ment degree seeking students and between Freshman and Sophomore years for those seeking an Associate degree in Architecture.
Sustainability means ensuring that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. As populations increase and development continues to expand, traditional construction practices threaten to adversely affect our environ- ment and economies. This course introduces you to green building practices that are revolutionizing the way we design and construct buildings for a sustainable future. You will investigate sustainable strategies that enhance energy effi ciency, reduce dependence on natural resources, and create healthy indoor environments. The LEED rating system will be introduced and used to assess sustainable building strategies.
Abstract: Most people see the telescope as the things for the movies, the science geeks and the rich and affluent, but are these feelings for real? This paper on the design and construction of an optical refracting telescope which is aimed at producing a low cost and portable telescope with less or no aberration effects using the materials we see around us every day goes a long way to answer the question that the telescope is for everybody that loves astronomy. Overall implementation of this work involves knowledge of the physics of optics; lenses to be precise. As a case study I used a double convex lens and the eyepiece of a microscope for the construction of the mini refractor telescope, my hypothesis is that using a double convex is better than using a Plano-convex because the two curved surfaces will cancel out the aberration effect of the individual sides. The resultant telescope was tested during the night and during the day and was used to focus objects at a distance of about 50m from the person with less aberration effect.
The design and construction of a telescopic platform had been carried out, and can meet the urgent need for the replacement of electric bulbs, and fixing of fans in the workshop. It can also be used for the erection of streetlights on campus; more so, it can meet the requirement of painting in high building as well as some activities as concerned harvesting of fruits, pruning of branches and removal of epiphytes.
This document describes the design, construction, and technical details of the Micro- BooNE detector. Section 2 gives a brief review of the LArTPC technique and its implemen- tation in MicroBooNE. Section 3 describes the cryogenic and purification systems which are required for maintaining a stable volume of highly purified liquid argon. The LArTPC de- scribed in section 4 is the centerpiece of the experiment, providing fine-grained images of neutrino interactions. A light collection system, described in section 5, provides timing information, used primarily for triggering beam events, from the prompt scintillation light that is produced in the detector volume. Signals from the light collection system and from the LArTPC are amplified, sampled, and recorded by a custom-designed electronic and readout system, as described in section 6. Section 7 describes the auxiliary instrumentation that monitor and control the detector and all of its associated systems, as well as provide an electrically quiet environment for the experiment to operate. Finally, one of the main calibration sources for the experiment is an ultraviolet laser system, described in section 8, that provides the capability to map out geometric track distortions, as induced, for exam- ple, by space charge. A cosmic ray tagger system, under construction at the time of the writing of this paper, will surround the detector to improve cosmic ray identification and rejection. This system will be described in a subsequent publication.
Among them, it is worth to mention the large Swedish project TVANE (Ogren and Öhrström , Öhrström et al. ) (Train vibration and noise effects) which investigated the combined effects of railway noise and vibration on sleep. The socio-acoustics survey involved 980 residents living at different distances from the railway line in areas without train vibrations and in areas with different levels of vibrations (0.1 – 1.43 mm/s) induced by trains. The effects of noise and vibration on the residents from railway traffic was evaluated through a postal questionnaire whereas the exposure was assessed with empirical studies in the field in areas with similar railway noise exposure and different levels of railway vibration and with experimental studies on sleep performed in laboratory. The field survey for the combined exposure evaluation was conducted on 4 sites: 2 with a weak presence of vibration and 2 with a strong presence of vibration. Preliminary noise estimation for each residential building at each measurement site was done with the calculation program Cadna and measurements for controlling noise and vibration were performed before the final selection of the study areas. Vibration levels were measured outside and inside 5 houses in the two sites where the ground motion was considered strong. Results from field studies confirm the strong effects of railway vibrations on sleep. An interaction effect exists between noise and vibration and general annoyance to railway noise increase when combined with railway vibration.
Abstract - This paper presents the design and testing of a locally fabricated viscometer. The need for a locally fabricated viscometer to measure the viscosity of lubricants is underpinned by the prohibitive cost of imported laboratory equipment such as the viscometers. The kinematic viscosities ofSAE 40, Palm oil and Soybean oil were measuredusing the fabricated viscometer. Experimentalresults showed that theviscosityof Palm oil and Soybean oil at 40 o C was40.87 mm 2 /s and 32.01mm 2 /s respectively. The viscosity of SAE 40 (Engine oil) was 13.65 ± 0.013 mm 2 /s (90% confidence level) at 100 o C.
(1) Approval of construction plans. After a Subdivision has received primary approval, prior to construction of any drainage improvements, Streets, or underground utilities in a Subdivision, and prior to submittal of a Subdivision for secondary approval, the Subdivider shall, in conformance with the policy of the Board, submit prints as follows:
honey from the comb without destroying the comb. Extractors work by a centrifugal force. A drum holds a frame basket which rotates throwing the honey out of the comb. With this method, the wax comb stays intact within the frame and can be reused by the bees. This concept is very important to bee keepers. It is basically an electrical operated machine; the different components are made from available and affordable materials. This machine is designed to be used at any time of the day no matter the temperature or weather conditions. Bees cover the filled in cells with wax cap that must be removed. There are different types of electrically operated extracting machine; there is the twenty frame extractors loaded with four frames turning. Extracting machine is either tangential or radial depending on how the frames are put into the basket. The aim of this research work is to design and construct an honey extractor.
__8. Gross HVAC zoning and typical individual space zoning and operating schedules of the zoned areas. Special occupancy zones such as College server rooms and Telecommunications and Networking Server rooms. Refer to 23 00 01 Owner General Requirements and Design Intent
In construction, engineers are more concerned on the safety aspect such as deflection or cracking of a building application. For architects, they might more interested on the aesthetics of the building design. Therefore seldom people will notice the importance of acoustic quality in the environment during construction stages especially the noise produced from the construction equipment. Moreover, most of them might think that it is unnecessary to have a good control on the acoustic quality in construction sites.
Filters in which the primary characteristic is an abrupt change between a region of rejection and a region of transmission are known as edge filters. Edge filters are divided into two main groups, long wave pass (LWP) and short wave pass (SWP). The operation may depend on many different mechanisms and the construction may take a number of different forms . Edge filters provide a well-defined transition between reflecting and transmitting regions. Essentially a modified quarter wave stack, the filters use interference effects rather than absorption to isolate their spectral bands. Because Edge filters will shift shorter with an increase in the angle of incidence, they are a good choice for fine-tuning the cut-on/cut-off wavelength, useful for redirecting a particular band of light, provide steeper transition than colour glass filters, and offer coverage over the 400–1000nm range . In long-pass (LP) filter (Fig. 1), the goal is to minimize transmission below a given wavelength and maximize transmission above it.
2 than lower phosphorus deposits. The basic electroless plating tank construction are commonly made from polypropylene that is natural; stress-relieved polypropylene is well regarded for tank constructions, as it is inert to plating solutions. It easily fabricated for industrial uses and when using proper nitrogen welding techniques, are fairly reliable. Polypropylene-lined electroless nickel tanks have been fabricated in sizes up to 20 feet long and 10 feet wide. However, the life of the welds and of the polypropylene itself are directly related to the strength of nitric acid used in cleaning and stripping the tank, as polypropylene is oxidized by nitric acid, thereby accelerating deterioration. Moreover, the components from industrial factories such as piping, need to be removed before undergoing plating process. Some cases may require stopping the production for simple maintenance.
Irrespective of the method used, any underground construction project will cause ground movements which have the potential to cause damage to existing structures. Modern geotechnical engineering prac- tice aims to reduce these movements to a minimum but the need for accurate assessments is critical to the success of many projects. For example, BS EN 1997-2:2007 (BSI, 2007) specifies that the location and condition of adjacent underground and surface infrastructure should be determined implying that existing structures should always be considered dur- ing design and construction.
A simple cost effective field vane shear test apparatus was designed and fabricated with locally available accessories and materials. This field vane shear test apparatus can be easily used to determine the undrained shear strength of clay soil at shallow depth. Field vane shear test was conducted near Kumargaon at Sylhet city area and the result was found as 49 kPa on average from the field test which indicates the firm to stiff consistency of clay deposition. This type of product could easily be fabricated in the laboratory in a cost effective way following standard method. The academic researchers and the private consultants (construction field) could easily use this type of item for the field strength test of soft, saturated, cohesive clayey soils. However, it will be appreciable if the field value observed by this tool could be compared with some commercial apparatus available in the market conforming the same field condition.