Unmanned elevated vehicles (UAVs) can help with oceanic search operations carried out by the coast guards by flying with a helicopter and utilizing the infrared cameras in order to scan for the targets inside the water. Present days flight patterns for carrying out the search operations contain unexpected turns that can only be accomplished by a helicopter but was impossible to be done by an UAV. Thus, there was a requirement for developing an UAV- assisted search in path planning and control that helps an UAV to track a specific helicopter carrying out such moves while keeping up the sensor reportage and safety of all other airplanes. Ryan et.al.  proposed a feasible algorithm for path planning integrated with an autopilot system. It comprises of four modes and each of the modes has a related domain of application. Every mode is designed to impart both safety as well as contiguous sensor reportage between the UAV and the manned helicopter. Simulations were carried out using a non-linear model of an UAV and a commercially used autopilot system predominantly in the control loop. While performing the simulations, the coveted trajectories were summoned to the autopilot system as a series of waypoints. But, the UAV was not able to track precisely the trajectories, which resulted into certain oscillatory paths with erratic lengths. Thus, the analytic verifications of the tracking errors convergence as well as safety don't apply.
Abstract— This paper provides in-depth insight into the modern methods adopted to design, analyze & build an efficient radio controlled model of a plane. The UAV discussed in this paper can carry a payload fraction of 0.65 and has a self-weight of 0.5kg. Optimization of the plane is carried out by using simulation tools such as CATIA, ANSYS STRUCTURAL, FLUENT, XFLR. Balsa wood is predominantly employed for manufacturing process. The important parameters taken into consideration for the calculation purposes are highlighted. The analytical approach is discussed in detail for the design of Unmannedaerialvehicle (UAV).
Designing of the basic structure of the vehicle is to be done primarily. The design process will be performed in Solid- works CAD software. Finite elemental force analysis will be performed using suitable simulation software and obtained results will used for analysis and optimization of the design. Materials required for the development of the vehicle are to be determined on basis of structural and fire-resistant properties. The processes and procedures for fabrication are determined on the basis of requirements and availability of resources. Design of the tank tread mechanism is to be done. Drive for the vehicle is to be obtained from a dc motor. Since it’s been planned to obtain directional control by alternative operation of tank tread on both sides, so two motors are needed. The selection of motor based on the torque and speed requirements is to be done. The dc power source for operating the motor are obtained from the batteries mounted on the vehicle itself. Fire resistivity can be enhanced by giving a coating of fire retardant materials. Water or the other fire extinguishing fluid is pumped from an external source through a pipe to the vehicle. A direction controllable nozzle is embedded through which any required angular position can be setup, thereby facilitating us to target any specific area of fire. Realization of the direction of movement, identification of obstacles, location of fire etc. is obtained through a live camera feed. Assembly of the above- mentioned components in their respective slots will ensure effective and reliable working of the vehicle as a complete system.
This project titled “ROTOR-CRAFT” is connected with the development and control of an UnmannedAerialVehicle. Using different components and developing the design, for betterment of the society which would be useful for multipurpose applications.
The model of a quadrotor unmannedaerialvehicle (UAV) is nonlinear and dynamically unstable. A flight controller design is proposed on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory which guarantees that all the states remain and reach on the sliding surfaces. The control strategy uses sliding mode with a backstepping control to perform the position and attitude tracking control. This proposed controller is simple and effectively enhance the performance of quadrotor UAV. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, White Gaussian Noise and aerodynamic moment disturbances are taken into account. The performance of the nonlinear control method is evaluated by comparing the performance with developed linear quadratic regulator and existing backstepping control technique and proportional-integral-derivative from the literature. The comparative performance results demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the quadrotor UAV.
(“high”) in terms of ten usability characteristics (e.g., complexity, consistency, learnability, ease of use). The researchers formulated guidelines from the GDTA and AH results along with the results of the usability heuristic analysis to create a new interface design. This new interface was tested and achieved higher scores, according to experts, due to its intuitiveness and improved interactivity. However, the authors pointed-out that GDTA and AH modeling required significant time investment for analysts. In addition, the AH model was difficult to develop and might have depended on expert knowledge and understanding of the system. Within the unmanned systems domain, Humphrey and Adams (2011) modified GDTA in its application for an analysis of integration of multiple unmanned systems. They applied GDTA to a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) event and assessed human responder functioning as system components. The goal was to understand how unmanned systems could be designed for effective integration into the overall domain or system. Enhanced vehicle control interface design requirements were identified from the analysis and used as feedback for a design process (Humphrey & Adams, 2011). Humphrey and Adams also considered the complexity of developing task analysis models to be a major challenge and limitation of this approach.
may remain over the scene to direct local forces to apprehend them on site or in transit. UAV is used in aerial photography, using a combination of video and high-resolution still cameras (film or digital) pictures may be obtained of geographic and constructed features, such as historic houses, castles, bridges, etc. The UAV is cheaper, and less intrusive in its use, than manned aircraft. Hover flight is advantageous for positioning Survey of crops is feasible using infrared and colour cameras to detect the onset of disease through changes in crop colour.
two motors can control the roll motion of the aircraft. Decreasing or increasing the combined thrust of the two rotors could control the flight attitude. Converted from the vertical mode to the horizontal flight, the deflection of two ailerons is regulated until the UAV reaches the desired angle. In the horizontal mode, when forward mo- tion of the aircraft is attained-air moving over the outer body wings provides the lift for horizontal flight. During horizontal flight, the yaw motion is controlled by the differential velocity of the two motors. Pitch motion is controlled by the parallel deflection of the two ailerons. Roll motion is controlled through differential deflection of the two ailerons. The vehicle thrust is regulated by the velocity of the propulsion system (see Table 3).
Franco et al (2017 introduces a low-cost embedded system design and implementation for a two-axis camera platform control used in UAVs. The main goal is to have a gimbal able to stabilize a camera, with respect to UAV attitude, using permanent magnet synchronous motors as actuators. Their design also uses an inertial measurement unit as a sensor and a proportional-integral-derivative controller. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed embedded system was able to successfully respond to a simulated UAV flight envelope, reacting in real-time and minimizing those disturbances .
Abstract: Unmannedaerial vehicles (UAVs) demonstrate excellent manoeuvrability in cluttered environments, which makes them a suitable platform as a data collection and parcel delivering system. In this work, the attitude and position control challenges for a drone with a package connected by a wire is analysed. During the delivering task, it is very difficult to eliminate the external unpredictable disturbances. A robust neural network-based backstepping sliding mode control method is designed, which is capable of monitoring the drone’s flight path and desired attitude with a suspended cable attached. The convergence of the position and attitude errors together with the Lyapunov function are employed to attest to the robustness of the nonlinear transportation platform. The proposed control system is tested with a simulation and in an outdoor environment. The simulation and open field test results for the UAV transportation platform verify the controllers’ reliability.
Abstract: Considering the difficulty of broadcasting in the small plots and complex terrain in South China, this research aimed to explore a new efficient broadcasting way and figure out advisable operation parameters by using a hollow 12-axis, rotor-wing UnmannedAerialVehicle (UAV) which is typically made up of four groups of solid support structure, with each consisting of three axes and two rotor wings. A 3.7 L reverse pyramid-shape seed hopper with a 60 mm×13 mm rectangular outlet at the bottom was designed to realize self-gravity seeding. Rice seed firstly directly falls on the rotating disc driven by direct-current dynamo before being sown. The disc was located 120 mm above the ground, with a diameter of 350 mm. Under constant flight conditions, parameters of the on-board broadcasting devices (dropping speed referring to speed for the outlet and the broadcasting speed for the disc’s rotation speed) determine the uniformity of air broadcasting. The FUTABA T8FG transmitter and receiver system were employed as the remote control device. When the UAV flies at 3 m/s and 2 m above the ground with an expected seeding of 180 grain/m 2 , the RD (Right Down) knob marked 29 and LD (Left Down) knob
The wing, one of the most important parts of aircraft, always requires sophis- ticated design to increase lift, reduce drag and weight. For modern fixed-wing UAV, extending cruising time is always a requirement for the overall design. Designing a most light wing that can match the requirements of work condi- tions is desired. In this work, according to the work conditions, we compare several types of wing and chose beam-type wing. Then we made the detailed design and optimization to reduce the weight of wing. At last, we draw the 3D model for potential realistic production.
Drone is an acronym for Dynamic Remotely Operated Navigation Equipment. A Drone may be a Bicopter, Tricopter(Y3, T3), Quadcopter(X4, Y4, V-Tail, A-Tail) or Hexacopter(Y6), it is basically a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by two, three, four or six rotors respectively. Most of the helicopters, Quadcopters use two sets of identical fixed pitched propellers; two clockwise (CW) and two counter-clockwise (CCW). Quadcopters use variation of rotor RPMs to manipulate and control torque and lift. Control over quadcopters’ motion is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or more rotor discs, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics by using a microcontroller. A Quadcopter is basically a mini- helicopter with four rotors, and is also known as Quadrotor. Because of its unique design in comparison to traditional helicopters, it allows a more stable platform, making Quadcopters ideal for tasks such as surveillance and aerial photography. And it is also getting very popular in UAV research in recent years
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) defines a UAV as an unmanned aircraft or “device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air that has no onboard pilot. This includes all classes of airplanes, helicopters, airships, and translational lift aircraft that have no onboard pilot. Unmanned aircraft are known by a host of names including remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs), drones, robot planes, and unmanned combat aerial vehicles, but do not include missiles and rockets. UAVs serve myriad military missions, have commercial and civilian applications, and possess capabilities that are as varied as their designs. Military uses include national defense, disaster response, homeland
Radio controlled (R/C) vehicles are controlled with a wireless, hand-held transmitter which communicates with the vehicle through radio frequencies, providing the advantage of long-range control. The range of a vehicle is the area in which the R/C vehicle can receive the radio frequency signals from the vehicle’s transmitter. The range can be anywhere from 50 to over 1500 feet and varies from vehicle to vehicle. Remote control airplane usually needs 4 or more channels of remote control. These channels are needed to control the control surfaces and the throttle for controlling the speed.
V. C ONTROLLER D ESIGN U SING SIMULINK The observer controller design takes into consideration that not all states can be sensed and there for the addition of an observer is needed in the system. This addition requires an additional loop in the controller and a second loop gain, the observer gain, L. The observer gain design is theoretically independent of the controller feedback gain design (K). However, in this case the gain, L, was calculated by pole placement based on the closed loop poles of the controller system with the gain K. The best system performance was achieved by placing the observer gain poles to be equal to the negative of the smallest magnitude of the real component of the closed loop controller poles.
ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes current work on theoretical and experimental cooperative tracking of moving targets by a team of UAVs. The Institution Group is leading a diverse group of researchers to develop building block foundations for cooperative tracking. The building block algorithms have been maturing through the partners, and the team led by Institutions is now pulling the technologies together for demonstration and commercialization. The work reported here focuses on cooperative tracking using multiple UAVs, with the ability for one operator to control many UAVs which are tasked to 1) provide autonomous tracking of moving and evading targets, and 2) report to a centralized database, position history, and velocity vector of the target being tracked. Flock guidance algorithms have been developed and simulated to enable a flock of UAVs to track an evading vehicle. Algorithms have been demonstrated in simulation that dynamically allocate tasks and compute near-optimal paths in real-time; minimize the probability that vehicles are destroyed due to collision or damage from threat; and accommodate moving targets, time- on-targets, and sequencing, as well as the effects of weather and terrain. Additionally Relocation estimation algorithms and software have been developed which exchange information among vehicles, process the information robustly and in real time, and have demonstrated that the joint accuracy is improved. Work has also focused on accurate probabilistic analysis of the estimates, especially considering variations across multiple vehicle sets of Scan Eagle UAVs.
The structure of the controller is presented in Figure-13. The inner closed loop regulates the angular rate based on the feedback received from the gyroscope on the Z axis. The proportional gain, integral gain and derivative gain of this PID controller were determined using FRtool , which is a graphical tool for controller design which allows the user to interactively modify the poles and zeros of the controllers. By using this tool, the time delay of the system does not have to be approximated (i.e. Padé) since it is represented as a shif tin the phase.
The software design and the screen layout are based on operator experiences and customer demands for a self-explanatory environment, which allows monitoring all relevant UAV information and makes it easy to learn and memorize the UAV operation(s) for Autonomous Geographical control for unmannedAerialvehicle AGCUAV. Mission planning is done by a graphical user interface, including moving map capabilities and waypoint editing by simple mouse clicks. The actual flight trajectory and the reference flight trajectory are both displayed on a map. Commands by the joystick or by the waypoint mission planner will directly be uploaded to the flight controller and will be executed immediately . The developed environment can be used to operate helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. Furthermore, the implemented operations can be used in many applications, such as aerial photography, aerial surveillance or many kinds of aerial inspection . The identification of a catastrophe location accurately can lead to higher probabilities in saving people and other physical parties. The proposed model (AGCUAV) uses a small UAV that controls the plane from a distance through the use of a laptop to carry out critical tasks. The model also uses a Global Positing Systems (GPS) navigation to increase the capacity to control the plane by calculating the ratio of Coordinates from the Aircraft Accurately. In addition, the model uses a GIS, which consists of a map of the site where the plane flies to determine the optimum air way and identifies difficulties in order to avoid it with the help of the used hardware. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the content of UAV data utilized in a multi-layer architecture model of 2D flight situation. Moreover, the paper describes the virtual instrument interface design that reflects the basic method of GUI (Graphical User Interface), and discusses the Ground Control Station (GCS) for Autonomous UAV Architecture.
The main objective of the project is to design a Unmannedaerialvehicle for the surveillance purpose using high resolution video camera. This project is mainly focused on the UAV applications. The analysis of the existing UnmannedAerial Vehicles is done for the purpose of implementing for the augmented reality purpose. The video camera is implemented in the UnmannedAerial Vehicles to capture the video at which area need to focus on. The video captured by the camera is then transmitted to the PC with the use of the RF Transceiver system. The control of the UAV is done by interfacing the UAV with the Micro controller. Here the gyro sensor used for the interfacing purpose of the UAV with the remote control unit. The control signal for the controller is transmitted by the use of a RF Transceivers. So the required components are selected for the design of UAV with minimum weight and also camera in small size. By the thorough analysis this can be design, as the UAV with low cost and it is very useful while using at the reality top view.