In order to study the most economical configuration of silos to store a given volume of a material, twenty eight samples of silos have been designed by changing the ratio of height to diameter for storing a given material, namely, bituminous coal. In this investigation, for volume of 125m 3 , the diameter to height ratio is varied and has been designed and finally, the most economical size is found out. This method is carried out for volume of 125m 3 . All the designs have been based on the recommendations of I.S 4995 -1974 (part 1&2) “Criteria For Design Of Reinforced Concrete Bins For The Storage Of Granular And Powdery Materials” and I.S 456 – 2000 codes. Based on these designs, those dimensions of silos which will lead to least amount of concrete, steel and total cost to store a given amount of material have been found out. These findings will be useful for the designers of silos.
In this paper a model for the design and optimization of an automated storage-and-retrieval system for single- and multi-aisle systems is presented. Because of the required conditions, i.e., that the warehouse should be technically highly efficient and that it should be designed at reasonable expense, the objective function is represented by minimum total costs. The objective function combines elements of the static and dynamic parts of the warehouse, the investment, and the operational costs of the warehouse. Due to the non- linear, multi-variable and discrete shape of the objective function, the method of genetics algorithms was used for the optimization process of the decision variables. An analysis of the chosen automated warehouse with two types of the single- and multi-aisle automated storage and retrieval systems is presented. It was established that the optimum solutions regarding total costs of the warehouse can be found in the area of high and long storage racks. Consequently, this influences the reduction of the number of picking aisles and the number of storage and retrieval machines. The results of the analysis show that the choice of a type of single- or multi-aisle system depends crucially on the required throughput capacity of the warehouse. The presented model is a very useful and flexible tool for choosing a particular type of single- or multi-aisle system when designing automated warehousing systems.
The objective of present research work was to design and characterize the venlafaxine HCl-loaded sodium alginate- based mucoadhesive microcapsules by ionic gelation technique using HPMC K100M as mucoadhesive polymer. The Placket-Burman Design was applied for preliminary screening of the formulations and systematic optimization by using Box-Behnken Design. The prepared microcapsules were characterized for drug content, entrapment efficiency, micromeritic properties, particle size, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release and in vivo antidepressant activity. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry studies showed no incompatibility. Surface morphology studies revealed spherical nature of the prepared microcapsules. In vitro drug release studies revealed sustained release by diffusion mechanism. Further, the microcapsules were effective in reducing the depression induced by forced swimming test in Sprague-Dawley rats compared to the pure drug. The microcapsules were found to be stable under accelerated stability conditions, which suggest them as better alternative delivery systems for enhanced therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drug, venlafaxine HCl.
The injection process is very well illustrated by the injection rate, which has a decisive in fluence on the combustion process. It is therefo re very important that the optimum CFIE systems realize an injection rate (IR) similar to the pro jected (idealized) IR. This idea forms the founda tion for the presented optimization of CFIE. The objective function is defined as a maximum diffe rence (on the time interval 10, 74 ) between the projected and the actual injection rate. The result of the minimization of this objective function, with respect to the design variables Ž, is the
Extensive survey of literature and patent databases did not reveal any cyclovirobuxine-D-loaded SNEDDS designed for improvement of oral absorption. The current study discusses the optimization of SNEDDS for improved bioavailability of cyclovirobuxine D. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer were used to determine the shape and size of the resultant nanoemulsion. In vivo and in vitro studies were carried out to ascertain the release and absorption characteristics of the drug from SNEDDS compared with that of commercially available tablets.
In this study; tubular linear alternator has been designed for the free piston applications and design software has been deve Three different purpose functions have been defined for usage in this software and all these purpose functions have been exa under four separate conditions. Purpose function 1has been used for the optimization success test. The attained analytical re have been used to form two dimensional analysis model of the alternator in finite elements environment. The results of analytical and finite elements analyses have been submitted in the study. The calculation results of the program developed wi conducted analysis results are in conformity with too little error margins. Matlab-based iterative design and optimizati has been developed for the linear alternators frequently used in the areas in which the production of electricity is currentl from the linear movement. The purpose functions defined in the study could also be used within its own solutio
Abstract. Compliance with the rules and regulations of competition “Student Formula Car Racing” that conducted annually by the ‘Society of Automotive Engineers’ (SAE) India, the car frame must be designed and built with su- preme priority. The major task posed is to design and fabricate a light weighed vehicle chassis frame without com- pensating the safety. This paper boards various methods of material selection, technical designoptimization and Fi- nite Element Analysis using ANSYS. The basic design is based on the anthropological study data of the specified human (95th percentile male) al-lowing fast ‘way-in’ and ‘way-out’ access from the car. According to the rules book specification on material selection, AISI 4130 chromoly steel was the first time identified for the frame design. Re- sulting in the final design of the vehicle frame, various analyses were done using ANSYS and the successive results are plotted and discussed. The entire designoptimization and simulation analysis are based on the 2019 Formula SAE rules book.
interaction between factors chosen can be identifi ed. Construction of a factorial design involves the selection of parameters and the choice of responses. Optimization has been done by using 3² full factorial design, where amount of psyllium husk (X 1 ) and amount of HPMC K4M (X 2 ) were taken as independent variables and the time required for 50% (t 50% ) and 70% (t 70% ) drug dissolution as dependent variables. Step-wise backward linear regression analysis was used to develop polynomial equations for the dependent variables t 50% and t 70% values by using PCP Disso 2000 V3 software. The validity of the developed polynomial regression equations was verified by preparing two check point formulations (C1 and C2) [13,14] .
Abstract: The Storage of Structure increased due to development of industrial infrastructure .To store materials like coal, wheat, sugar, cements etc. The height of containers is larger than its diameter it is termed as silo. Reinforced concrete bins are constructed to store such type of material. Hence RCC silos are widely used for storage of granular materials as they are an ideal structural material for the building of permanent bulk-storage facilities for dry granular like fillings. RCC Bin of hopper bottom type. Specified the various parameters such as diameter of bin, height of bin, properties of the material to be stored (angle of repose and density), grade of steel, grade of concrete is considered for design. This study describes a review of design of silos using Matlab. Software and by varying the H/D ratio, volume of silo with different material and density.
PS, PdI and ZP measurements were conducted for all lipo- somal formulations prepared for studying the experimental design. The size distribution was found to be between 155.3 and 186.6 nm, while PdI of these liposomes was below 0.3, suggesting narrow size distribution and uniform particle formation. ZP results varied between - 6.96 and - 8.35 mV, which indicate a slight negative charge on the liposomal surface. As shown in Figure 3, spherical structure and smooth surface of the optimized liposome was confirmed with SEM and TEM analyses.
It is connected to the ring beam. So at the ends, the wall may well be assumed as rigidly connected, leading thereby deformation to its minimum. The bottom of the wall has been considered as fixed to the ring beam as it provides a good rigidity to arrest lateral sway of the combined. Although the topmost level is free to deflect, due to in plane rigidity and diaphragm action of the roof slab the total deflection is also minimized. If the end/support conditions are properly simulated with above knowledge in the mathematical model, one can readily understand that the maximum deformation takes place at a level close to the topmost level. The extent of this deformation of silo wall, i.e., ovalisation effect increases as the ratio of HID of silo increases beyond 2. In all cases the transverse shear due to wind load has been assessed following the method laid down by relevant IS code of practice, applicable to such Silo Structures. To derive the response of silo wall subjected to wind load, an annular ring of height unity has been considered and the same has been taken at the level between (+) 10.0m to 15 m. The horizontal load on such ring due to wind is calculated based on wind pressure distribution as per IS 875 Part – III [7-12].
Optimization of fermentation medium and extraction process was done using one factor at-a-time method. The production media was selected for the optimization study. Flasks containing media, which was not inoculated with the microorganisms, were maintained as the controls. Also controls without the substrate were maintained to rule out the possibility of de novo synthesis of genistein. The production media was optimized with respect to the following parameters: Growth curve of microorganism, type of substrate (soy flour, soy tone and soy meal), concentration of the substrate (from 20 g/l to 220 g/l), inoculum size (1 ml to 4 ml of 10 9 CFU/ml), extracting
dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 16 s); the formulation containing 2% w/w crospovidone and 40% w/w microcrystalline cellulose was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40º/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the invitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profi les. This formulation showed nearly fi ve- fold faster drug release (t 50% 3.5 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t 50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no signifi cant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).
Stability study was conducted on optimized formulation as per ICH guidelines. The parameters evaluated were color, odor, hardness, friability, disintegration time, % drug release and drug content. The optimized formulation was found stable after evaluation of these parameters at different stability conditions and the results are given in Table 4. The directly compressible ODTs of quetiapine fumarate with shorter disintegration time, greater drug release and low friability (good mechanical strength) were obtained using Indion 414, camphor and other excipients at tested concentrations. The formulation F3 was selected as optimum owing to less DT, greater drug release and other evaluation parameters using minimum concentration of superdisintegrant and subliming agent. The results of 3 2 factorial design revealed that
2. Optimization of processing temperature and pH for maximum drug loading has been presented in Table 3. The loading capacity of the resin for clarithromycin was higher when activated in acidic rather than alkaline conditions. This could be explained by the stoichiometric nature of the exchange reaction between drug and resin in solution. All resins displayed increase in drug loading capacity with increase in swelling time. It was found that with increase in time of stirring of the solution, the drug loading gets increased and maximum drug loading was achieved within 6 h.
Abstract— A silo is a tall and big (heavy) structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are used in agriculture to store grains. These are more commonly used to store coal, fly ash, cement, carbon black, woodchips, ore, crushed stone, gravel, food products and sawdust. Silos are special structures subjected to different static and dynamic loading conditions, which cause unusual failure modes. Janseen’s theory is used for pressure calculation in static condition and theoretical approach for calculation of additional pressure due to seismic action. The standards viz. ARE 1893-2002may be used for comparison of “Base Shear Force” at the bottom of a Silo. The calculation is based on respective codal provisions applicable to Indian Seismic Zones, Site Conditions, etc. Nonetheless, a thorough investigation is required to know the structural behavior of the silo under seismic loading for proper design and improved performance. Linear dynamic analysis is done using software STAAD.Pro V8i as per IS 1893(Part I):2002. The Indian Standard “IS: 4995 (Part-I)- 1974” is preferably used to assess the silo for angle of internal friction and bulk density of various materials stored in. Badly designed silos have buckled and unexpectedly collapsed due to earthquakes. Structural response to earthquakes is a dynamic phenomenon that depends on dynamic characteristics of structures and the intensity, duration and frequency content of the exciting ground motion. In the present work, dynamic analysis of a typical silo is done for earthquake Zone V as per Indian code. Two distinct analyses are carried out namely, Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA) and Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) using STAAD.Pro V8i software. The Load combinations are considered as per Indian code. The results in terms of Fundamental natural period, Natural Frequency, lateral Displacements are compared for the different silo models considered in the present study.
Riya Dey and Abhirup Bhattacharjee  : Discussed about the comparison of RCC and Steel hopper designs. Dead weight is more in RCC hopper, whereas steel hopper are much less in dead weights. RCC hopper is cheaper compare to steel hopper and are more durable and stable. RCC hopper gives optimal result with a thickness having 250mm when compared with steel hopper having thickness of 10mm. Steel hopper are basically long usage, cost effective and very suitable in the areas of mining.RCC is more durable and suitable for storing granular materials.
inimitable in nature unlike other engineering products which are constructed in a massive scale using the same technique repeatedly. The present Project is an attempt to understand Performance Based Design Approach. The performance-based seismic design approach enables us to design new structures more efficiently and to assess existing structures more realistically. The promise of performance- based seismic engineering is to construct structures with expected seismic performance. Performance based seismic design precisely evaluates how building is likely to perform in given possible earthquake threat. In performance based design identifying and assessing performance capacity of structure in an important part of design process, and guide the many decisions that must be made. Present study based on performance based seismic design and non-linear analysis of multi-storey RCC building. Performance based seismic design is an iterative process, begins with choice of performance objective followed by preliminary design, an evaluation whether or not the design meets the performance objective and finally redesign and reassessment, until desired performance level is achieved. In this project work we have carried out performance based seismic design of multi-storey (G+5) RCC building. Once design is complete, non-linear analysis is carried out to study seismic performance of building and found out whether selected objective is satisfied or not. In this work (G+5) RCC building is designed as per IS code (IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002, IS 456: 2000) for zone 5, 4 and 3 for Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) and Design based Earthquake (DBE) and a nonlinear static analysis is carried out using auto plastic hinges. After the building is designed it is imported to ETABS platform in order to carry out Pushover Analysis. The Displacement controlled Pushover Analysis was carried out and the Pushover Curve were obtained for the building as per guidelines mentioned in ATC 40. The Capacity Spectrum, Storey Displacement, Storey Drift, Demand Spectrum and Performance point of the building was found using the analysis carried out in ETABS 2015. These results were compared for each zone from which we can find out how the building will perform in different zones. From the Performance point it was found that the Building designed as per Indian standards was found to be well above Life safety performance level considering Designed Based Earthquake. Keywords: Performance based seismic design, Performance objective, Capacity, Demand.