The cracking pot covers are meant to cover the cracking pot on both sides. The pot covers are two in number and are made from low carbon steel sheet of 8mm thickness. They were cut to the same diameter of 400mm with the cracking pot. Three small metal pieces with drilled holes were also attached to the pot covers at intervals that were meant to march-fit with those of the cracking pot. See fig. 3f. The shaded portion measuring 20mm on the front cover in fig. 3f was cut to provide a passage for the shaft when fitting or removing the front pot cover. See fig. 3g. Also a hole of 100mm diameter was cut on the rear pot cover in fig. 3f to provide an inlet passage for the palm nut falling from the hopper into the cracking rectangular channel through the centre hole of the cracking flywheel and thereafter into the cracking pot.
In the recent years, various researchers and engineers (Ilechie, 1985; Babatunde and Okoli, 1988; Manuwa, 1997; Obiakor and Babatunde, 1999; Olakanmi, 2004; Koya and Faborode, 2005; Koya, 2006; Olukunle et al., 2008; Jimoh and Olukunle, 2012) had developed different types of prototypes and concepts for mechanized palm nut cracking devices. So far, palm nut cracking operation had recorded certain level of feat, the process however has quite a number of deficiencies, notably, high operational speed of the existing cracking devices makes design modification a necessity in order to minimize mechanical damage and improve the recovery of the products. Other defects of the existing crackers include: kernels breakages, which may be due to insufficient nut dryness, uncracked nuts in the finished product, which may be caused by inappropriate spacing of blow bars as well as the high nut feeding rate into the cracking chamber. Fortunately, the knowledge of minimum impact force required for nut cracking relevant to the design improvement of the existing mechanical nutcrackers has been investigated (Ofei, 2007; Koya and Faborode, 2005). The focus of this study was therefore aimed at developing a modified palm-nut cracker that minimizes kernel breakage for enhanced subsequent product separation.
them susceptible to damage. At present, most of research work is tailored into modelling of the vari- ables which determine the functionality of process- ing machines. Most of these models are specific and related to a particular design of a machine, which implies that the specific functional parameters need to be established. Most of the data for kernel crack- ers are generalized. A search through the literature shows that literature on vertical-shaft centrifu- gal palm nut cracker is very scarce. Therefore the present study is undertaken to identify the major parameters that affect the efficiency of the palm nut cracker at different operating conditions and their inter-relationships, and will serve as a guideline for further research and designs.
3 occupational hazard creates unsafe working environment due to excessive noise exposure at the nut cracking station. This condition can be found during nut cracking process using nut crackers also known as ripple mill. The ripple mill is a machine used to crack nuts and separate kernel and shell. During the cracking process, a very loud noise produced by the machine. This exposure of noise can lead to hearing loss to workers when they are continuously exposed to the noise in a long period. According to Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994), the noise hazard can be prevented using three approaches such as administrative controls, engineering controls, and personal protective equipments. In this study, the second approach is used to design a noise insulator for ripple mill. In the recognition the importance of minimizing occupational hazard associated with noise exposure at the nut cracking station, the aim of this study is to design a noise insulator for ripple mill to reduce noise risks among the machine operators and the co-workers.
Additionally, the density of the palmkernel shell concrete was found to be about 27% lower compared to the normal weight concrete and it is very noteworthy when dead load of the structures is concerned in the design and construction of structural elements. Thus, it can be concluded that palmkernel shell concrete has advantage in both strength and density. The values of 16.63, 15.60, 14.62 and 12.71 N mm -2 being compressive strengths obtained for the palmkernel shell concrete at 28 days curing for 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively imply that the shell used in this research is suitable for achieving adequate compressive strength. Previously, compressive strengths of palmkernel shell concrete with mix design of 1:2:4 and water/cement ratio 0.6 have been reported to range from 5 to 25 N mm -2 (Okafor, 1988). Okpala (1990) and Olanipekun et al. (2006) achieved 16.50 N mm -2 and 14.70 N mm -2 respectively. Generally, the compressive strength of 13-22 N mm -2 was reported for palmkernel shell concrete by many previous researchers. This research has shown that concrete strengths development is directly proportional to curing age and varies inversely with progressive addition of
Over the years, different researchers had carried out investigations on various techniques to facilitate the extraction of whole kernels from the shells, which have remained an arduous challenge in the industry due to huge damages on the kernels during the cracking process which in variably reduces its market value (Singh and Bargale, 2004). The development of effective route for the production of palm kernels and shells is therefore very crucial in order to meet up with their increasing demand industrially (Oke, 2007).
The modern crackers are of two types; the hammer impact and the centrifugal impact types. The ham- mer impact type breaks or cracks the nut on impact when the hammer falls on it; while centrifugal impact nut cracker uses centrifugal action to crack the nut (Ndukwu, Asoegwu 2010). In the centrifugal im- pact type; the nut is fed into the hopper and it falls into the housing where a plate attached to the ro- tor is rotating; which flings the nut on the cracking ring; thereby breaking the nut. Cracking therefore is an energy-involving process. According to some re- searchers (Asoegwu 1995; Ndukwu 1998) shelling or cracking has always posed a major problem in the processing of bio material and they attributed this to the shape and the brittleness of the kernel of the nut; rendering them susceptible to damageduring crack- ing. Presently most of the research work is tailored into modelling of the variables which determine the functionality of processing machines. Most of these models are specific and related to a particular design
Palmkernel screw press (MS – 100) fabricated by Magnus (Nigeria) was used for the oil extraction. The press has a capacity of about 101.7 kg h -1 at a speed of 56 rpm, powered by a 45 kW, 3 phase electric motor. The screw press had a test run for about 2 min before loading and processing the conditioned samples. The expressed oil per sample was collected in a 3-litre transparent plastic bucket via a muslin cloth cover. The muslin cloth was used to filter the oil being collected. The collected oil was clarified by allowing it to stand for 48 h. The volume of clean oil was measured with a graduated transparent plastic 500 mL beaker.
Oil Palm (Elaeis guineansis) abundantly produces a number of useful by-products as a plant. It is the source of Oil palm fronds (OPF), oil palm trunks (OPT), palm press fibre (PPF), empty fruit bunches (EFB), palmkernel cake (PKC), palm oil mill effluent (POME; also called sludge and decanter cake) and palmkernel shells (PKS) throughout the year and this guarantees their supply and availability as major ingredients for livestock feeding .The oil palm fruit consists of three different layers of shell known as pericarp which comprises of exocarp (outer shell), mesocarp (fibrous material) and the inner-shell comprising the endocarp and kernel or endosperm. The demand for crude palmkernel oil (CPKO), palm- kernel cake (PKC) and PalmKernel Sludge (PKS) in the market is very huge, and as a matter of fact, the demand for it is all year round plus the profit in this business is amazingly good .The oil palm fruits generate two types of oils: crude palm oil (CPO) from the outer mesocarp and crude palmkernel oil (CPKO).
Abstract:- The project emphasizes on design & construction of river cleaning mechanism. The system is successfully able to clean the floating solid waste over the river surface more efficiently. This system works towards its social aim of cleaning the rivers & other water bodies. It simulates the conventionally used mechanisms of using conveyors in its working principles but have an intimidating modification of Air Tube Piping Guider mechanism for improving its efficiency. The conventional & generally used method of cleaning or more precisely collecting the floating waste are manual or by means of boat etc. and are deposited near the shore of river. But these methods are risky, costly, time consuming and required major workforce. By considering all the parameters of river surface cleaning systems and eliminating the drawback of all the methods mention earlier, the remote operated river cleaning machine has been design and constructed which helps in river surface cleaning effectively, efficiently and ecofriendly. The main aim of the project is to reduce the manpower, time consumption and thereby increasing the efficiency of the machine for cleaning the river. In this project, we have remotely controlled the operation of river cleaning with the help of motor, coupling & R/C arrangement.
The important part of the work was devoted to the target development for the new project RIC-80. For the tests carried out different kinds of target materials were explored (foil of a refractory metal, metals, high density metal carbide and metal salt powder). The tested target materials will be used for manufacture real target prototypes for PNPI radioisotope complex. Investigated target materials can be used as well for the mass-separator target construction of the mass- separator station for production at RIC-80 radio- isotopic medical beams of a very high purity. The following stage of the work will be the target unit prototype construction with the amount of the target material (40-60 grams) which is required for medical radionuclide production at the RIC-80.
From the results obtained the amount of dye adsorbed increased from 0.199-1.157 with increase in the dye ion concentration from 10-50. It was also obtained that the percentage of dye removed (93%) was obtained at the maximum concentration of 50 mg/g. This may be attributed to the fact that as the dye concentration is increasing, more of the dye will be available for adsorption by the adsorbent (PalmKernel shell). This may also be linked to the effect of concentration gradient which controls most adsorption process (Mishra et al., 2009, Asiagwu, 2012b).
A heat exchanger is a device in which energy is transferred from one fluid to another across a solid surface. Exchanger analysis and design therefore involve both convection and conduction. Two impor tant problems in heat exchanger analysis are 1 rating existing heat
In the search for an alternative source of energy, palmkernel shell was found to be a well-known biomass product because of its higher heat energy or calorific value. Palmkernel shell has gained it status as a biofuel resource for biomass product which is cheap, readily available and due to its high calorific value, its properties can be utilized in creation of an efficient micro-power plant which comprises of five main components which are the boiler, turbine, generator, condenser and pump. It is therefore beneficial to produce high pressure steam, and let it expand to the desired pressure and temperature through a turbine or to extract part of the steam from the turbine before it reaches the low-pressure stage and its rotary motion is used to drive the generator to produce electricity. The aim of this research is to conduct a design analysis for an efficient steam turbine for a palmkernel shell (PKS) fuelled micro power plant which will gen- erate 5 kW electricity. The specific objectives of this research are to: design and analyze a steam turbine based on predetermined design considerations and ma- terials selection criteria; and evaluate the performance of the steam turbine in propelling the generator to produce 5 kW of electricity. The design analysis has formed a baseline for the development of a steam turbine with target of produc- ing 5 kW of electricity in micro power plant using PKS as fuel. The research is limited to design, simulation and analysis of the rotor, blades and nozzle of the steam turbine.
towards generic Built-In Self-Test (BIST) and System on Chip (SoC) devices implementing for low power consumption. They proposed a new technique to generate a fully pre-computed test set in a deterministic BIST using simple Gray counter within a reasonable number of clock cycles. They combined the proposed BIST with an external testing strategy for low power consumption using slow-testers. It has been shown that the concurrent operations performed by the proposed BIST required a limited number of clock cycles. They also considered SoC devices for testing the power consumption whilst reducing the number of transitions through implementing a Gray counter that stores only one bit during the clock cycle. A newly innovated set of binary code-words of unitary Hamming distance has been proposed in 17 . The design of generating the code set using
The fatty acid composition of coconut oil and palmkernel oil and their specific impact / influence on membrane composition have been studied (Garcia –Fuentes et al. 2002).Both oils are known to be rich sources of medium chain saturated fatty acids which have been shown to influence
The design of a laboratory size heavy medium separator was carried out. This was done sequel to the need for a locally available and affordable laboratory heavy medium separator for metallurgy students in developing economies. The separator was successfully designed and proper material selection achieved. The separator has since been fabricated and put to effective use.
The hydrodynamic diameter (particle size) of the synthesized nanoparticles was determined by using DLS. The Palm bark extract based nanoparticles shows best result with 32.2 nm particle size compared to other two extracts solution NPs. Fig. 3 shows size of nanoparticles for Palm leaves (119.1 nm), Bark extract (32.2 nm) and Ghaf leaves (87.0 nm) based nanoparticles. It was observed that samples without stirring at room temperature had the smaller nanoparticle size.
The need to stabilize expansive soils such as black cotton soil in order to mitigate the inherent shrinking cannot be fully overemphasized. For the soil to be importantly at a relatively cheap cost. this research uses palmkernel shell ash and lime to material. For this investigation, 0, 4, 12, 16 shell ash was added by weight of the black cotton soil while keeping the lime conducted in this research includes: free swell, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR). The result obtained after the experiment showed that there was a marginal improvement in there was a significant dropped in the maximum dry from the result of the compaction test carried out.
contents in the range of 10–30%. Reformulation to minimise trans content can be achieved by using the natural solid fat content of palm and palm ker- nel oils. Palm oil is readily fractionated to give an olein, liquid at 20°C, and a stearin, which can have a range of properties according to the fractionating conditions. Palmkernel oil is fractionated to give a stearin of low Iodine value with properties very useful in confectionary products, while the olein is useful in margarine blends. Numerous published formulae for margarines and reduced fat spreads use blends containing palm oil, and/or palm stearin, with palmkernel oil and a liquid oil. Often some components are interesterified before use in the final blend. Bakery fats using palm oil based blends give results in cakes and pastry equal to established commercial products. Aerated bakery creams using interesterified palm stearin with fully hydrogenated palmkernel oil had good eating quality. The formula could be adjusted for stability at higher ambient temperatures by a small increase in the proportion of stearin. Palm oil and palmkernel olein are used world-wide for industrial frying of snack foods, in fast food restaurants and domestically, having excellent high temperature stability.