Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an unmanned air vehicle which can be operated by human or fly autonomously on the basis of flight plans. UAVs are usually utilized for military purposes that are too tedious, dirty, risky, or hazardous for normal manned air vehicles; however, they are also utilized for civil purposes like aerial photography or air surveillance. There are two types of UAVs. One is the fixed-wing UAV, i.e. an airliner, the other is the rotor-wing UAV, i.e. a helicopter. Rotor-wing UAVs have the weather gauge of fixed-wing UAVs. Because they can perform Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL); it is able to hover at particular point. The advantages of the rotor-wing is as follows. First, it is mechanically simple; it’s main components are n motors and n propellers. Second, they do not require complex mechanical parts to control their flight; it can fly and maneuver only by changing the speed of the motors. One of the successful design example is a four rotor UAV, also known as quadrotor.
Because the wheel-based robot has some constraint in mechanism, they can not move around well. In this paper, we design and implement of an omni-directional spherical mobile robot control system. The mobile mechanism of spherical robot is different from the wheel-based one. The major advantage of this spherical robot is that can move for omni-directional with no constraint. It is obviously such a robot system is high nonlinearity and is always unknown. It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the design of a model-based control system. To dealing with such an unknown nonlinearities and external disturbances, the technique of fuzzy logic control is introduced. The fuzzy logic control is a complete difference approach that does not require a precise mathematical model of the system. This control method is based on human experience to understand the behavior of the system. Thus, controldesign is simple than traditional one. Recent years, there have been many researches about the intelligent control for complex nonlinear system -.
3. Relevant early warning mechanism is not sound. For example, the people in front already overcrowded, had an accident, had been unable to move, people in droves don't know the scene, continue to push forward, so the stampede was occurred. If we quickly put the video to the scene on the big screen at this time, and then accompanied by radio, notify the site management personnel, so that the behind people fast enough to get information, and no longer to aggregate a point, and timely to take diversion means, the tragedy will not expand. Based on the above analysis, in order to prevent the accident, to control the three important factors, and make timely emergency plan. The stampede preventing monitoring and early warning system based on a quadrotor UAVis able to complete the task.
At first the user gives the book to the mobile robot by keeping the book in the reception book stand. The robot by using the line sensing array travels towards the stand. As soon as the robot comes towards the stand with the help of proximity sensor it detects the book by moving the gripper in front of the each section of the book stand. Whenever the book is been detected, the pneumatic gripper is been activated and book is been grabbed. The robot is then moved towards the shelve robot by using the line sensing array. During the travelling the robot is uses the barcode reader which consist of the shelve number, column number and the row number of the book. With these information robot moves towards the respective shelves. The robot when comes near by the shelve robot, the shelve gripper is been detected by the proximity sensor and the book is hand it over to the shelve robot. To operate the vertical lead screw mechanism the robot uses the pwm signals which is then send to the motor driver, this motor driver is used to control the precise motion of the lead screw. The pneumatic gripper is operated using the directionalcontrol valve and relay board. Each of the wheel is equipped with the separate planetary geared motor. After each transfer or each sensor detection the led is been blinked for the user purpose to know that the action is been performed.
strategy in which three different reactive behaviors are fused in a single control law by means of a fuzzy supervisor guaranteeing robot safety and task accomplishment. About robots in logistics, Cosma discussed some issues including the design andintegration of mechanical elements, the development of non invasive localization and guidance procedures, the design and control of grasping devices for specific box/storage combinations, and the development of testing, verification and validation procedures satisfying strict pharmaceutical regulations. Li analyzed the feasibility of improving AGV to meet the requirements of field environment and operation standard of substation, and then the design scheme of AGV based robot system used in substation equipment inspection is brought forward.
In the i-Botics centre, founded by TNO and the University of Twente, a project is carried out focused on telerobotics. With telerobotics a robot is able to perform tasks on remote loca- tions. For some of these tasks human expertise is needed for assessing and responding to unpredictable situations. To perform these tasks to user must be able to exactly feel what the robot is doing. With the use of sensors and haptic feedback this can be made possible. The robot used consists out of a KUKA Light-Weight Robot 4+ with a RightHand Robotics ReFlex TakkTile attached to a platform. This platform can move omnidirectional using the Segway RMP 50 omni, of which the velocity is controlled by a joystick.
Independent Mecanum wheels can not achieve omni-directional mobile.And there should be at least four Mecanum wheels to form omni-directional mobile platform.And it is necessary to conduct kinematic analysis on this omni-directional mobile platform to provide theory evidences for the control algorithm. Figure 1 is a kind of Mecanum wheel.Figure 2 is a kind of typical omni-directional mobile platform which adopts four Mecanum wheels.
Research on UAV - MAV is varying from the design of the platform (Pounds et al., 2002; Nice et al., 2004; Pounds et al., 2004), modeling and control (Nonami et al., 2010; Boubdallah et al., 2004; Pounds et al., 2006; Hoffman et al., 2007; Hoffman et al., 2008; Kendoul et al., 2009), vision based autonomous flight(Nonami et al., 2010; Altug et al., 2003; S.Azrad et al,. 2010; Pebrianti et al., 2010; Kendoul et al., 2009), GPS based autonomous flight (Nonami et al., 2010; Puls et al., 2009), IR and ultrasonic based autonomous flight (Iwakura et al., 2010}, indoor and outdoor application, etc.
The research field of the mobile robot’s trajectory tracking possesses a huge quantity of literature ranging from classical control methods [2, 3], to nonlinear control strategies [4, 5] and automatic control methodologies [6- 9]. Nowadays, trajectory tracking control of autonomous mobile robots in presence of unknown dynamics and uncertainties is became an energetic research field [10- 12]. Many studies with pure constraints assume nominal kinematics or dynamics [13, 14], however obtaining accurate kinematics and dynamics is a hard work and actual mobile robot may be influenced by many uncertainties. Consequently, a reasonable way is choosing a technique that is not dependant on precise mathematical model of the robot. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) seems to be a suitable solution for this situation and it shows better consequences when it utilizes for controlling the systems with nonlinearities and/or uncertainties such as omni- directional soccer robots. Therefore, today’s widespread study efforts on fuzzy controllers in trajectory tracking of mobile robots in the presence of uncertainties have been appeared [15-17]. Nevertheless, the compensation of time delay in partially uncertain robots seems to be out of attention in recent studies. The delay phenomenon usually occurs in dynamic systems and it is able to enfeeble the system’s performance if not considered in the controller design. Also, delay systems control is an important challenge in many robotic platforms. In addition, without consideration of mathematical problems in dynamic modeling of plant, system’s delay causes many challenging control troubles. In continues delay systems, discrete control should face even more problems due to the sampling. Consequently, using an innovative strategy for compensating the dead-time in uncertain systems such as soccer robots can be a suitable solution. Although model predictive control techniques are utilized as delay compensation strategies , but their highly dependence on precise mathematical model of the controlled object makes them infeasible in uncertain systems.
The main contribution of this paper is the formulation of a simple SISO model of a quad-rotor, which differs from models presented in  by including actuator (or possibly sensor) dynamics. This model is then used by a real-time feasible Laguerre-based MPC control law, able to match a PD control law with the main advantage of including the desired frequency content of the Laguerre Polynomials in the design. Furthermore, this is combined with a computation- ally inexpensive Online System Identification algorithm for estimation of 3 parameters that define the systems dynam- ics with the goal of achieving auto-tuning. Moreover, the entire formulation is experimentally tested in a quad-rotor UAV, and the tests demonstrate successful implementation in the relatively new Beaglebone Blue board, which is a low- power embedded platform. The entire formulation is available from https://github.com/OscarJGV26/LaguerreMPC using ob- ject oriented programming and Matlab codes. In summary, the paper presents the application of a novel Adaptive Laguerre- based Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for Attitude Stabi- lization, experimentally tested in a Quad-rotor using relatively new hardware.
An important design parameter, from a handling qualities perspective at least, appears to be the sense of rotation of the tail rotor. The tail rotor of a conventional helicopter can be classified as having either top- aft (TA) or top-forward (TF) sense of rotation, implying that its blades travel, respectively, rearward or forward at the top of the disk. Helicopter designers often refer to a “right way” and a “wrong way” for the tail rotor to rotate, in the belief that top-aft tail rotors encounter fewer aerodynamic problems than those with top-forward rotation. Hence, a tail rotor with TA sense of rotation is usually the first choice for a new helicopter design. The overview of tail rotordesign published by Lynn et al. (Ref. 2) in 1970 described clear differences in performance for systems with TA and TF rotation, but also acknowledged the obscurity of the aerodynamic origins of these differences. The differences in performance between systems equipped with TA and TF rotating tail rotors seem to manifest themselves most clearly in sideways flight as a large increase in the pedal activity required to trim the aircraft in yaw with tail rotors having TF sense of rotation usually being more susceptible to this effect than those with TA rotation. Yet the number of helicopters in the last few decades that have progressed through the design process, only to have the direction of rotation of their tail rotors reversed during full-scale development, testifies to a continued lack of understanding of the detailed reasons why the direction of tail rotor rotation should have such a marked effect on aircraft performance. Notable works describing situations where the sense of rotation of the tail rotor became a significant issue in the design of the aircraft include the study of the AH-56A Cheyenne by Johnston and Cook (Ref. 3), the YAH-64 Apache by Amer et al. (Ref. 4), and Prouty (Ref. 5), and the wind-tunnel tests by Yeager et al. (Ref. 6). In addition, it is likely that the tail shake phenomenon (Ref. 7), which has emerged during flight test of several helicopters, is also exacerbated by main rotor–tail rotor aerodynamic interaction and is influenced, to some extent, by the direction of rotation of the tail rotor.
gineering, agricultural machinery (land leveling, combines, uenae machine and other tilt control.), earthquakes, vol- canic detection, vehicle chassis, automatic leveling, auto- matic welding machines, automatic cutting machine, avia- tion, aerospace, mobile satellite antenna and other appli- cations that requiring high real-timing. According to the different applications, different ODTSs all based on ma- chine vision would be produced. The study of intelligent video analysis technology with the combination of machine vision to develop series of ODTS for the practical appli- cation should be furthered and the measurement precision should be improved further. With the further study, the ODTS that is simple in maintenance, adjustment and calibration, high in accuracy and visualization, wide in measurement range, low in cost, good in remote access, real-time, security and reliability, will be created and applied to important.
There is another type of vehicle which using similar method for rotating around is the tracked vehicles. Usually, this tracked wheel is used by tanks and crane. Unfortunately, these vehicles will caused damage to the ground when they rotating around. This is caused by the track which has no roll able surface being drag as the vehicle rotate. The drag means high friction and high friction means, a lot of engine torque power are required to overcome the friction. By using Mecanum wheel, it is proven by the design which allowing a rotation to be done with a minimal friction thus required low torque engine which will reduce the cost of engine.
Thrust vectoring has been used in designs to maximize the capability of UAVs . Thrust vectoring is of significant benefit in some applications to arbitrarily orient the vehicle body with respect to the vehicle acceleration vector, e.g., for aircrafts carrying directional sensors that have to be pointed at targets in the earth reference frame . In addition, thrust vectoring mechanism is used to give UAVs the capability of taking-off and landing in very narrow areas . In small aircrafts and UAVs, a simple technique of tilt-rotor mechanism can be used to obtain thrust vectoring, where propulsion units are inclined in certain angles using an additional control motor to get the desired thrust in different directions.
With the rapid development of the Internet, people's purchase mode has also been changed . More and more people begin to shop online. In order to meet the demand of online shopping, the logistics industry has developed rapidly , but it brings a lot of problems to the logistics storage. For example, the manual sorting are easily affected by light condition and personal factors , the classification is not clear, expensive labor and so on. These problems result in the loss of express delivery, mailing error and other problems. With the rapid development of science and technology, people began to try to use automatic machine to solve the problems. In the last century, the research and discussion of automatic sorting have begun [4,5]. With the development of technology, the mail sorting equipment is constantly updated. Many scholars have also carried out the relevant research. Rahman M M, Kabir M N and Rashid S M S applied the modern control mechanism on mail sorting machine . An appropriate control structure for general class of transport
The system controller must ensure that the wheel velocities satisfy this constraint. Violating this constraint will result in wheel slippage and degrade the tracking performance of the system. However, system errors can lead to the violation of kinematic constraints and cause wheel slippage. These errors include mechanical inaccuracy, such as errors in wheel diameter, parameters S, D and B. These structural errors can be effectively eliminated through measurement and calibration. Wheel and structure deformation under various loading conditions and variations of floor condition, such as debris, bumps, cracks and slippery areas on the floor, will degrade the system accuracy. Finally, wheel velocity control also has errors due to limited bandwidth and saturation. In practice many of these error sources are unavoidable. In this study, design and control methods to deal with the slippage and improve the system performance were investigated.
Where ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 3 and ω 4 are the speeds of motors of Quadrotor, and ω is a disturbance in the speed of motors. 4. PID CONTROLLER STAGE A method used to control the attitude, Roll angle, Pitch angle and Yaw angle has been presented in this section. The PID controllers are widely used in different application due to their simplicity; this controller has the advantage of an easy implementation and proven stability while taking nonlinearity of the parameters. The based control laws of PID controller for height and other directions using the following form [3, 4] u 1 = k patt z ref − z + k datt z ref − z s 0.1s+1 + k iatt 1 s z ref − z (19)
obotic Vision is one of the most important areas for realising autonomous navigation of robots. Compared to other on-board sensing techniques, vision based control continue to create much research interest in the area of robot navigation. Thus image processing plays a vital role in the design of vision systems for robots because of its ability to provide detailed information about the environment, which is not possible to be realised using other types of sensors.
In this study, three-component One-Dimensional (1D) Photonic Crystal (PC) structures were investigated by modeling them as two-component PCs with an additional regular layer. The Gap Map approach and the Transfer Matrix Method were used in order to mathematically describe these structures. The introduction of a third component to a 1D PC allows manipulation of the optical contrast to a high degree of precision by varying the thickness and refractive index of the additional layer. It also partially reduces the area of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) on the gap map, leaving the remainder of the PBG area unchanged from that of the gap map for the original, two-component, PC. Using this approach to decrease the optical contrast in photonic crystals allows omni-directional bands to be obtained in high- contrast periodic structures constructed from, for example, an array of silicon and air.
These were simply ON–OFF valves and their maximum frequency was 5 Hz or less. Servo valves, in contrast, were continuously controlled, high frequency response devices that received commands through their electronic control systems that provided a high degree of control over position, velocity, acceleration, etc. They had high accuracy. They could accept and accurately respond to command signals at frequencies exceeding 100 Hz. The continuous feedback from electronic transducers ensured high accuracy. Between these extremes, there was nothing just a huge gap in performance, control capability and cost. With the evolution of performance and application of directionalcontrol valves, the efficiency increased. Next came improvements in the design of spools and the electronics; then came the external feedback systems, high- frequency responses, better performance in accuracy, hysteresis, dead band, threshold and other parameters. In short, the directional valves began to look more and more like servo valves in capability. This was accompanied by an increase in cost and thus blurred the distinction between servo valves and proportional valves. As a result, performance and control are no longer distinguishing criteria. Rather physical features such as design and manufacturing processes are the defining characteristics. For instance, proportional valves are operated by proportional solenoids whereas servo valves are operated by torque motors. The spools in proportional valves are almost entirely machine produced, while the spools in servo valves require a great deal of manual lapping and finishing. The clearances and tolerances in servo valves are much tighter than in proportional valves. These differences mean that servo valves are still more expensive than proportional valves and also that they outperform proportional valves in terms of accuracy, hysteresis, leakage, etc. It is fair to say that a proportional valve can be linked to a low-cost, low-performance-range servo valve. These valves are divided into three types – directional, pressure and flow controls.