time-consuming and as a result large-scale implementation becomes marginally feasible. Indirect methods have been developed that are nondestructive, inexpensive and fairly rapid (Baret et al 2004) but they are not very accurate. Leafarea meters have been widely adopted for these measurements because of their ease of operation. But they are expensive and measuring leafarea by hand with a sampling grid is time consuming (Landis et al 2002). Also, Leafarea meter cannot handle large leaves. A large leaf has to be cut into smaller pieces and the area for each piece will have to be measured individually so that one can later obtain the area of the whole leaf; however this process can cause measurement errors. Experience has shown that the other methods are tedious, particularly when a large number of leaves are to be measured. Methods involving imageprocessing based on video camera images and computer programs for analysis of these images permit automatic calculation of leaf areas, and of areas lost to herbivores or disease, depending on the computer programs used.
Most often the same individual or group of individuals does not perform both: the design of the high-level model of an algorithm and its implementation. Algorithm development typically focuses on achieving functional correctness, which comes at the expense of high computational resources. The goal of implementation, on the other hand, is to achieve maximum efficiency. This means minimal computational resources, low power, and high execution speed. When algorithms are tailored for efficiency, precision is often sacrificed, creating a dichotomy. The lack of cross-disciplinary expertise may result in valuable optimization opportunities to be missed. During the implementation phase of multi-step imageprocessing algorithms, hardware/software engineers may be reluctant to modify the high-level model of the algorithm to improve efficiency, due to their limited imaging science background. For these reasons, this work argues that the selection of implementation-efficient operations and optimal number representations, among other algorithm optimizations, should be performed during the high-level modeling of the algorithm.
In India, structured continuous professional development modules are not available to update the knowledge and skills of the practicing community pharmacists. A prospective study was designed to develop, validate and implement continuous professional development modules and to assess the impact of training programme on knowledge and skills of community pharmacists. Modules were developed by referring to standard texts and data bases and were validated for the content. The impact of training programme on pharmacists’ knowledge and skills was assessed using suitably designed pre and post training knowledge attitude and practice questionnaires, pre and post training questionnaires for individual continuous professional development training sessions, pre and post training patient counseling skill assessment, blood pressure measurement skill assessment and capillary blood glucose check-up skill assessment check-lists. Data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods using InStat version 3.01 statistical software. Fourty eight community pharmacists were enrolled in to the study. A statistically signifi cant (P<0.05) improvement was observed in post training knowledge attitude and practice scores and in post training scores of individual training sessions. A statistically signifi cant (P<0.05) improvement was also observed in post training scores of professional skills such as Patient counseling, capillary blood glucose recording and blood pressure measurement skills. The study fi ndings conclude that continuous training updates the knowledge and skills in practicing the pharmaceutical care in their pharmacies.
The paper is concerned with the design and implements many of algorithms to enhance the image in real- time, by using spatial domain techniques. It explores the parallelism features on FPGA. The FPGA software has the reusability and re- configurability features. Development and education board (DE2_115) is used to implement real-time imageprocessing system to enhance images. The system has ability to perform multiple algorithms using the same hardware, only need to reconfigure the hardware devices. The results obtaining from the proposed design has high throughput and much faster for image enhancement in comparing with general purpose systems.
Although MDA has been in use since 2001, model-based engineering is still at an early stage of development and it is unclear whether or not it will have a significant effect on software engineering practice. The main arguments for and against MDE are: 1. For MDE Model-based engineering allows engineers to think about systems at a high level of abstraction, without concern for the details of their implementa- tion. This reduces the likelihood of errors, speeds up the design and implemen- tation process, and allows for the creation of reusable, platform-independent application models. By using powerful tools, system implementations can be generated for different platforms from the same model. Therefore, to adapt the system to some new platform technology, it is only necessary to write a transla- tor for that platform. When this is available, all platform-independent models can be rapidly rehosted on the new platform.
In leafareameasurement of coffee plants by using digital image analysis, used two models, one based on the height and width of the canopies and other based on the area of digital image of a tree. Here the images were corrected by frequency histograms and for segmentation thresholding was done by Otsu method the results were compared with real area of the leaves using digital scanner, they found 0.82 and 0.91 correlation. . In other non destructive leafareameasurement , used Hough Transformation to acquire the coordinates of quadrangle corner points in distorted image and thresholding was used for image segmentation. To eliminate the effect of holes in the leaf, contour extraction approach was used where pixel scanning from one side to opposite side was implemented in four directions to extract contour and leafarea was measured by pixel number statistic, they found absolute error 2.88 . In leafareameasurement of cucumber using imageprocessing method they used reference object and picture pixel number statistic to calculate the leafarea ,found coefficient of variation of 3.99 . In two new leafarea determination methods using digital photographs processed in Matlab and computer Aided software they found 99% accuracy . The shape of leaf is also important parameter affecting the leafareameasurement and to evaluate environmental stress .
To give more security for the biomedical images for the patient betterment as well privacy for the patient highly confidently patient image report can be placed in database. If unknown persons like hospital staffs, relatives and third parties like intruder trying to see the report it has in the form of hidden state in another image. The patient detail like MRI image has been converted into any form of steganography. Then, encrypt those images by using proposed cryptography algorithm and place in the database.
With regard to zonal factors like protected areas of ecological interest, their area of influence is by definition already established . Conversely, for point features, zones of influence have been determined by means of buffer zones more or less consistent. Each criterion is assigned a weight based on its importance. For each indicator, a summary table will be presented, illustrating the different choices of discretization, the attributes used, the areas of influence and the weightings attributed. The choice of weights was made taking into account the economic collection distances and regulatory constraints (natural areas, distances to dwellings, etc.). These weighting coefficients are still arbitrary, they are in no way exhaustive, they may be, as a result of this study, modified, improved as needed.
The data is acquired with the help of the disk shaped brass piezoelectric sensor (25mm, 1.5v) that is placed in the respiratory belt. The circuit for measurement of the acquired data consists of an Arduino Nano ATmega328p Microcontroller that has been coded to represent the data as breath rate on the display. Other components include an LM324 Operational Amplifier, Low Pass Filter, Power Amplifier (for Gain Control). LM324 is a Quad Op-Amp with differential inputs. The gain is set in the range of 0-100 dB. The respiration rate can also be displayed on mobile terminals via bluetooth connectivity with the help of bluetooth module HC 05.
With the design of soar dryer. It includes different formulae and theoretical considerations those are used while developing the calculator. It also encapsulates the configuration of the system and information about the used to develop calculator.
In this paper, we demonstrated how asynchronous dataflow HLS can be leveraged for power-efficient smart camera net- work design. The semantics of the dataflow model are not only highly applicable to the computer vision domain; they are also a suitable match for hardware implementation. The dataflow model embeds the required hardware mechanisms for asynchronicity in the design concept, allowing fine-grained separation of clock domains for power efficiency directly from the algorithm representation. The absence of explicit control signals removes the need for local clock synchronizers at hardware level; token passing lends itself well to FIFO-based asynchronous hardware design. Additionally, this approach removes recurring engineering costs by simplifying intercon- nections between sub-modules; the standard interfaces allow design modules to be re-used and easily encapsulated as library components within the HLS framework. In our prototype system, we showed how a visual saliency algorithm could be easily described in the dataflow model and integrated on a complete system, based on a commercial-off-the-shelf FPGA platform. We demonstrated how functional asynchronicity
analyses the product pricing and trend of taxation shifting in accordance steadily increasing environmental cost. He has` focuses on formulating problem solving models. Similarly, Sharma, Shubhash (2012) has reviewed the implications of development sector in relation to existing and prospective environment. He has also reviewed the world development scenario in relation to deteriorating environment. On the basis of some of quantitative and qualitative parameters, he has critically examined both variables under changing local conditions. In order to evaluate the strength and the weakness of sustainability in relation to existing and future environment, Thatta, Lina (2012) has reviewed the ecological modernization and drawn some of vital inferences from changing scenario of Corporate Social Responsibility of Indian corporate houses.
b) Analysing the data on size. To calculate the c and a, minimum and maximum peach diagonals, respectively, the side view image was used to create a square or rectangular frame surrounding the sample to edge detection. Top view image was parallel to the stem-calyx axes of fruits. The be- ginning end of the image was figured out by counting the total number of black pixels at the upper end of the image up to a point where the number of black pixels would become less than the amount of the threshold. The threshold was determined through 615 trial and error iterations so that the topmost horizontal line on the image would show several non-black pixels. The same procedure was used for the two right and left boundaries of the sample image, but the amount of the threshold in this case was 455. This amount showed two right and left vertical lines in which several white pixels appeared. In order to obtain the lower boundary of the peach in the image, we counted the total number of black pixels from the centre towards the lower end. The amount of threshold was determined by 500 trial and error cycles. The result was an image surrounded by four sides to calculate the c and a diagonals according to the standard minimum diagonal. To evaluate the designed edge detection
environment issues have created deception and fear mongering situation towards the use of chemical pesticides and thus there are strict rules and regulation towards the judicial use of pesticide around the globe. Thus, this study was mainly focused on identifying the effect of different varieties of radish, botanical extract and bio-control agent and chemical fungicide for the management of Alternaria leaf spot of radish and quality seed production.
7.4 (Y7), and the cumulative percent released (Y8). The 15 runs with the investigated independent variables and the recorded responses are illustrated in Table 1. The Design-Expert® software provided the appropriate polynomial Eqns. involving the main factors after fi tting the experimental data. Quadratic model was fi tted with the response data. The effect of each of the tested factors (X 1 , X 2 , and X 3 ) on each response was analysed, whereas the positive value indicated a synergistic effect on the response and the negative value suggested an antagonistic effect on it. The high values of the measured R-squared (R 2 >0.90) indicated
The m easurem ent o f individual lengths is ad equate if we take measurement, by firstly putting into the machine the probe, which is the same shape as the bowden, and then all 4 lengths o f the probe, which is later to be measured. We then start calibrations, and the machine finds its zero position on the meas ured length. The stretches and compression o f the . forces are at a minimum (98 N), and the measured probe is made from suitable material. On the basis of these zero positions and measured values we can then calculate the individual lengths.
Abstract- Using unity and blender software we are designing a 3D game model. For this game we are developing 3D interaction techniques for a robot shooting game. Our game is based on a category called as FPS (First Person Shooter). First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first person perspective. If we talk about the base-structure of the game, we are introducing two robot models from the blender software and importing it into unity software were we are actually designing the game. For the game we are bringing c# script into the field. With all these introduction we are developing the game. For the overview of the game, the concept is , a robot will have to shoot his enemy robots before his own life will come to an end. As in for our multiplayer game ,we has to create servers. For the multiplayer game, there is a server, in that we have CLIENT. This client is the main part of the game. with this we are going to create a game.
Imageprocessing has been a very useful system for identification and detection of objects from afar using a camera or telescopic vision. There has been a significant increase in the amount of interest in imageprocessing and recognition, full-color imageprocessing, image morphology and computer neural networks in the past five years . The research has started ever since the limitation of the normal camera has been discovered. Most of the advancements were done in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory located in Pasadena, California. The main idea was to gather as much information as possible from a captured image. This has led to the modernization of the system which allowed us to understand more and extract images of distant planets which was impossible using normal cameras. The more it has been developed, the applications of imageprocessing grew wider.
Image fusion is a process of combining multiple input images of the same scene into a single fused image, which preserves relevant information and also retains the important features from each of the original images and makes it more suitable for human and machine perception. The reason for going onto image fusion is that, in the medical imageprocessing, different sources of images produce complementary information and so one has to fuse all the sources of images to get more details required for the diagnosis of the patients. In this method the raw data is the MR scan image of a patient’s brain which is observed at different angles or resolutions. The images possess both different as well as common information with respect to each other. Thus when these images are fused together the redundant images are neglected and the complementary images are added thereby producing an accurate diagnosis with a single image.
820 the age of leaf while identifying the Nutrients deficiency, the leaf is yellowish weather due to age or due to deficiency. As said above the Nitrogen deficiency shows reduction in area with pale yellowish color on leaf, so even though the leaf is yellow its physical area may be larger than healthy leaf. Hence it is requires to calculate the area based on the greenish area of leaf. This work is the fast and accurate solution to analyze the area feature variation caused due to different deficiencies in the plant of cotton by using imageprocessing techniques.