Current solutions for amputees are normally static, and consist of polyurethane socket liners that can be used to augment the suspension so the sensitive end of the residual limb does not have any direct force against from the bottom of the hard socket (Carroll, 2009). Unfortunately, there are still issues experienced with the use of this type of liner, because the limb size changes frequently, thus requiring a design that can pose as a solution to the dynamic nature of the amputee’s limb. One design that is used to address these problems is the bladder socket design from Sandia Labs. The design uses sensors and water pockets embedded in the soft socket liner to adjust the amount of fluid to increase and decrease the spacing between the limb and the socket, providing optimal pressure and support to the user (Sandia National Labs, 2015). One problem that can potentially raise concern is the ability for the liner to withstand damage to possible leaks and tears that could destroy the circuitry in the system of sensors.
The purpose of this study was designing and testing a model of some antecedents of subjective career success. The participants of this study consisted of 230 employees of Khuzestan Water and Power Organization, who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instruments used in the study were Work Climate Questionnaire, Perceived Competence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale, Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale, Career Satisfaction Scale, Perceived P-V Fit Scale & Career commitment Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) through AMOS-21 was used for data analysis. Bootstrapping procedure also used to determine the significance of the indirect effects. The results showed that the proposed model fitted the data properly. Findings showed that work autonomy support and work competency support had significant direct effects on need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and career success (career commitment, career satisfaction, and perceived p-v fit). Results also supported the meditating role of need satisfaction and self-determined motivation in these relationships. Based on our findings, SDT is a useful framework for predicting subjective career success in the form of career satisfaction, career commitment, and perceived p-v fit.
which could be compared to alternative models. Through this approach then the utilisation of a randomised controlled trial would be cost-effective. As such, the financial sector should make full use of not only behavioural science literature but also of implementation science, such as the MRC guidelines (Campbell et al., 2000; Craig et al., 2008). Although the MRC guidelines are an iterative time-consuming process, however, even a simple policy guide framework would be extensively useful, as conducted as part of the current study, in reducing unnecessary waste of time and resources through sub- optimal policies. This could be perhaps be a sequential three-part process: in which a conceptual review is initiated, then to a behavioural diagnosis using qualitative or quantitative methods, and finally to implement some experimental work to design and test interventions. This may be through lab-based or natural experiments or even as randomised-controlled trials. For instance designing a lab-based mechanistic paradigm could be used to provide a cost-effective demonstration of potential interventions and their corresponding effects. The most effective intervention could therefore be implemented. The cost of a lab-based experiment would only be a fraction of the randomised-controlled trial and could even be implemented online, saving time and resources. Take the FCA research into consumer switching behaviour, here the researchers made no attempt of behavioural diagnosis and therefore the link between the interventions ran and the behaviour is made through top-down, goal-orientated assumptions. However, these assumptions may be valid, but not explain the behaviour as would an alternative model or hypothesis. This falls into the ISLAGIATT problem, where policy-makers often run interventions or policies test their assumptions rather than testing interventions to combat the most powerful explanation of the problem (Atkins & Michie, 2015; Michie et al., 2014).
46. Carver LL. Organizational commitment and generational differences in nursing factualty. Ph. D., A dissertation University: Vevada, Las Vegas; 2008. 47. Arshadi N. Designing and testing the model of important antecedents and consequences of job motivation in NISOC[Dissertation]. Ahwaz: Shahid Chamran University; 1995. [Persian]
This study adapts path coverage testing criterion as the criteria are used to examine the correctness of structural testing of students’ program. In terms of the adequacy criterion used in corresponding to path coverage testing, this study employs control-flow test adequacy criterion to guide in finding the desired paths. Instead of considering all finite paths from start to end (positive testing or test adequacy criteria-reliability), this study also incorporates negative testing criteria (or test adequacy criteria-validity) that is based on error-based adequacy criteria which requires test data to check programs on certain error-prone points . In order to obtain feasible paths, this study adapts the technique of boundary-interior path testing. The notion of criteria of test data selection for this study is available from our previous work . As this study incorporates positive and negative testing criteria, inclusion to valid (true) and invalid (false) path conditions, the study also embeds an illegal path condition in designing test cases.
The bike rig which is used at the Yacht Research Unit is a quite new one since it has been completely redesigned last year to serve for bike testing. However, there are some issues which need to be solved before serious testing could be performed. One of the problems is that the floor on which the turntable is resting is not completely level and horizontal. Since the turntable rests on four air pads a not level base results in a wobbly turntable. The turntable should be able to yaw to different angles, therefor the floor underneath the air pads needs to be completely horizontal to prevent the turntable to wobble at any angle.
Garousi et al.  retrieved 147 papers in the area of Web application testing, which have appeared between 2000 and 2011. The results of their systematic mapping can help researchers to obtain an overview of existing Web application testing approaches and indentify areas in the field that require more attention from the research community. Li et al.  presented a broad survey of recent Web testing advances and discuss their goals, targets, techniques employed, inputs/outputs and stopping criteria. A large class of Web application testing is identified by Doğan et al. . Authors reviewed functional testing of Web application through a systematic literature review (SLR) study. They outcome with the following results: (1) the list of test tools in the Web application testing area and their capabilities, (2) the types of test models and fault models proposed in this domain, (3) the way the empirical studies in this area have been designed and reported, and (4) the state of empirical evidence and industrial relevance. Their work also concluded the emerging trends in Web
We analyze an implementation of an optimal disability insurance sys- tem as a competitive equilibrium with taxes. An optimum is imple- mented by an asset-tested disability system in which a disability transfer is paid only if an agent has assets below a specified maximum. The logic behind this result is that an agent who plans to falsely claim disability (a) finds doing so unattractive if he does not adjust his savings and (b) cannot collect disability insurance if he does adjust his savings in the desired direction (upward). For a calibrated econ- omy, we find that welfare gains from asset testing are significant.
Paich and Sterman (1993, P&S) cite several studies showing “decision making is poor where decisions have delayed, indirect, non-linear, and multiple feedback effects." Their results confirmed that “In situations of high dynamic complexity, peoples’ mental models are grossly simplified compared to reality.” (P&S, 1993:1440,1456) In their experiment, P&S presented MIT MBA students a simple two feedback loop model posing pricing, production, and inventory control problems similar to those faced by office market decision-makers. Subjects showed a tendency towards “conservative demand forecasts which ensure actual capacity will be grossly inadequate during the boom phase, causing high backlogs, long delivery delays and market share erosion.” (P&S, 1993:1452) Subjects then failed to cut capacity fast enough in the ensuing bust. In repeated trials, although some learning took place, subjects never succeeded in matching the performance of a simple decision rule.
A study was first performed on normal volunteers to quantify the anatomy and dynamics of healthy venous valves (The University of Akron Institutional Review Board, Application #20040140). A total of eleven superfi- cial (SFV) and common femoral veins (CFV) in eight indi- viduals were non-invasively examined using a Duplex ultrasound scanner (Siemens Medical System Incorpo- rated, Ultrasound Group, Issaquah, WA). Because venous dynamics are a function of both hydrostatic and transmu- ral pressures, measurements were taken under a combina- tion of postural positions and physiologic conditions. For example, venous pressures significantly increase by: 1) elevating from a supine to a standing position, 2) induc- ing gait via the activation of the skeletal muscle pump, and, 3) breathing through changes in intrathoracic pres- sure. Thus, measurements were taken under various pos- tural and dynamic conditions, including supine breathing, supine ankle flexion, standing breathing, and standing ankle flexion. Measurements were also taken during a Valsalva maneuver, which is defined as an attempt to forcibly exhale while keeping the glottis closed. This is an extreme condition in which the thoracic vena cava collapses leading to the application of a high retro- grade pressure to the most proximal venous valves. Parameters obtained using B-mode imaging included CFV diameter, presence or absence of valve sinuses, SFV diam- eter, leaflet length, and SFV leaflet to wall angle. Peak SFV augmentation velocity and cycle period were obtained from the single channel pulse Doppler mode. Other parameters were derived from the raw data and included: leaflet to SFV diameter ratio, SFV area, SFV flow rate, SFV peak Reynolds number, and SFV Womersley number. Although these data are too extensive to report here, the average values were used as a guide for designing an in vitro flow test system and the first generation of proto- typic, prosthetic valves.
Taking our cue from nature, we are able to model and design systems that maximize the functional advantages of nature without completely mimicking nature, resulting in less technological complexity. With the help of QFD, a study was conducted to find out the amputees’s requirement for the prosthetheic leg. This quality cycle starts with creating a design that meets customer needs and continues on through conducting detailed product analysis of parts and components to achieve the desired product, identifying the processes necessary to make the product, developing product requirement, prototype testing, final product or service testing, and finishing with after sales troubleshooting.
functioning subassemblies, replacing the snap closures. Strength was added to the knuckles by using Chicago screws instead of 0.10-inch diameter pins. The finger design was also simplified from three joints to two joints. It was found through comparison with other 3D printed designs that having the distal and intermediate phalanxes fixed at an angle offered similar grip strength to a three-jointed finger, with less complexity. The final product of this MQP is not only a hand, but a full prosthetic arm powered by pure mechanical actuation. Physical testing showed that the product is able to grip and move chairs, turn and open door handles, and carry 10-12 lbs of force directly on the fingers before slipping.
After designing software for testing, it was noticed that the design mentioned in section 3.2 still has some errors; for example, in case that the hacker enters/sends a username and password with an empty value or space, he will be able to bypass the authentication. That is, when considering Step 3, after GetPassword() has received an input as an empty string, it will return that empty string (a zero-length string or “”) to ServerPassword so that the client can decode it for ST (because the password on the client’s side is an empty string similar to that on the server’s side). Finally the DynamicPassword creation on both client’s (Step 7) and server’s sides (Step 9) have the same result since they have the same ST and empty string. Consequently, the researchers have developed the design to be more secure and present it as an operational diagram as illustrated in Figure 1.
Thus, the experimental evaluation of the sensor system discussed in this paper substantiates the suitability of the sensor for the biomechanical measurement task. Future work will include the realization of the socket measurement system concept proposed in previous work  and testing the system in a pilot study with a unilateral transtibial amputee using a PTB socket with shuttle lock suspension. In order to conduct experimental trials with participants using a different type of suspension systems, the effectiveness of the proposed sensor seals need to be evaluated. The identification of the individual coupling stiffness through measurement of relative movement will help to understand the dynamic interactions at the residual limb-socket interface and might lead to the improvement of socket designs.
The purpose of the dynamic load test is to determine the controlling parameters of the dynamic behavior of the bridges. The main dynamic characteristics of the structure are the fundamental vibration frequency, the dynamic amplification factor and the logarithmic decrement. These properties are usually not analyzed in detail in the design phase of small and middle sized structures. Some parameters, such as the logarithmic decrement or the dynamic amplification factor, can only be roughly estimated at the time of the design. However, these quantities are relatively easy to obtain experimentally, and can give valuable information for the exploitation and maintenance of the bridge.
Such items specify the regional constraints and can be applied for all loads occurring. They are represented by constraint hypersurfaces. Stress, deformations and reso- nance, stability or fatigue ultimate limits are nonlinear functions of testing variables adopted. The constraint hypersurfaces are nonlinear functions of such variables. If virtual testing point lies above constraint surfaces then stress or displacements in regional constraints are within specified limits.