Communication can be broadly defined as the transfer of information from one point to another. A communication system is usually required when the information is to be conveyed over a distance. The transfer of information within the communication system is commonly achieved by superimposing or modulating the information onto an electromagnetic wave which acts as a carrier for the information signal. At the required destination, the modulated carrier is then received and the original information signal can be recovered by demodulation. Over the years, sophisticated techniques have been developed for this process using electromagnetic carrier waves operating at radio frequencies as well as microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. In today’s modern communication industry, antennas are the most important components required to create a communication link. Through the years, microstrippatchantenna structures are the most common option used to realize millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits for microwave, radar and communication purposes. The shape and operating mode of the patch are selected, designs become very versatile in terms of operating frequency, polarization, pattern and impedance .
With constant increase in device usage and dependency on the technology, demand for robust and fast communication systems has encouraged development of compact antennas. Performance characteristics of a communication system is strictly dependent on the antenna type as well as on its size and placement in the system. With a paradigm shift in the utilization of devices, miniaturized antenna modelling has evolved as a prime research area. Other than the compact size constraint, designingantenna with wide bandwidth and ability to cover multiple bands has also taken an exponential leap. In order to fit all this in one frame microstrip antennas offer the best performance as it is light weight, easy to mass produce, compact and is conformable. With shift into the microwave and mm-wave range, frequency of operation is increasing thereby reducing the antenna size, hence MSA’s(microstrip antennas) offer best performance.Conventional MSA’s are by default narrowband, have single resonating frequency, low impedance bandwidth, low gain, larger size and polarization issues. Different techniques have been proposed in the literature to resolve these constraints. For instance, using different patch shapes, meandering, slotting, parasitic patches, implementing DGS (Defective ground structures), frequency selective surfaces, electromagnetic band gap, photonic band gap structures, metamaterials, different feeding techniques and so forth.
final modified antenna is compared with that of a Rectangular ShapedMicrostripPatchAntenna (RSMPA) and Rhombus ShapedMicrostripAntenna (RSMA). The designed antenna has two resonant frequencies 5.29 GHz and 5.49 GHz. So this antenna is applicable for the WiMax application. This electromagnetic coupled antenna offers much improved impedance bandwidth 22.08%. This is approximately five times higher than that in a RSMPA antenna (Bandwidth = 4.43%) having the same dimensions.
Due to rapid development of modern wireless communication technologies, low cost, light weight and small size wideband antennas are of great demand. Microstrippatch antennas are developed in response to this need. Their planer proﬁle conﬁgurations attract commercial, industrial and medical applications. However, the main limitation of the conventional microstrippatch antennas is narrow bandwidth that restricts its operation where wider bandwidth is required. To overcome their inherent limitation of narrow bandwidth, many techniques have been proposed and investigated such as by using lower value of dielectric substrate, increasing the thickness of substrate , utilizing an impedance matching networks and diﬀerent types of feeding techniques [2–5], use of stacked and coplanar structures , loading of slot and notch [7, 8]. These techniques have some limitations except loading of slot and notch, because it enhances bandwidth without increasing the volume of the geometry. For these reasons, several structures have been reported by the research groups such as E-shapedantenna [9–12], E and H-shaped antennas , C-shapedantenna , notched semi-disk antenna , E-shaped ground penetrating patchantenna , ψ -shapedantenna , V-shaped and half V shaped antennas , W-shapedantenna, etc.  in which they achieved broad bandwidth. These antennas are fabricated on thin microwave substrates having two or more adjacent resonant frequencies which are excited near the fundamental frequencies. These closely excited resonating frequencies are combined to provide enhanced bandwidth. The concept of the proposed antenna structure has been extracted from the above discussed antenna shapes.
software has been shown in fig.2This variation indicates the resonance frequency of antenna. The impedance bandwidth corresponding to resonance frequency are very low. The gain and efficiency of antenna are also very poor. These outcomes suggest that circular patchantenna in its present form is not suitable for application satellite communication system. Therefore, this patch geometry has been modified by introducing stub loaded stack (SLS) technique.
Abstrac: -microstrippatchantenna becomes very popular day-by-day because of its ease of analysis and fabrication, low cost, light weight, easy to feed and their attractive radiation characteristics. In order to increase bandwidth and other radiation parameters various antenna designs are made. Although patchantenna has numerous advantages, it has also some drawbacks such as restricted bandwidth, low gain and a potential decrease in radiation pattern. To overcome this issue, various feeding techniques have proposed .there are many aspects that affect the performance of the antenna like dimensions, selection of the substrate, inserting slot and also the operating frequency. This paper describes the design of microstrippatchantenna used for wimax application with operating frequency 3.75ghz. The antenna is rectangular in shape, in which rf power is fed directly to the centre radiating patch with the help of feeding techniques. Various parameters such as return loss, radiation pattern, bandwidth, gain, vswr, etc., are determined. The optimized antenna design and results are presented by using ansoft hfss. Keywords: wimax, return loss, substrate, slots, bandwidth, microstrip, vswr
Novel MZR resonators were used to enhance the bandwidth of a microstripantenna to serve the 5-GHz WLAN applications. It is found that, by embedding two MZR resonators, two extra resonances were generated. By merging the new resonances with the resonance of the microstripantenna, the bandwidth can be increased from 640 MHz of the RMA to 940 MHz of the MZR-MA. Therefore, the 5.15–5.825 GHz (675 MHz) band of the WLAN is covered. Meanwhile, the patch size is decreased from 0.354λ l × 0.283λ l of the RMA to 0.332λ l × 0.266λ l of the MZR-MA. Research also found that the resonances of the proposed antenna can be independently tuned by adjusting their related parameters. The proposed antenna is a good candidate for WLAN applications. The proposed designingtechnique by embedding ZOR (MZR) resonators in the patch of a microstripantenna is very eﬀective for bandwidth enhancement and size reduction of a microstrip, and it can be easily applied to other band designs.
Microstrippatchantenna is one amongst widely apprehended antenna types in today’s scenario. Habitually microstripantenna is as well signposted as patch or microstrippatchantenna. Microstripantenna finds major application in the microwave frequency range for their compatibility, minimalism and ease of integration, shaping them cool to fabricate either as individual element or as arrays. The theory of the patchantenna was projected in 1953 by Deschamps. On the other hand, real-world antennas were industrialized in the 1970s by Munson and Howell. The exclusive asset of the patchantenna is its Two-Dimensionality. The simplest form of patchantenna entails a ground plane on one side of the substrate and a radiating patch on another side. The feed lines and the radiating elements are commonly photo etched on the substrate. Thus, it possesses precise low contour and printed circuit (photolithographic) technology can be used for fabrication process . There are abundant patterns that can be used as feed to microstrip antennas like co-axial feed, line feed, aperture coupling, proximity coupling etc. Two analysing techniques are primarily employed for any patchantenna. They are namely the cavity model and transmission line model . Microstrip arrays stay inadequate in that they have a tendency to radiate powerfully over a constricted frequency band and are not able to function at higher power levels used in coaxial line, waveguide .
The configuration of the ring shapedantenna is designed on a substrate with Rogers 6006, relative permittivity 6.15 with a loss tangent of 0.0019. The proposed antenna consisting Rogers substrate, the design based on annular ring is etched on the patch of the microstrip feed line antenna. The thickness of the substrate is 1.6mm. It is non-conducting dielectric medium. All of them are substrate from the patchantenna elements. The patch elements made up of copper, it is a conducting material.
Antenna arrays are normally used in high gain beam scanning shaped beam generation for various applications in instrumentation Arrays usually have low gain antenna elements which are arranged in particular geometry in order to meet the above mentioned applications. The antenna elements which are radiating have excitation coefficients and related parameters which are to be studied in any specific applications. Enough number of research papers is there in the study of patchantenna and its arrays. The antenna characterisations are mainly done depending upon the dielectric material on its bandwidth. A simple rectangular patchantenna which exhibits radiation pattern is a smart antenna useful in many applications of
Abstract—As wireless communication applications require more and more bandwidth, the demand for wideband antennas increases as well. One of the most applicable frequency bands is X-band (8–12 GHz). X-band frequencies are used in satellite communications. Radar applications, terrestrial communications and networking, motion detection and etc. Fractal passive Microstrip antennas are simple and novel structures that attract much attraction recently. In this paper, new Microstrip sierpinski modiﬁed and fractalized antennausing multilayer structure for achieving wideband behavior in X-band which in 7–10.6 GHz portion overlaps UWB working range. Using fractal defection in patch, multi higher order modes are inspired for coupling a much wider bandwidth. Roggers TMM3 (ε r = 3.38) is
with L-slot is presented for simultaneously worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and wireless local area network (WLAN) application. A hypothetical overview on microstrippatch radio wire is introduced. After investigation of different examination papers it reasoned that lower gain and low power handling limit can be overcome through an exhibit setup and opened patch. A few attributes of sustaining method and different reception apparatus parameters are talked about. Specific microstrippatch reception apparatus can be intended for every application and distinctive benefits are contrasted and ordinary microwave antenna or receiving wire. The proposed approach to maximizing the efficiency by L- Shaped slot loaded microstrippatchantenna for wireless communication applications. Main purpose of this is to analysis the radiation pattern of L shaped slot microstrip 2×2 patchantenna and 4×4 microstrippatchantenna for dielectric substrates and comparison on the basis of gain and efficiency.
The requirement of newly designing techniques in place of conventional designing methodology is increasing as the need of simple, compact and durable devices reaches on peak. The conventional satellite antennas consist bulky size and complex designing so that it looks difficult to apply them for mobile and small utilities. For example as mobile GPS systems, small navigation systems which have to matched with satellite and installed in various applications like aircrafts, public transports or various security and public utilities. So as the applications of these fields are robust and almost typical, there is a need to improve the designing of antenna technology so as small in size, less complex, easy to designing and fabrication, better improved parameters. For achieving maximum improved parameter from same size antenna there are lots of designing techniques available.
Microstrip antennas have sparked interest among researchers because of their attractive features like low profile, light weight, and conformal to mounting structures, but they have two most serious limitations, narrow bandwidth and low gain . However, the major disadvantage associated with MSAs is their narrow bandwidth [2-3] which restricts their many useful applications. Numbers of studies have been reported in the literature for enhancing the bandwidth [4-7]. Variety of methods have been proposed to obtain dual band operation, such as by loading slits , using slots in the patch , loading the patch with shorting pins , using stacked patches  et al. But the antenna operating at more than two different bands of frequencies and their enhancement are found rare in the literature. Hence a RMSA with three slots on the radiating patch with capacitor technique has been used for constructing the proposed antennas useful for GPS and MMDS applications.
A theoretical review on micro strip patchantenna is presented in this paper. Some effect of disadvantages can be minimized. Increasing gain ,bandwidth and lowering VSWR for making patchantenna for application specific is achieved by introducing slots in the geometries of patchantenna. As compared to conventional micro-strip antenna gain is improved, VSWR is reduced so thereby overall efficiency of the antenna increases. Different slots shaped are compared with without slot and it is found that bandwidth of conventional rectangular micro strip antenna can be enhanced respectively using A, C, E, L, and U-patch over the substrate. The E-shapedpatchantenna has the highest Gain followed by A, C, L-shapedpatchantenna and U-shapedpatchantenna.
Today Communication devices support several applications which require higher bandwidth; such as mobile phones these days are getting thinner and smarter but many application supported by them require higher bandwidth, so microstripantenna used for performing this operation should provide wider bandwidth as well as their size should be compact so that it should occupy less space while keeping the size of device as small as possible. In this paper a review of different techniques used for compact and broadbandmicrostrippatchantenna is given.
In the most recent days microstrip antennas are mostly used in the wireless communication due to the salient features like low cost, less weight, small size. But these antennas are having some drawbacks like narrow bandwidth, low gain etc. In this paper, a probe feed, slotted rectangular patchantenna has been proposed. Bandwidth enhancement has been improved by suitably cutting slots into the rectangular patch. Proposed antenna is suitable for various wireless applications.Representation, measurement and calculation for this new antenna has been done with the help of software IE3D.
In this paper a compact wideband microstripantenna with compact size is presented which gives a bandwidth of around 43.578%. This bandwidth covers the frequency bands of GSM and WLAN (lower band) application. Figure 2 shows the return loss graph of microstrip an- tenna depicting the two resonant points at 1.8 GHz and 2.49 GHz and the simulated return loss is −25.6 dB and −22.64 dB respectively. Figure 3 shows the VSWR graph which is less than 2. Figure 4 shows the smith chart of the proposed design. Figure 5 shows the 3D radiation pattern of the proposed design. Figure 6 shows the Axial ratio graph which is near to zero and Figure 7 shows the Efficiency Vs Frequency curve which shows a high antenna efficiency of about 95% and radiating effi- ciency of about 95%. Figure 8 shows the Gain Vs Fre- quency curve which shows maximum gain is achieved around 3 dBi and Figure 9 shows the Maximum Direc- tivity of 5 dBi.
The antenna performance has been investigated through simulation via a Finite Element program, HFSS.The simulated result for the return loss is shown in Fig.3. Based on a − 10 dB return loss, 81% impedance bandwidth (in the frequency range of 4 to 8.8 GHz) is obtained.
On the other hand, materials that exhibit a high in the microwave region do not exist in nature and designers have been compelled to use lossy high materials when antenna miniaturization is a key design requirement. Fortunately materials that exhibit high, or magnetic permeability enhanced meta-materials, can now be artificially engineered to lead to smaller antennas without compromising other design criteria.