Top PDF Determinants of Immigrants’ Early Labor Market Integration

Determinants of Immigrants’ Early Labor Market Integration

Determinants of Immigrants’ Early Labor Market Integration

Until 1985, immigrant settlement was concentrated to a few geographic regions. From that year, the government implemented a settlement policy that involved close to all municipalities (277 out of 284). Later, evaluations have found this policy to be a failure (Ekberg 2004, Edin et al 2004). The refugees were often placed in municipalities with plenty of empty apartments but few jobs. The policy, in its extreme version, ended in 1991 but the present policy still bears some resemblance. Today, the authorities in a Migration Board reception center, initially place most asylum seekers and refugees, while waiting for a permit decision. They often stay there a long time because of complex legal processes. If the immigrant finally gets a permanent residence permit, he or she meets with the Migration Board to discuss which municipality to move to. Only a small proportion of the immigrants are placed in a municipality chosen by them . Currently, 166 of 290 Swedish municipalities have a written agreement 2 with the Swedish Integration Board that obligates them to provide introduction programs to immigrants that come in this way. This obligation is limited to an agreed number of immigrants per year, which therefore imposes a constraint on where immigrants initially can be settled.
Show more

36 Read more

Labor Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain

Labor Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain

Spain has been traditionally a country of emigrants. During the 1850-1953 period, approximately 3.5 million Spaniards left for the Americas from regions such as Galicia, Asturias and the Canary Islands. Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Cuba were some of the most popular destinations of these emigrants. Spanish migrants also went to Africa from areas such as Murcia and the Balear Islands, although to a lesser extent. However, Spain witnessed some significant changes in its migration patterns during the 20 th century. First, about 74 percent of Spanish emigrants chose Northern Europe as their destination between mid 1950s and mid 1970s. Second, from the mid 1970s onwards, Spain became the host country of foreign laborers from Northern Africa and Latin- America. Out migration diminished during the international economic crisis of the early seventies, whereas immigration grew at a steady pace. The transition from an immigrant- sending to an immigrant-receiving country was the byproduct of a larger shift in regional migration patterns. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, Mediterranean countries, such as Spain, Portugal and Italy, became immigrant-receiving nations due to a variety of factors, such as: (1) their geographical proximity to immigrant-sending regions, such as Africa; (2) the barriers to immigration in traditionally immigrant-receiving nations during the 1950s, 1960s, and part of the 1970s, as it was the case in Germany, Switzerland and France; and (3) the improved economies of Mediterranean countries.
Show more

38 Read more

Low-Skilled Immigrants and the U.S. Labor Market

Low-Skilled Immigrants and the U.S. Labor Market

How does legal status, by itself, affect the labor market opportunities of immigrants? Most data sources cannot identify illegal immigrants, and so they are unable to answer this question. A few studies, however, have been able to shed light on the issue by exploiting unique surveys that contain information about legal status. Chiswick (1988), for example, analyzes samples of illegal immigrants who had been apprehended by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (as it was called back then), and he shows that their U.S. earnings are systematically related, in expected ways, to variables that proxy for labor market skills (i.e., education, work experience, seniority with the current employer, and duration of U.S. residence). Massey (1987) compares the U.S. wages earned by legal and illegal immigrants originating in four Mexican communities. He reports that undocumented Mexican immigrants earn substantially less, on average, than do legal Mexican immigrants, but he also shows that this wage gap is explained by the lower human capital possessed by undocumented immigrants, particularly with regard to English proficiency and U.S. work experience. After controlling for observable determinants of earnings, Massey finds that legal status per se has little direct effect on U.S. wages for the Mexican immigrants in his sample. Donato and Massey (1993), however, obtain a different result when they conduct a similar analysis of later and more extensive data from 13 Mexican communities. In these later data, undocumented status reduces wages by about 20 percent, even after controlling for observables.
Show more

68 Read more

Globalization and labor market integration in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Asia

Globalization and labor market integration in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Asia

of the labor to plant previously uncultivated acreage with export crops (Feeny, 1982, pp. 42–43; Adas, 1974, pp. 41–57). Insofar as labor from the traditional sectors of the region’s dual economies was unavailable in sufficient quantities or unwilling to join in export production, immigration from India and China supplied workers. Colonial authorities in Malaya and Burma and the government in Thailand advocated mass immigration to assist trade expansion. Burma, Malaya, and Thailand, all of which, apart from a few brief periods, allowed unrestricted migration until the 1930s, were by no means the sole world outlets for emigration from India and China. But they attracted a large and increasing proportion of all emigrants from India and China and were the dominant outlet for both streams of emigration (Table 1). Burma received chiefly Indian immigrants and Thailand mainly Chinese. Malaya, about equidistant between China and India, was the destination for large numbers of both Chinese and Indians. By the 1880s Madras and the Chinese provinces of Kwangtung and Fukien had long histories of hardship and periodic famine and were clearly excess labor areas (see, for example, India, 1902, pp. 27–32; India, 1923, p. 31; 1932a, p. 61; 1932b, p. 93; Kumar, 1965, pp. 104–105, 144, 161–167; Davis, 1951; Buck, 1937a, pp. 76–77, 125–128; Buck, 1937b). In 1881 comparative populations were 31 million in Madras, 37 million in Kwangtung and Fukien, and 14.3 million in the three Southeast Asian countries. At this time Madras and Kwangtung had population densities of 217 and 255 persons per square mile and Fukien a density of over 300 persons compared to a density of between 25 and 30 in the Southeast Asian countries.
Show more

64 Read more

Globalization and Labor Market Integration in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Asia

Globalization and Labor Market Integration in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Asia

level in 1875 (Lin, 1997, p. 86). Many of those who had worked in the silk industry tried to emigrate, including women who began to come to Malaya in large numbers for the first time. Other Kwangtung women formerly engaged in silk production and remaining in the province — both the tzu-shu nü (zishu nü) who had taken celibacy vows and the pu lo-chi (bu luojia) who were separated from their husband but were expected to support him, his concubine and their children as well as her in-laws — now sought refuge in local spinsters’ houses and vegetarian halls (Topley, 1975, pp. 82 - 86). Pre-World War II ratios of Southeast Asia to Madras/Southeastern China wages of between about two to a little over three are comparable in size to gaps elsewhere. O’Rourke and Williamson (1999, p. 127) report, for example, that between the 1870s and 1910-13 Italian real wages rose from 38% to 46% of wages in France, Germany, the United States and Argentina. Even at the end of the Atlantic economy’s transition to mass migration the ratio of wages in labor-scarce regions abroad to those in Europe ranged from 1.7 in Britain to 3.7 for Norway (Hatton and Williamson, 2005, p. 136). Four main explanations account for the Southeast Asia and Madras/Southeastern China wage gap. Of these, shipping fares between sending and destination areas are almost certainly the least important. It is not far from Madras or Southeastern China to Southeast Asia and shipping passage was not expensive. Immigrant fares averaged, apart from the 1930s when shipping companies dramatically raised rates to try to make up for lost business due to immigration restrictions, between a half and three weeks’ wages in Southeast Asia. Over a typical immigrant sojourn of four years in Southeast Asia return shipping fares worked out to about 0.5% to 3.0% of expected immigrant earnings (Huff and Caggiano, 2007, p. 46).
Show more

83 Read more

Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe

Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe

The Lisbon Strategy (named after the European meeting in Lisbon in the spring of 2000) states that by the year 2010, the EU shall become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, with the possibility of sustainable economic growth, with more and better work opportunities and a higher degree of social solidarity. It is crucial for the chances of EU reaching this goal that more people become employed. The problem is that many people are still outside the labor market, in particular those who have a foreign background. The integration of these individuals is thus crucial for reaching the Lisbon goals and European integration policy must play a more important role in Europe. The integration of citizens of third countries who live and work in the EU has therefore become an increasingly important issue in the last few years. During the council meetings (legal and domestic questions) in 2002, it was decided that a network of national contact points within the area of integration should be created and this was confirmed during the council meeting in June 2003 and the commission was appointed the task of creating yearly reports on migration and integration. In its message on immigration, integration and employment, the commission is trying to get an overall grip of the issue of integration. The first issue of the handbook on issues of integration for decision-makers and those who work with integration issues in practice was published in November 2004 (Handbook on Integration for policy- makers and practitioners). Integration is a major issue within several of the EU policy areas. If there is a successful integration of immigrants on the labor market in an efficient and responsible way, this would be an important contribution to the Lisbon goal.
Show more

34 Read more

Immigrants Responsiveness to Labor Market Conditions

Immigrants Responsiveness to Labor Market Conditions

As with fixed-term contracts, a better understanding of the Spanish economic environment in the late seventies and early eighties in order to better frame the growth of informal employment. 6 As stated earlier, in the early eighties Spain was going through a deep recession with increasing labor costs in the form of higher payroll taxes and high dismissal costs for most contracts. Additionally, Spain endured high average inflation rates in the order of 15 percent and a decreasing growth rate of real gross domestic product per capita, which plunged to 1.5 percent after reaching 5.8 percent in the mid seventies. The deep economic recession led to massive plant closures, which raised the unemployment rate from 5.8 percent between 1974 and 1979 to 17.5 percent during the 1980-85 period. Workers displaced from the formal sector became an attractive labor force for firms operating in the underground economy or for firms that, despite being in the formal sector, wanted to reduce labor costs. Firms hiring workers in informal work arrangements avoided high payroll taxes and enjoyed the flexibility of freely dismissing workers when they were no longer needed. This was an attractive feature in the midst of great economic uncertainty and high dismissal costs since, despite being an illegal practice in most cases, the probability of getting caught remained small and the legal framework lacked any criminal disposition for fraud against social security.
Show more

43 Read more

Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe

Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe

The Lisbon Strategy (named after the European meeting in Lisbon in the spring of 2000) states that by the year 2010, the EU shall become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, with the possibility of sustainable economic growth, with more and better work opportunities and a higher degree of social solidarity. It is crucial for the chances of EU reaching this goal that more people become employed. The problem is that many people are still outside the labor market, in particular those who have a foreign background. The integration of these individuals is thus crucial for reaching the Lisbon goals and European integration policy must play a more important role in Europe. The integration of citizens of third countries who live and work in the EU has therefore become an increasingly important issue in the last few years. During the council meetings (legal and domestic questions) in 2002, it was decided that a network of national contact points within the area of integration should be created and this was confirmed during the council meeting in June 2003 and the commission was appointed the task of creating yearly reports on migration and integration. In its message on immigration, integration and employment, the commission is trying to get an overall grip of the issue of integration. The first issue of the handbook on issues of integration for decision-makers and those who work with integration issues in practice was published in November 2004 (Handbook on Integration for policy- makers and practitioners). Integration is a major issue within several of the EU policy areas. If there is a successful integration of immigrants on the labor market in an efficient and responsible way, this would be an important contribution to the Lisbon goal.
Show more

32 Read more

Asymmetric Information in the Labor Market, Immigrants and Contract Menu

Asymmetric Information in the Labor Market, Immigrants and Contract Menu

Immigrant workers and their labor force participation in host countries have received critical attention in all concerned disciplines, principally owing to its strong implications for well-being of natives. The ageing population in many rich countries and several related and unrelated issues including global integration, pension provisions or security threats keeps immigration under continuous impact evaluation. However, of the several studies that dealt with patterns and consequences aspects of labor migration, only a handful discusses asymmetric information across transnational labor markets despite agreement that a standardized screening mechanism is unavailable. At the same time, several empirical studies show that immigrants are proportionally overrepresented in self-employment, vis-à-vis natives of equivalent skill levels. We try to explain this phenomenon based on asymmetric information in the host country labor market. We focus on the design of a contract menu by the employers, which when offered to a mixed cohort of immigrants facilitates self-selection in favor of paid employment or the outside option of self-employment/entrepreneurship. We also discuss countervailing incentives among the mixed cohort.
Show more

37 Read more

The Substitutability of Labor between Immigrants and Natives in the Canadian Labor Market: Circa 1995

The Substitutability of Labor between Immigrants and Natives in the Canadian Labor Market: Circa 1995

differentials across labor markets may simply reflect an unequal distribution of skill levels, seriously biasing the estimates of the production function. It is also natural to think that post 1978 immigrants are more heterogeneous (especially those arrived since late 1980s) due to changing country of origin and skill components. However, it is likely that these immigrants differ by age, education, occupation, race, area of source country, etc. from those who migrated early. Since most of these immigrants are admitted into Canada based on a points system, the differences among different cohorts of immigrants are likely to be observable. So it is plausible to assume that these immigrants are homogenous conditional on a vector of observable attributes. In our regression analysis, we address this aspect of heterogeneity using a vector of covariates that are potential determinants of immigrant’s entry and labor market participation in Canada. We also consider an analogue of the technique adopted by Borjas (1983, 1987) to address the issue of heterogeneity that are due to labor market outcomes. The idea is to view the wage of individual of type i’s as being determined by both the market wage, W i , for type
Show more

28 Read more

DETERMINANTS OF LABOR MARKET PARTICIPATION IN SENEGAL

DETERMINANTS OF LABOR MARKET PARTICIPATION IN SENEGAL

Njikam G., Tchoffo R., Mwaffo V. (2005), « Caractéristiques et déterminants de l’emploi des jeunes au Cameroun », Unités Politique de l‘emploi/Département de la stratégie en matière d‘emploi. 91 p. Nordman C., Pasquier-Doumer L. (2012), « Vocational Education, On-the-Job Training and Labour Market Integration of Young Workers in Urban West Africa », Document de travail UMR DIAL. 42 p. OCDE (1998), « l’investissement dans le capital humain : Une comparaison internationale, Paris. OCDE (2012), « Quel est l'impact du niveau de formation sur les taux d'emploi ? », Regards sur l'éducation 2012 : Panorama, Éditions OCDE.
Show more

14 Read more

Early retired police officers integration into labor market: case of Plungė district municipality.

Early retired police officers integration into labor market: case of Plungė district municipality.

Skirdamos ir mokėdamos karių ir pareigūnų valstybines pensijas institucijos vadovaujasi „Pareigūnų ir karių valstybinių pensijų įstatymu bei Vyriausybės patvirtintais [r]

56 Read more

Immigrants and Italian labor market: statistical or taste-based discrimination?

Immigrants and Italian labor market: statistical or taste-based discrimination?

According to the survey on “Integration of the second-generation (ISG)” carried out by ISTAT in 2015 and involving lower and upper secondary schools, immigrants born in Italy perform almost the same scores as Italian students, meaning that there is no significant statistical difference between the two categories. Nowadays, immigration in this respect appears to be different from old European immigration, not being anymore poor education of immigrants the main reason for their higher difficulties in finding a job. Indeed, they do not find challenging difficulties in accessing unskilled and semi-- skilled manual jobs, as they experience in self-employment and non-manual jobs (Fullin and Reyneri 2011).
Show more

20 Read more

The Labor Market Integration of Asylum Seekers in France

The Labor Market Integration of Asylum Seekers in France

Unlike France, Sweden chose to open its labor market to asylum seekers and encourage them to work. In 1992, a year after France closed its labor market to asylum seekers, Sweden exempted the vast majority of asylum seekers from needing a work permit in order to secure employment in the country. As long as an asylum seeker is able to provide identity documents, the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket) will provide them with an Asylum Seeker Card which allows them to work. However, even this small requirement is flexible, allowing those asylum seekers without identity documents to obtain authorization as long as they are “cooperative in the work of proving their identity” (Valenta and Thorshaug 2013, 467) . In 1997, the Swedish government passed a bill (Prop. 1997/98:17) which officially transitioned the country from an immigrant policy to an integration policy. This new policy of integration emphasized “equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for everyone, irrespective of their ethnic and cultural background, social cohesion built on diversity and social development characterised by mutual respect within the boundaries of a democratic society, in which everyone should take an active and responsible part” (Wiesbrock 2011, 50). This is remarkable, since between the time Sweden exempted asylum seekers from the work permit requirement and 1997, the country had faced a severe economic downturn which raised the national unemployment rates from around 2% to 10% (Wiesbrock 2011, 60). Sweden recovered in the 2000s, but the French argument that unemployment is a reason to deny the right to work to asylum seekers clearly did not apply in Sweden, which instead increased its effort to integrate them. In 2009, the Swedish government passed another bill (Prop. 2009/10:60) which reformed the national integration policy to “speed up the introduction of newly arrived immigrants into working and social life by encouraging them to become actively employed” (Wiesbrock 2011, 50).
Show more

33 Read more

Immigration, integration and the labour market; Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands

Immigration, integration and the labour market; Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands

The comparison of Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands is interesting because of two aspects. First, the Turks are a major immigrant group in both countries, in particular as both countries recruited substantial numbers of so-called ‘guest workers’ from Turkey in the 1960s and early 1970s followed by family reunification immigration afterwards. Immigration and integration policies are well documented and both countries have micro data available for this particular group. Second, while both countries have labour market institutions that are similar in many aspects, the countries followed different immigration and integration policies. Germany for some time followed an active remigration policy and was restraint in offering German nationality. Integration policies could be qualified as minimal. In contrast to the rather restrictive German policies, The Netherlands focussed on better access of immigrants to employment, housing and education, offered easy access to Dutch nationality, and at least until recently encouraged immigrants to preserve their own cultural identity (the ‘multicultural society’). By comparing the labour market outcomes of immigrants with one particular social and cultural background in the two countries we hope to learn about the importance of the above described policies. The research method has drawbacks as well, in particular as we do not
Show more

50 Read more

Immigrants' Assimilation Process in a Segmented Labor Market

Immigrants' Assimilation Process in a Segmented Labor Market

and less concentrated in more traditional sectors. However, this over-representation in the skilled occupations declined across subsequent entry cohorts, reflecting Canadian immigration policy’s shift away from a selective system towards a system that gives priority to close relatives of those immigrants already in the country and that does not assess immigrants on personal skill-related characteristics. Similarly, Sweden has also seen the ethnic (and skill composition) of its immigrants change with the nature of its immigration (Duvander, 2001). As the Swedish immigration policy changed from focusing on labor market immigration in the 1960s, when labor demand was high, to refugee and family immigration in the 1970s and onward, the ethnic composition of its immigrants has changed from being to a large extent Finnish in the 1960s, to Iranian, Chilean, and Polish. In contrast, in Australia, where immigration policy based on a points system began in the early 1990s and was reinforced in 1996 and later by tightening the selection criteria, the evidence suggests that there was a stronger self- selection among prospective migrants leading to higher quality and better employability for the later waves of migration (Cobb-Clark, 2000, 2003; Richardson et al., 2001, 2002; Chiswick and Miller, 2006; and Thapa and Gørgens, 2006). Right after World War II, the UK immigration policy initially favored Commonwealth citizens over others. However, in the early 1970s, the UK shifted its immigration policy towards a preference for European citizens and tightened entry restrictions to citizens of former colonies. This change in immigration policy led to a change in the national-origin mix of immigrants, which had a significant impact on the skill-characteristics of the different cohorts of immigrants, increasing the skill endowment of the successive cohorts of immigrants (Bell, 1997). 9
Show more

55 Read more

Active labor market programs for the integration of youths and immigrants into the labor market: the Nordic experience

Active labor market programs for the integration of youths and immigrants into the labor market: the Nordic experience

Table 4 provides a survey of the recent evaluation literature of Nordic ALMPs. Shadowing in the final “Results” column denotes evaluation studies that take into account heterogeneous program effects by gender, age or immigrant status. An overview of this literature confirms that of the various types of ALMPs used in the Nordic labor market, subsidized wage employment in the private sector yields the most unequivocally positive results on subsequent employment probabilities while public job creation programs yield negative or zero results. Several studies also document positive threat effects, that is to say transitions out of unemployment prior to forced participation in ALMPs. One such study based on an experimental set-up in Sweden found that referrals to job-search assistance decreased unemployment duration while referrals to increased monitoring gave no effect. A separate experiment aimed at unemployed youths, however, found no threat effects (Hägglund, 2006a, 2006b) 14 . A possible reason for these divergent results is that job-search programs may be viewed more positively by disadvantaged groups such as unemployed youth. Another experiment in Denmark confirms the positive impact of threat effects in diminishing unemployment duration (Rosholm, 2008) 15 .
Show more

60 Read more

ENABLING IMMIGRANTS TO ENTER THE LABOR MARKET The effect of local government initiatives on immigrants’ labor market participation.

ENABLING IMMIGRANTS TO ENTER THE LABOR MARKET The effect of local government initiatives on immigrants’ labor market participation.

Of the variables included in the analyses time living in Sweden seemed to have the most significant effect on immigrant unemployment levels, showing that as the time living in the country increases so does the employment rate. This is not surprising as it is reasonable to assume that many of the factors previous research has shown to affect the chances of employment take time, such as building social networks, validation of education and skills, adapting skills and professional knowledge to a new context (see Bevelander & Pendakur 2014; Froy 2006; Calvó-Armengol & Jackson 2004; Reitz 2007; Åslund & Rooth 2007b). The question is whether labor market integration efforts can speed up this process. It is possible that the efforts made by local governments can have a positive effect for some individuals who have the “right” human capital and ability to work. Looking at the effect separate labor market integration efforts have on individuals it is possible to see a positive effect, for example the positive result from the subsidized employments in Ronneby, Sweden, referenced in the theoretical framework (Westberg & Wickström 2016). On the larger, aggregated, scale the results of integration efforts might not be seen until later.
Show more

54 Read more

Labor market integration of new immigrants in Spain

Labor market integration of new immigrants in Spain

composition effect? Using Spanish Labor Force Survey data from 2000 through 2011, we compare the employment trajectories of different cohorts of immigrants and natives and find that those who arrived before the 2008 recession had little trouble finding work immediately. In contrast, those who arrived after 2008 struggled to find work as Spanish unemployment rates skyrocketed. In addition, although many immigrants who arrived in Spain between 2000 and 2007 were able to find work and eventually move out of the low-skilled positions, the nature of their jobs did not shield them from the recession. Hence, many became unemployed as the economy shed low- and middle-skilled jobs in sectors dominated by immigrants. Immigrants ’ individual characteristics, such as gender, country of origin, or educational level, had a limited effect on their employment trajectories. These findings suggest that for many workers, finding middle-skilled work alone isn ’ t enough. Hence, integration policies could aim to help workers transition from the secondary to the primary labor market in order to find their way into more stable employment.
Show more

15 Read more

Who opposes immigrants’ integration into the labor market? The Swiss case

Who opposes immigrants’ integration into the labor market? The Swiss case

If attitudes towards the integration of immigrants are to be explained in a mean- ingful way, the underlying model should account for the fact that immigration policies of the “guest-worker” type were implemented in the first place (as was the case in many European countries, see Castles, 1986). The model that we spell out below reflects the fact that guest-worker policies aimed at channeling immigrants into low-wage occupations or sectors, enhancing the natives’ chances to find high-wage jobs. The sectoral segregation between natives and migrants is either the direct result of legal regulations (e.g. by issuing work permits with limited rights during a transition period) or the indirect outcome of differing economic incentives. Both cases are taken into account by our model.
Show more

27 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...