same projects in a traditional way using Blackboard and any other ad-hoc tools they selected to support their collaboration. Control and treatment conditions used the same courses and same assignments. The only difference between the treatment and the control groups is that the former used the collaboration tool and scaffolds to support collaborative activities while teams in the control did not. The type of projects they worked on was the same across treatment and control. All the teams in both conditions were created using stratified random sampling to ensure that members of every team were remotely located. Table 1 outlines the instructional scaffolds used in the treatment condition. Participants were recruited from 13 classes over 4 consecutive semesters. During the first two semesters data was collected under the control condition for all the courses, while the last two semesters data was collected under the treatment condition. The undergraduate courses included Project Management, Engineering Ethics, Introduction to Engineering Management and the graduate course included Project Management and Systems Analysis. All courses have a team project that accounts for at least 45% of the total course grade. The students in the treatment condition received an in-class 30-minute training module on the use of the tool and they were also given access to a training video accessible directly from the collaborative tool. A graduate teaching assistant was assigned to address technical questions regarding the tool.
An important step in information literacy development is to obtain data on students’ abilities. These data will indicate areas of improvement and the most appropriate training and services required. Data for this study were obtained using the test adapted from Mittermeyer. The test consists of 20 multiple-choice questions related to information research process, which consists of five major steps, namely: 1) Defining which information is required, 2) Identifying the main concepts in the research, 3) Developing a search strategy, 4) Performing the search, and 5) Using the search results. Each of these steps requires information literacy skills to make the information search successful. Based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards For Higher Education published by the Association of College and Research Libraries and the International Federation of Library Associations guidelines on information literacy, the information research skills are grouped into five major themes , , .
Keywords: Soft skills, SPSS, Team work, interpersonal Skills, Communication Skills 1. Introduction
Skill is something that one learns to do competently. Skills are categorized into hard skills and soft skills. People with both hard soft skills are required by today‟s competitive world. Hard skills are the technical skills required to perform a certain type of task . “Soft skills refer to the cluster of personality traits, social grace, communication, language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that characterize relationships with other people. Soft skills complement hard skills, which are the occupational requirements of a job” .The skills of “team work, interpersonal skill and communication skills” have been combined and called as “Performance Enhancement Skills (PES)” that have been researched on in this paper. Among the 12 Graduate Attributes (GAs) for under graduate engineering programmes listed by “National Board of Accreditation (NBA)” in India and the “International Engineering Association (IEA)” , the attributes of “team work and communication” have been directly spelled out and the “interpersonal skill (developing and maintaining relationships)” has been indirectly incorporated as an attribute .In this scenario this paper reports a study on the extent to which opportunities available for UG engineeringstudents to groom their performance enhancement skills and their usage. This research paper is constructed in five parts. Following this introductory part are the literature survey, the objective of the study, methodology with phases of the research and final part provides the concluding remarks. 2. Literature Survey
All of them 7.10%
Another important point was to identify the most effective strategies to develop critical thinking through teaching writing. The results revealed (Table 5.) that all participants believe writing argumentative essays can contribute to the development of critical thinking skills. This is highlighted in Johnston’s et al. (2011, 129) findings as well. They state that developing argumentation is valuable, and argumentative essay writing can be helpful. Another strategy mostly chosen by teachers was reflective writing at 92.9% respectively. Interestingly, 71.4% of respondents consider report and blog writing to be promoting critical thinking among students. Although academic blog writing was introduced in the first semester of the academic year, it was found as highly valuable for teaching criticality. This is supported by Johnston et al. (2011, 129) who stressed the importance of personal reaction in writing. It is evident when students write blogs they are to include their personal reaction towards problems, events and cases. In contrast, 14.3% of participants relate descriptive writing and writing reviews to the least effective means of developingcritical thinking via writing in their classrooms. These findings are in line with Shaheen’s study (2016, 29), who suggests that enabling learners to express their views and ideas linking with the secondary data and give useful implications lead to the employment and enhancement of critical
In addition to the engineering knowledge base that has been traditionally taught, today’s undergraduate engineeringstudents need to be given the opportunity to practice a set of skills that will be demanded to them by future employers, namely: creativity, teamwork, problem solving, leadership and the ability to generate innovative ideas. In order to achieve this and educate engineers with both in-depth technical knowledge and professional skills, universities must carry out their own innovating and find suitable approaches that serve their students. This article presents a novel approach that involves university-industry collaboration. It is based on creating a student community for a particular company, allowing students to deal with real industry projects and apply what they are learning in the classroom. A sample project for the German sports brand adidas is presented, along with the project results and evaluation by students and teachers. The university-industry collaborative approach is shown to be beneficial for both students and industry.
Leadership Development. Amini, Madani, and Asgarzadeh (2014) also claimed that there was no difference between male and female in terms of their skills to think critically, while they were working on critical thinking skills of engineeringstudents. The Mann-Whitney test showed that there was no significant difference in critical thinking skills between male and female students of EFL and humanities. Khamesian (2009) conducted a study on finding the relationship between CTS and writing skills in EFL engineeringstudents, where it was demonstrated that in most cases, male and female students performed differently. This is also in contrast with the findings of Doolittle and Welch (1989) who claimed that there were no overall performance differences between male and female on their critical thinking skills. Moafian and Ghanizadeh (2011), and Taghva, Rezaei, Ghaderi, and Taghva (2014) concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in critical thinking skills between male and female students of different fields of study. The results showed that there was no difference between males and females in terms of their critical thinking ability, based on which females and males got the same scores. This is in line with the findings of this study. Working on the final research question, Mann-Whitney test results showed that EFL learners and humanities students are different in terms of total critical thinking skills based on which humanities students are of significantly lower mean, regarding the total critical thinking score than those of EFL learners.
At this school, we like to say, we use all five arts, because we bring in tech arts into the mix as a viable component of the total picture; especially with 21st century skills. That‘s what I am all about; the 4 C‘s. Our program has evolved by having all of these arts available. We have the traditional arts of music, movement, theatre, and visuals are a part of the weekly program for K through 5 students. Sixth grade, we kind of diverged a bit, because we have introduced band. So that then allows visual and theatre every week, but then some are taking band every week and the remainder are taking technology and dance and movement. That is just the sixth grade experience. Now with 7 th and 8 th grade, we go total electives. I have some students that will focus in like technology all 4 quarters. Band is a requirement to be in it for the whole year because it just takes that kind of dedication. And most of our dancers usually stay with it for the whole year. I would say the fact that we have all the arts on a regular basis from the concept side. From the skills side, we have the support for the teachers who will then bring into their classroom activities, so it really shouldn‘t be a case of, ―Where do you have art?‖, it‘s just who we are. It‘s what I like to say, what others call special, we call Tuesday. In this case, Wednesday. We are doing this stuff [referring to human body performance] all the time. It is just a part of who we are.
designed to determine which technical communication attributes, products and professional behaviors are essential. We received 124 responses from alumni and employers and 32 responses from faculty. The results of the survey (available at http://www.newhaven.edu/482669.pdf ) reinforced the notion that alumni and employers really do desire technical communication skillsfromengineering graduates. They desire such skills both in terms of the ability to produce communication products and to exhibit professional communication habits. Responses to two particular questions are shown in Figures 1 and 2. More than 68% of those surveyed indicated that skill in technical communication played a “critical” role in hiring and promotion decisions, while another 29% marked those skills as “some- what important.” Furthermore, over 80% of those responding indicated that in their jobs they spend between 11 and 40 hours a week or more on the communication tasks: writing, reading, speaking and listening. The results of the survey indicated that alumni and employers consider technical communication skills to be critical attributes in engineering graduates. These survey results mirror those from similar surveys conducted at Michigan State University and The University of Maine. 1-3
The collaborationskills test developed by the researchers consisted of 4 problem descriptions, each of which represented indicators of collaborationskills and learning indicators. The analysis used to test the difference in sample mean is the t-test (Trijono, 2015). But before conducting the t-test, there are several requirements that must be met, namely the group to be tested must be normally distributed and homogeneous. In this study, the normality test was carried out using the Kolmogorov- Smirnov formula to find out whether the samples (pre-test and post-test) in class V were normally distributed. The results showed that all samples were normally distributed because of p> 0.05. Because the requirements have been met then the t-test is then performed. Based on paired t-test analysis conducted, it is known that there are differences between pre-test and post-test results before and after learning using entrepreneurship-oriented project-based learning, with a negative t value which means H1 is in the left area, where the post-test higher than pre-test. Based on the results of the t-test, it turns out that project-based learning can significantly enhance student collaborationskills (Table 4). Data on the significance of (p) improvement of collaborationskills are also by the results of N-Gain calculations. The difference in results before and after learning can be seen in Table 5 for the N-Gain of each indicator of collaborationskills. Based on the data in the table, it can be seen that the N-Gain of each indicator of the collaborationskills of fifth-grade students is categorized as high. In general, collaborationskills have increased significantly. It is consistent with research conducted by Marx, et al. (2016) that project-based science learning can foster collaborationskills. Collaboration is a significant component in project-based science learning because it can provide opportunities for students to share ideas, develop their thoughts, utilize the expertise of others, and experience the value of thinking intelligently.
Efforts to develop the critical thinking skills of mathematics have become the main agenda in the curriculum of mathematics education worldwide (NCTM, 2000; Mason, Burton and Stacey, 2010; Innabi and Sheikh, 2006). Many researchers have shown that the development of critical thinking skills can improve mathematics achievement (NCTM, 2000; Silver & Kenney, 1995; Semerci, 2005; Jacob, 2012; Chukwuyenum, 2013). Similarly, critical thinking skills will encourage students to think independently and solve problems in school or in the context of everyday life (NCTM, 2000; Jacob, 2012). The education system in Indonesia is still focused on the exam. Therefore practice of teaching focuses on subject content and ignore the development of students' thinking skills (Soedjadi, 2000; Rohaeti, 2010). Most of the teaching and learning process that takes place in school is the lecture method, which is based on memorization of facts that leads students to think less critical (Cobb et al., 1992; Duplass and Ziedler, 2002). Thus, negligence of the importance of thinking skills in teaching and learning affects students' ability to think (Henningsen & Stein, 1997; Zohar & Dori, 2003). This leads to students' thinking ability in Indonesia is in low level. Low ability among Indonesian students is shown by the study TIMSS 2011 and PISA 2012. Study Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2011) to form two secondary school students showed that students of Indonesia ranked 38th in mathematics from 42 countries (Mullis et al., 2012). While, the results of PISA 2012 survey found Indonesian students at position 64 of the 65 countries in mathematical literacy skills (OECD, 2014). The study revealed that Indonesian students’ answer efficiently in arithmetic problem but weak in non- routine problem solving involving revelations, give opinions and make reasoning. This finding has prompted the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Indonesia to strengthen efforts to improve the quality of mathematics learning in school.
An ability to think critically is of paramount importance to scientists and engineers, whose work typically involves problem-analysis, evaluation of possible courses of action and decision-making. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) criteria  for accrediting engineering programmes contains several outcomes for which CT skills are implicit. Furthermore, educators have long debated how best to teach or encourage CT skills in HE students, see, for example, , , . Our aim was to gain an insight into the extent of teaching and assessment of CT skills and students’ understanding and application of these skills as they progress through their studies. As there are a large number of modules, compulsory and optional, available to CBE students across the seven degree programmes, we focused on compulsory modules. For each programme of study we then reviewed the module specifications for the compulsory modules in Part A (year 1) and Part B (year 2) plus year 3 for the 4-year MEng programme, to determine which ones contained elements of CT. We focused on non-final year modules as the Programme Directors expressed the view that when embarking on their final year, students are not adequately demonstrating CT in their approach to research-based tasks. Ideally, the compulsory modules taken before the final year should embed these skills in students and equip them for their subsequent research-based work.
Critical thinking helps students to develop the intellectual integrity needed to evaluate the reasoning of others (Elder, 2004), encourage students learn to analyze and assess information in written materials: analyze the logic of articles, essays, or chapters (Paul and Elder, 2003).
Most researchers and educators consider that critical thinking is becoming increasingly important and suggest ways to teach critical thinking such as: various techniques to keep the class interesting (Robinson and Kakela 2006), open-book tests and student-authored exam questions (Vanderburgh, 2005), critical thinking debate (Davies, 2006), a set of cognitive skills that can be applied to teaching, utilizing, and assessing critical thinking skills (Facione, 2010), particular instructional strategies in fostering acquisition and transfer of critical thinking skills in higher education (Tiruneh, Verburgh & Elen, 2014) et al. The importance of developingengineeringstudents’ critical thinking in their professional careers is conceded by Andreu-Andres, Garcia-Casas, Rising (2009), Melles (2008). 1.4. Aim of the study.
5.4.1 Programming Ability. The ability to program was considered a prerequisite by many employers. However, two employers stated that an understanding of programming theory was more important than knowing a specific language. Others sought apprentices with a “natural aptitude” for programming or a “personal interest” in the subject, rather than coding experience. Indeed, given the extensive range of languages used in industry, preparing students to program in the language and environment used by a workplace is impractical. Instead, the way forward appears to be to drill down into pro- gramming concepts. Only a limited amount of time should be ded- icated to learning specific languages, and more time should be spent on learning skills and knowledge required to pick up new languages quickly. This should prepare apprentices for the working environments they will encounter early on and also make them better suited to a rapidly changing workplace.
The majority of participants identified both difficulties and compensations regarding programming and dyslexia. The students identified as the main difficulties to learn programming, spelling and memory, followed by the time it took to learn programming, testing and debugging. Particularly debugging was identified as problematic, especially identifying one’s own mistakes, and there are also more likely to be errors in the code arising from the spelling and memory problems. Some respondents describe coping strategies such as “I have worked on developing strategies to check for errors. I also use numerical techniques to help me to minimise errors” or “I can use colour to help me break up sections”.
Students can use blogs to communicate with other students for group projects as well. Students can also access the blog to ask each other questions regarding a missed assignment or lesson. It also gives students an opportunity to collaborate on poetry, various writing assignments, or readings. Students can respond initially to the text, including their thoughts, feelings, connections, questions, etc. Other students would have the opportunity to respond and react to these responses. This would generate conversation amongst the students and develop their critical and analytical thinking skills. It also allows students who are shy and reserved in class to voice their opinions and insight using a different approach. With the rising use of blogs in the classroom, students learn from one another and individually express them as well.
There is also another reason why the researcher chose engineeringstudents. It is known that Malaysia’s vision is to become a fully industralised country by the year 2020. The main issues in achieving the vision are to emphasise industrial activities and economic development and the success of the industrial and economic activities rely on the field of engineering (Zainal Abidin Sulong, 1993 cited in Salbiah Seliman, 1996). Thus, the significance of engineering field is especially felt in Malaysia including UTM (Salbiah Seliman, 1996). Because of that, engineeringstudents should know that in their field, they are required to conduct and carry out research to contribute to the development of Malaysia. Besides, since doing research is complementary in their field, they will need to attend, organize or participate in seminars and conferences. This is where the appropriate oral presentation delivery skills should be applied.
Based on the open questions and the interview responses, most of the respondents mentioned that there is a lack of opportunity for collaborative research and scientific writing in groups of peers. They especially pointed out the unavailability of online tools for a/synchronous communications, such as chat, discussion forums, and sharing ideas through a portal as a problem. As mentioned by one of the respondents “more peer communication would definitely add some values to the PhD thesis process”. Another respondent highlighted the need to enhance communication in general, not only online but also face-to-face (f2f): “Peer communication online is only one type, f2f and real-world group and peer to peer communication is more substantial and somewhat lacking in the current setup”. In many instances the PhD students has to deal with their study difficulties on their own, and there is no formal way for the junior PhD students to partake of in order to benefit from the senior PhD students’ knowledge and experience.
Figure 2: Collaboration diagram showing the message flow between Cool Modes and Behavior Recorder. There are two key advantages to the BND approach. First, direct capture of student data for use in tutor building is a powerful idea. While student data has been used to guide tutor design  and tune tutor parameters , it has not been used directly as input for building an intelligent tutor. The potential time savings in data collection, data analysis, and tutoring with a single integrated tool could be significant. Second, given the complexity of collaborative learning, we thought that a 2-D visualization, in the form of a behavior graph, might allow for a better understanding and analysis of collaborative behavior when compared with, for instance, a non-visual, linear representation such as production rules. 3. Using the Behavior Recorder to Analyze Collaboration