Abstract. The constructionindustry involves one of the most hazardous occupation for workers due to complex management processes, environmental issues, work pressure and heavy and complicated equipment involved in modern construction projects. Despite the advancement of technology in the constructionindustry, an escalating number of fatal accidents occur because of the human errors and the unsafe behaviours. In this research, an analysis for previous studies has been conducted to define all safety behavioural factors in constructionindustry for improving the safety performance in constructionindustry. All the studies were categorised in accordance with their methodologies, analytical methods, variables, and the findings in order to build an effectiveconceptualframework. The framework comprises of three main categories that incur direct impact toward the safetybehaviour in construction industries, namely: (a) organizational factors, (b) safety climate factors, and (c) individual factors. Each category has own variables which make a total of 16 factors for all categories. The framework facilitates to assess the effectiveness of a constructionindustry, identify the deficiencies and the weakness, and create procedures to manage the accident in future by controlling the safetybehaviour of employees.
Mills (2003) argues that the construction sector is “perhaps the most vulnerable” to weather extremes, “with exposures ranging from damage to physical infrastructure to disruption of business operations, to adverse health and safety consequences for building occupants”. Extreme weather can create a variety of effects on construction sector SMEs including direct effects such as disruption to site works and indirect effects due to disruptions to deliveries and utility supplies (Metcalf et al., 2009). Centre for Economics and Business Research Ltd (CEBR) has said that there will be around 2000-3000 additional business failures in the UK as a result of the disruptions caused by the heavy snowfall in 2009, and that many of these businesses would be from the construction and retail sectors (McWilliams, 2009). As the UK construction sector is largely dominated by the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises - SMEs (BERR, 2008), which are said to be highly vulnerable to EWE related hazards (Crichton, 2006), EWEs are of specific importance to the UK constructionindustry. Further, Harty et al (2007) through a review of construction future studies identify EWEs as a specific issue that would be of importance to the constructionindustry in future.
371 In the literary discourse, within the Hong Kong constructionindustry, a wealth of empirical studies has been conducted to investigate various aspects of constructionsafety management and its relationship to project safety performance. Tam and Fung (1998) studied a myriad of safety management strategies and their impact on safety performance and found that the provision of safety training, the use of direct labour, using post-accident investigation as a feedback, and safety promotion by safety award campaigns and incentive schemes are the effective tools in reducing site accidents. Fung et al. (2010) have developed a risk assessment model that purportedly predicts the high-risk construction activities which in turn prevents accidents from occurring. Several safety climate studies have also been undertaken within the local constructionindustry. In this string of works, Choudhry et al. (2009) find that perceived safety performance is inversely related to safety climate item of “inappropriate safety procedure and work practices.” Hence, they conclude that safety climate can be used as an effective measure to assess and improve site safety for construction projects. Fang et al. (2006), in their study of safety culture and climate in a construction firm (including the firm’s sub-contractors), have found that significant relationship exists between safety climate and workers’ safety behaviours.
model is needed in the near future to generate a more realistic input data for building simulation and support better design solution in terms of space planning. As the indoor space is ultimately designed for user to conduct their various activities, user, user activity and space are the three essential components of space use model. We believe that the next generation model will be developed based on formalized relationships between user, user activity, and space, and the well-organized properties of the respective components so that it can be applicable to other buildings with diverse contexts in the design phase . In this regard, the development of an indoor spatial choice model is an integral part of space use model for better prediction. Spatial choice behavior is briefly reviewed in the next section. Section IV proposes a conceptualframework for indoor spatial choice model.
where Risk t is the mass of pollutant delivered to the water body (kg ha yr 1 ), Source t is the mass of pollutant potentially available for mobilisation (kg ha yr 1 ), KMob t is the coef ﬁcient of mobilisation (dimensionless proportion between 0 and 1) and KDeli very t is the coef ﬁcient of delivery (dimensionless proportion between 0 and 1). CaRPoWs main utility is as a generic modelling framework in which modelling methodologies are implemented in the source and mobilisation components for each pollutant. The delivery component however is based on the same principles of hydrolog- ical connectivity for all pollutants. This largely stems from the fact that the movement of different pollutants beyond the ﬁeld scale is much less understood ( Haygarth et al., 2005 ), along with un- certainties over the accepted processes and complexities of hy- drological connectivity within the literature ( Bracken et al., 2013 ). One of the bene ﬁts of a generic modular modelling framework such as CaRPoW is that, as understanding of pollutant processes im- proves and better modelling methodologies are developed, the framework components can be updated.
introduced implications for government regulation and oversight. At the same time, the university was not fully public on the regulative (i.e., political authority) dimension, as funding from student tuition payments and private donations introduced private sources of funding and control. Students rated the university a 7 on the associative dimension. The university fosters a fair amount of horizontal engagement through collaboration with other organizations to achieve desired public outcomes. Partnerships were forged with local nonprofits, the municipal police department, and philanthropic organizations. For example, during numerous campus events, the municipal police department supplemented the university police’s efforts in providing public safety for the student and visitor populations. In terms of the cultural cognitive dimension, students ranked the university at a 6, due in large part to its level of engagement with the student population, faculty, alumni, and community stakeholders, mostly to gain insight into how the university could better meet the needs of service delivery clientele,
This study illustrated how framework is used as approach to investigate the OAI relates knowledge sharing. It highlights a detailed readiness knowledge sharing in OAI on framework. The perspective established from the framework in this study help to ensure OAI is relevant to scholar’s willingness. The Framework represents the views of the knowledge sharing, scholar and scholar’s participation of OAI in the research. The readiness focuses on the goal and objectives in the context to participate the OAI and the functional requirements of the willingness of Malaysia scholar’s participation of OAI. The data focus the types of research works, sharing documents and scholar criteria, as well as the description and publication of the research works. The scholars represent the scholars who participation of OAI. These identify the authors and the research works organization, status of scholars and their perspective roles, as well as their roles in the knowledge sharing. The process illustrate the activities scholars perform in the OAI, the conceptual model of knowledge sharing in OAI derived from the activities involved and the scholar modules. The network describes the sites or IR repository locations and the relations between knowledge sharing activities within the OAI. The scholars perspective describe scholars have been consistently concerned with the prestige of such journals and their peer review, which is not the case in practice. The knowledge sharing community perspectives that explain the scholar’s hindrance to the access and sharing of knowledge directly affects new insights, discoveries and developments. The OAI perspective illustrates of attempts make research findings freely available on the internet. The Time at the scholar describes the experience and publication of OAI, at the knowledge sharing community level describes the chronology of experiences indicating the processes that take place in the OAI, and at the OAI the processes in the make research articles available on the internet, which cause specific sharing data and knowledge sharing to take place.
Many companies have dealt with this issue by forming a safety committee or department that capable in determining how tasks should be carried out safely. In recognizing that 90 percent of all accidents can be attributed to human error (McKenna, 1983), a typical concern of a safety department is to design the work so that the possibility of risks to happen can be tolerated to a minimum level. Therefore, the SafetyBehaviour Checklist (SBC), which is one of the BBS tools is developed that intents to tolerate the risks to a minimum level as well as circuitously improve the worker's safe behaviour modification. Since the year 2011 until 2013, Organisation X has involved in more than 25 projects that involved installation of scrubber systems. This installation is a high risk job as it involves the external activities, working at height, and use of heavy lifting machinery and equipment as well as hot work activities. Based on the Organization X’s safety record, from January 2013 until December 2013, total numbers of 36 incidents have been recorded which comprise of 19 cases of near miss, 12 cases of employee injury and 5 cases of property damaged were reported during scrubbers installation activities. Even though there is no fatality recorded, all the incidents are in a fret category which potentially affects the worker's safety as well as organisation reputation.
While there are some normative models for informa- tion security behaviour which are reported to work for one or two firms, there is little in the way of general guidance. The research reported here thus represents a preliminary attempt to identify a descriptive mea- sure of information security related behaviours that are applicable for different types of organisations. Classification theory suggests that classifying per- ceptions is crucial to human survival and adapta- tion, and attempts to explain the nature of concepts (categories/ classes) and why humans classify things (Smith and Medin, 1981; Parsons, 1996). Stanton et al. (2005) suggest that it is important to have a systematic view of end users security behaviour to fa- cilitate accurate auditing and assessment of this be- haviour. Therefore a classification that emphasises the characteristics of the organisational subjects who may perform authorised or unauthorised actions is proposed as helpful to understanding individual in- formation security behaviour. Such a classification may serve two purposes for an organisation. Firstly, categorising a phenomenon makes systematic studies possible, and secondly, classification may assist organ- isations prioritise their information security efforts.
Safety Training: Training should be at the core of every safety program. It is important to identify the areas in which training is required. All employees should be trained on hazard communication; other training may include electrical lock out, confined space entry, trenching, back-injury prevention, fall protection, fire protection, equipment safety and other safety concerns.
The uniqueness of the industry, which collectively poses a challenge in terms of construction H&S, may provide a platform for holistic improvement initiatives (Smallwood, 2000: 467-471). In addition, although comparatively the constructionindustry may have some similarities with other production-oriented industries, the uniqueness of construction tasks, environment, materials, equipment, and people necessitates addressing construction H&S in a construction context rather than in a general context (Geminiani, 2008: 215). Nevertheless, the industry could improve how it engenders and sustains H&S culture on construction sites. Although in many cases top management’s commitment to H&S may be lacking, the amplification of the importance of H&S with respect to future organisational profitability and sustainability may reorient priorities in the industry (Hallowell, 2010b: 412). For instance, when issues relative to H&S become business priorities for firms involved in construction, a platform for the improvement of H&S is thus enacted without the need for constant changing of laws and/or regulations (Dulaimi, Ling & Ofori, 2004: 709).
The safety performance of the constructionindustry has been improving. Health and safety has been recognized as an important business performance subject. The factors causing construction site accidents have been addressed by several researchers. These are lack of proper training, deficient enforcement of safety, lack of safety equipment, unsafe methods or sequencing, unsafe site conditions, not using provided safety equipment, poor attitude toward safety, and isolated, sudden deviation from prescribed behaviour. The state of the safety in the constructionindustry is poor. In the past five years, the numbers of people injured or even died in the construction projects has been increasing .The authority, however, has not been able to keep up with the huge increase in number of construction projects. Many safety issues in the construction projects were overlooked by the authority due to ignorance. This is because the main concern for the authority there has been how to finish as many projects possible to make up for the lost time the country suffered as results of the economic sanctions.
It is crystal clear that any enterprise cannot operate on its own. Even a contractor can neither build nor operate on itself. Therefore, it has to be manned by the people who form the backbone of the enterprise, and it is their candid performance on which the success of the whole enterprise depends. They are to be led and directed, they are to be motivated, their activities are to be coordinated. So the whole process of these integrated efforts is nothing but management. At the same time it is also important to minimize the risk of accident i.e. the safety of the men who are working for that enterprise. Therefore, there is the need for another branch of management i.e. safety managements which deals with the safety of the men working for that particular enterprise. Even various precautions taken there are always chances of mishaps to happen. Safety at all job sites does not just occur. A safe operation is one which is organized, clean and efficient. If all the employees view accidents in the same way as we consider all other aspects of the company operations, we will be in excellent position not only to control accidents but also to improve the total performance of our company. Therefore it is of utmost importance that all aspects of our safety management be strictly enforced and followed. Even though it is difficult to obtain accurate data and statistics in an industry in which many accidents go undetected and unreported, those involving loss of working time, frequently exceed those in any other manufacturing industry. Contributing to the high rate of accidents are those characteristics of the industry which distinguish it from the rest of the manufacturing sector and these are:
Abstract: The constructionindustry is considered as one of the most hazardous industrial sectors wherein the construction workers are more prone to accidents. In developed countries such as United Kingdom and United States of America, there is strict legal enforcement of safety in the constructionindustry and also in the implementation of safety management systems which are designed to minimize or eliminate accidents at work places. However, occupational safety in constructionindustry is very poor in developing countries such as Bhutan. This study investigates the prevalent safety management practices and perceptions in the constructionindustry in Bhutan. The study was conducted among 40 construction contractors and 14 government officials through method of questionnaire survey, interview and discussion. The results of the study revealed that there are many occupational safety problems in the constructionindustry in Bhutan, problems such as lack of safety regulations and standards, low priority of safety, lack of data on safety at construction sites, lack of competent manpower, lack of safety training, lack of safety promotion, and lack of documented and organized safety management systems. Furthermore, the study also proposes some recommendations for safe construction in Bhutan.
On normal, three development industry labourers are shocked each year amid restoration work on commercial and residential buildings. Individuals working close overhead control lines and cables are moreover at hazard. There are moreover a developing number of electrocutions including specialists who are not qualified circuit testers but who are carrying electrical work, such as handymen and joiners and decorators. Electrical wounds in worksites comprise of four fundamental sorts are electrocution, electric stun, burns, falls caused by contact with electric current.
The constructionindustry is a dynamic and innovative industry that delivers buildings and infrastructure for all aspects of commercial and domestic activity. It is a global industry that facilitates the development and maintenance of buildings, transport links and energy supplies. It is an industry that continues to deliver many incredible things, from ever taller sky scrapers to expansive bridges, impressive stadia and structures that rise out of land reclaimed from the sea.
Recognize success, but hold everyone accountable Accountability must be a core component of the safety culture. From individual workers to foremen, project supervisors and executives, everyone needs to be held accountable for safety. Without accountability, employees may be tempted to cut corners in an effort to save time and money. When safety programs, procedures and safe workplace habits are enforced from the top, field employees take safety seriously. Aggressive safety goals that are reasonable and attainable should be established yearly. Management performance reviews should include those results. Discipline is only part of the process. Companies also should recognize success such as reaching a certain number of hours worked without an accident or achieving a full year incident rate that meets or exceeds the goal. Recognition shows workers that management values safety and the contribution it makes to the success of a project and the company.
Performance management is an important element of business management. It gives the required data for process control and enables challenging and achievable objectives to be achieved. The implementation of business strategies must also be supported. Performance management sets performance expectations for organizations and motivates stakeholders to perform hard in the way the organization expects. In addition, the performance management system (PMS) provides organizations with a complete and professional management process to evaluate organizations ' performance results. PMS has not been widely enforced within the constructionindustry, however, despite its importance. Studies associated to the development and application of PMS during this industry are also still very rare, particularly in Indonesia. Construction companies often find it difficult to identify and select appropriate performance measures associated with their strategies and important processes. The decision-making process is largely supported on managers ' intuition and common sense and a number of broad financial measures that are insufficient within the competitive surroundings of these days.
The Learning and Growth Perspective covers the intangible drivers of future success such as human capital, organizational capital and information capital including skills, training, organizational culture, leadership, systems and databases. Processes will only succeed if adequately skilled and motivated employees, supplied with accurate and timely information and led by effective leadership, are driving them. They will lead to production and delivery of quality products and services; and eventually successful financial performance. See Figure 1. Balanced Scorecard Perspective
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the various safety and control measures (SCM) of accidents in building projects to minimize accidents’ occurrence and consequent waste generation. A research methodology, consisting of a literature review and a field study were used to achieve the research objectives. The field survey involves a designed questionnaire that was administered through convenience sampling technique within Lagos State and descriptive analysis tools were used for the analysis. The field survey reveals different control measures in place and their rate of usage on building projects. On the other hand, the literature survey sheds light on the types of accidents on building projects and their respective control measures with methodologies for accidents’ preventions. Recommendations based on the findings of the two surveys are outlined in the paper.