The students’ response to the question about how they checked the effectiveness of the method used to find a solution show that all students across the three conditions believed that carrying out a mathematical proof on a problem-solving strategy involving an equation was the best way to evaluate the correctness of a solution. For example, J from Group A said I can try to prove it mathematically, i.e. I try to calculate reverse wise and T from group said the same thing but in a different way You use the back method; Se from Group C gave a similar response but he also gave an example to elaborate on his response Se: I work it out to the same, like finding the number which is given right, to the answer I got. Like if you want concentration, if you then change it to find the number of moles which you were given with the concentration you got. It appears this is the strategy taught by the regular teachers of the groups because it is not part of the evaluation strategies suggested during the intervention. However, not all students could support their claim when they were challenged about the correctness of such an approach since such equations can always be satisfied even if the numerical value of the calculated quantity is incorrect.
Students lack exposure in ‘hands-on’ activities at primary school lead to insufficient manipulative skills and they may carry this problem with them to secondaryschool. Although most of the pupils are able to adapt to their new learning environment, some found transition difficult and problematic. Thus, to confront these issues, an in-depth study was proposed. This study resulted from a longitudinal study which employed a qualitative research paradigm. The research involved 10 primary schoolstudents (Year Six) and they were interviewed again in secondaryschool (Form One). Students’ ability in handling thermometer, measuring cylinder, Bunsen burner and microscope were observed in order to get comprehensive insight of students’ manipulative skills. From the data analysis, five (5) dimensions emerged to describe the students’ manipulative skills which are: (1) technical skills, (2) operation of tasks, (3) management of time and workplace, (4) safety and precautionary measures, and (5) numeracy and technique of drawing specimen. However this paper only discuss on the aspect of technical skills.
Two instruments were used to collect data in this study. These instruments include: Physics Student Concept Formation Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (PSCFMAI) and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) were used to collect data. The instrument was a modified version of Schraw and Sperling-Dension (1994). The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory was meant to assess students‟ level of Metacognitive awareness of their ability to understand, control and manipulate their cognitive processes. The Physics Achievement Test was developed by the researcher. Section A of PAT contained items on the demographic data of the students. Section B consisted nine essay type of Physics questions. The questions cut accross concepts such as Kinematics which include: concept of distance and displacement, concept of speed, velocity and constant velocity, concept of acceleration and deceleration/retardation, velocity-time graphs, concept of vector and scalar and vector quantities. These topics were chosen because students experienced difficulty (Okpala, 1988; Owolabi, 2006) and exhibited misconceptions regarding them (Cataloglu, 1996; Eryilmaz, 2002; Yilmaz, 2001). The topics which are first term work for senior secondaryschool II Physics students. All the questions covered the first term SSS II content area of Physics as stipulated in the National Curriculum for Senior SecondarySchool Physics and Lagos State Ministry of Education scheme of work.
Biology is a study of life and it is essential that students studying any science related course have an understanding of the subject, however, students’ achievement in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Biology in Nigeria generally and in Ogun State in particular has been seemly poor and declining , , . This trend has been partially attributed to students’ low computer skills and utilisation of ICT facilities. Among others; thus, raising concern about that portent danger for the possibility of realizing the objectives of science education. Some previous studies have largely focused on proprietors, school, parents and students’ related factors. The study adopted ex-post facto design of the correlational type. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the participants. A total of 2548 SSS II science students participated. Computer Skills Assessment Questionnaires (CSAQ) was validated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) with 0.91 reliability coefficient and Achievement Tests Biology with reliability coefficient of were used to collect the data for the study. The ensuing data from the field exercise were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression statistics at 0.05 level of significance to test the hypotheses. The results showed that there was significant difference in students’ achievement in Biology based on school type. Also, students computer skills correlate with achievement in Biology in both public and private secondary schools in Ogun state. The study, therefore, recommended that examination bodies should include computer skills acquisition in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination syllabi and the testing of computer skills in addition to covering the cognitive domain of learning in Biology.
A text of an EFL writer must be cohesive, logical, clearly structured, interesting and properly organized with a wide range of vocabulary and mastery of conventions in mechanics. However, writing is often considered merely a part of teaching and learning syntax, which resultantly underestimates the nature and importance of writing, and affects its growth. Therefore, the development of this skill draws considerable attention for its learning and teaching from very early phase of language education. In addition to this, Rico  showed in his study an incoherent text fails to communicate ideas which cause lack of conﬁdence in learners even if they have mastered syntactic, lexical and grammatical command over text composition. Nunan  argues that writing is extremely difficult cognitive activity which requires the learners to have control over various factors. These factors that vary from academic background and personal interest of the writer to various psychological, linguistic and cognitive phenomena. Corresponding to the ﬁnding of Megaiab , spelling and punctuations errors were also found in abundance in writing samples. However, these errors were not highlighted as a problematic area by any of the present research participants during the interviews. Due to these and other factors, the writing skill of Sodo Secondary EFL learners is weak and substandard.
On their side, students may apply divergent thinking in learning several alternatives to tackle similar problems in different contexts or new problems that they never experienced before. They may also apply convergent thinking to come up with the correct way to address the problem which must be solved but which students never came across. For example, in their learning, students are exposed to different academic problems, which their teachers guided them to solve through given examples. When they come across similar questions with different formulation requiring their application, analysis, synthesis or evaluation in the examinations, most students fail to apply their thinking, fail to solve the problems, claiming that they have never been taught what they are being asked in examinations. Such problem could be easily tackled if students were exposed to creative thinking tasks that could develop their abilities to think beyond examples given in the class.
Developing a good reading habit is highly essential to students because it will enable reading with ease, and provide opportunity to have great accomplishments in any task. However, many students do not embrace the habits of reading the way it is expected, hence, there is need for cultivating a good reading habit early in the life of every student which would act as a catalyst to their personal development and lifelong learning. There is a general saying that ‘readers are leaders: when a student is an avid reader, such would have an edge over his colleagues, who are casual readers, the reason being that he would acquire inspiration, information and have an insight into the rich knowledge of the world around him through reading. According to Davidovitch et al , acquisition of reading habits is a gradual process of letters, words, sentences, paragraphs and complete texts. It is evident that the development of good reading habit is not sudden but stepwise. Promoting reading for pleasure is fundamental to empowerment of students to become lifelong readers and to have successful careers. Ngwoke  submitted that the act of reading is expected to form part of students habits, ad stressed further that good reading habit is a precursor to information, education and communication strategies. Reading is an indispensable tool in learning that forms an integral part of any learning situation, and the bedrock of education . Reading is central to intellectual actions and also an essential skill for lifelong learning. Adu-Sarkodee et al  contended that there is an urgent need to develop reading habits among individuals in the society, most especially students of high schools.
The Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)-oriented and metacognitive-based assessment instruments developed based on content validation, construct validation, and user response tests met the eligibility criteria. The teacher's content validation results turned out that the average percentage calculation was 90.90 percent and stated "very feasible". It means that the instruments developed are very good in terms of its content. The construct validation results showed that the average percentage calculation was 94.54 percent that it was "very feasible". This means that the instruments developed are very good in terms of the construct (concept construction). Meanwhile, field trials that aimed to see user responses showed very decent results with a percentage calculation of 86.16 percent. Therefore, it concluded that the HOTS-oriented metacognitive-based assessment instrument could be proven valid in terms of language, systematic clarity, content suitability, and comprehensiveness.
Literature is generally taken to include writings which despite the passing of time, remains to inspire admiration and emotions in its readers (www.google.com), literature has its own qualitative implications. Without these implications the qualities of literature are best appreciated when they are presented in an intelligible historical perspective in order to enhance understanding. The reader will then like literature and be curious about it. It is a knot of written works and not bound by publishing sources. Therefore the researcher concludes that, literature promotes and sustains language learning process generally and plays a vital role in developingskills specifically.
Preparing individuals forlife and equipping them withage-appropriate knowledge and skillsare among the responsibilities ofeducation. An education system is successful to the extent that it can equip its students with the knowledge and skills that are required inthe 21st century. Cho (2012) examinedthe teaching methods used in a primary schoolin order to equip its students with the necessary knowledge and skills for 21st century. The four main themes that were revealed in this research were 1)cultural support forimplementation and cooperation, 2)effective leadership for realizing the school’s vision and goals, 3) the strong nexus between the school’s vision and goals and the program and its applications, and 4) the integration of technologyinto the classroom.A primary education program that highly emphasizes technology was proposed in the research, and it was determined thatproject based learning activities helpstudentswork cooperatively by improvingthe students’ communication, problem-solving, and creativity skills. In this context, studies were carried out in different areas, such as the identification of the school, classroom, and student factors that are necessary for the development of 21st century skills, how21st century skills are integratedintothe lessons, the development of a new literacy model which includes21st century skills, anddevelopment of a scale(Geiselhofer, 2010; Kang et al.2012; Laughlin, 2014; Ongardwanich, Kanjanawasee&Tuipae 2015; Osman, Soh&Arsad, 2010; Siddiq, Gochyyev&Wilson, 2017).Eguchi (2014) stated the importance of robotics for the development of 21st century skills. There are also studies about the importance of 21st century skills in job environment (Murphy, Greiff &Niepel, 2017), examining the development of 21st century skills in STEM and engineering education (Bell, Morrison-Love, Wooff & McLain, 2017; Stawiski, Germuth, Yarborough, Alford & Parrish, 2017), using different methods for the development of 21stcentury skills (Bell, 2010; O'Sullivan & Dallas, 2017; Yildiz, Petela&Mahoney, 2017) and measuring skills for 21st century learning (Silva, 2009) and detecting the21st century skills of the secondaryschoolstudents (Gülen, 2013; Karakaş, 2015).The relationships between 21stcentury skills and digital skills were also examined and it was found that 21st century skills are broader than digital skills. In addition, in contrast to digital skills, 21st centuryskills are not necessarily underpinned by information and communication technologies (Laar, Deursen, Dijk & Haan, 2017). In this study, the 21st century skills of secondaryschoolstudents was investigated. In this respect, the subproblems of the study can be listed as follows:
In the core curriculum of Finnish general upper secondary schools, digital skills are one of the six transversal competence areas designated as Technology and Society. These skills are targeted to use to overcome educational challenges in the present society and thus implemented in all subjects. The goals are to deepen students’ abilities to appropriately use and interact with digital technologies in a responsible, safe, and ergonomic manner – both independently and with others. Students are offered different possibilities to examine and evaluate, for example, topics in the following themes: Technological development and its effects and potentials, the human computer relationship, technological impact and its role for the evaluation of lifestyles, and the inter- action of science, art and technology. Further still, the learning goals encourage students to use their potential, creativity, and problem-solving skills to seek and find solutions to hands-on challenges, promote the understanding that mistakes are a part of the creative learning process, enhance cooperation skills, gain experience in entrepreneurship and technology enterprises, develop the competencies needed to make reasonable choices as both citizens and consumers, and gain the abilities to evaluate the interactions between technology, the economy, and public life, and the technological impacts to produce successful occupational restructuration. In addition, the advanced syllabus in mathematics includes a specialised course in algorithmic thinking. (FNBE 2016.)
System of courses was organized during the summer term of the academic year 2014. Eleven educators, nineteen trainee teachers and seventy nine secondaryschoolstudents enrolled for the course, three researchers-trainers were involved in its preparation and realization. The students attended six educational sessions, lasting 5 hours each. Beyond these sessions, students could take advantage of regular consultations. Due to the compulsory pedagogical practice, mandatory for the 5th year students, the course was divided into two parts: the first two sessions dealt predominantly with the theoretical problems of constructivism, constructionism and robotics, while the next sessions involved mostly practical activities. The aim was to prepare the participants of courses for a factual use of the acquired pieces of knowledge and skills from the field of robotics in the constructivist education during their education.
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.812132 1942 Creative Education the globe and one of these is a pedagogical shift from the transmissionist phi- losophy of teaching to one where the learners are actively constructing scientific knowledge. Most of the contemporary science education curricula recognize science process skills as important component tools in the construction of scien- tific knowledge and conceptual change. According to Burns, Okey and Wise (1985), this became more prominent with the advent of several activity and dis- covery-oriented curricula such as Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS), School Science Curriculum Project (SSCP) and Science A Process Approach (SAPA). These curricula em- phasized the fact that science is a process in which the learners need to be part of and that if learners are to become scientists, they have to develop these abilities reflective of the behavior of scientists. These curricula also recognized that scien- tific knowledge had two domains: content knowledge (what scientists have found out) and process skills (what they do to find out). Concepts, explanations, understanding and theories constitute the content of science whereas science process skills refer to the rational and logical thinking skills used in science (Burns, Okey, & Wise, 1985; Necati, 2013; Mutlu & Temiz, 2013). According to Nwosu and Okeke (1995), science process skills are mental and physical abilities and competencies which serve as tools needed for the effective study of science and technology as well as problem solving and individual societal development. According to Ozgelen (2012), science process skills are thinking skills that scien- tists use to construct knowledge in order to solve problems and formulate re- sults. The implication is that science process skills are inseparable from the prac- tice of science and play a key role in both formal and informal learning of science content. They are important tools for producing and arranging informa- tion about the world around us based on prior knowledge.
The study investigated the effect of emotional intelligence training in enhancing peacebuilding skills of secondary schools students in Ogun East Senatorial District of Ogun State, Nigeria. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable was considered at 2 levels along with one (1) experimental and one (1) control groups. The study participants were one hundred and forty-four (144) Senior Secondarystudents randomly selected from 2 chosen public secondary schools in Ogun East Senatorial District of Ogun State. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance and t-test statistical methods were used to analyze the generated data. Emotional intelligence training programme was effective in fostering peacebuilding skills among secondaryschoolstudents. The study further revealed that gender had no significant effect on students’ peacebuilding skills. Based on the findings, it was recommended that school psychologists are expected to incorporate the contents of emotional learning competencies into the training programmes in the schools. This will not only enhance positive outcomes but could also foster coping skills of students and other school members.
OCT-NOV, 2012, Vol. – I, Issue-III www.srjis.com Page 431 build the rest of their life. Education is considered to be not only a means of improving one’s own life but also that of others around one. Therein lies the importance of wholesome education in a child’s life. In today’s multi-cultural world, education necessitates adjustment. Children with different abilities, different skills, different backgrounds, and different cultures get educated together, providing them an opportunity to hone their adjustment skills thus acting as a training ground for the rest of their lives. During school life, a child has to learn to co-exist and co- operate with students and teachers of different religions, different cultures, different opinions and a different outlook towards life.
Many researchers (Baer & Kauffman, 2012; Paul & Elder, 2006; Veenema, Hetland & Chalfen, 1997) have claimed that creative thinking is impossible without a strong foundation in content knowledge. Teachers have to ensure that students have sufﬁcient content knowledge and then give them opportunities to ﬂexibly apply content knowledge (Baer & Kauffman, 2012; Conclin & Williams, 2011). Students need to develop the ability to see existing situations in new ways and combine components to form something original. Teachers can encourage students to search new connections between disparate ideas or offer multiple solutions to complex problems (Conclin & Williams, 2011; Cachia, Ferrari, Ala-Mutka & Punie, 2010). A number of methods were introduced for teaching creative thinking within a subject context (Ong, 2006; Swartz, Fischer & Parks, 1998). Researchers (Conclin & Williams, 2011; Cheng, 2011; Cropley, 2001; Plucker & Runco, 1999) acknowledged that the most popular method to increase creativity in the recent decades has been teaching of divergent thinking and the idea-generation strategies including brainstorming sessions, and posing open-ended questions. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the government proposed several kinds of student activities for creative thinking which included exploring ideas, questioning, keeping option open and search for multiple solutions, as well as reflecting critically on actions and outcomes (QCA, 2005). Gordon (1973) and associates suggested that creative process can be described and taught. On the basis of research conducted at the Arthur D. Little organisation into creative individuals and the creative process, they developed a set of principles and methodologies called ‘Synetics’. It was used to facilitate problem solving and the process of creative thinking. By conducting problem solving tests, which were carried out by creative individuals and further by average thinkers, the authors discovered that the latter were able could consciously achieve creative thinking patterns by following a set of guidelines. It was also found that social interaction made the process of creative thinking more efficient.
It has been well verified that higher order thinking skills are essential for effective learning and form the central goal of science education. In 2009 the educational system in the Kurdistan region was reformed to meet the challenges of the 21st century, whereby the new secondaryschool science curriculum has focused largely on prompting students’ Higher Order Thinking. However, after this reform no studies had been carried out to assess students’ HOT skills. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to assess secondaryschoolstudents’ level of cognitive development besides identifying the association if any between students’ cognitive skill level and their gender. However, the findings of this study indicated that most of the 7th grade students were in the lower level of thinking, especially in synthesis and evaluation constructs, which are the skills that improve students’ creativity in science (Swift, Zielinski, & Poston, 1996; Zohar, 2013). The findings indicate a slight difference between the levels of thinking skills linked to gender, as the number of male students in the lower level of thinking skills (LOTL) were higher than the number of the female students at the same level. However, the chi square test results show no significance difference between students’ level of thinking skills with regard to gender (p > .05) which could be attributed to the fact that both male and female were learning in the same learning environment. These findings support previous research on cognitive skills (e.g., Aktamis & Yenice, 2010; Durmaz & Mutlu, 2012; Vernez et al., 2014).
5HDGLQJ FRPSUHKHQVLRQ LV RQH RI WKH PDLQ LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV IRU VWXGHQWV¶ English language learning. Reading comprehension can be defined as the ability to take information and derive sentence and discourse interpretation. It is the process through which the recognized words are transformed into a meaningful idea (Hoover and Gough, 1990: 131). It is a complex process that requires the activation of numerous cognitive skills (Kintsch, 1998: 3-4). The importance of the reading skill in academic contexts is no doubt, children who read for enjoyment every day not only perform better in reading tests than those who do not, but also develop a broader vocabulary, increased general knowledge and a better understanding of other cultures, but most of the students in Indonesia are less motivation in reading.
The sole responsibility of developing scientific attitude among the students lies on the teacher who can manipulate all situations to instill in pupils a scientific attitude and at the same time present himself a role model. This will create a favorable and permanent impression on the students to adopt the same attitude which the teacher has. Who else can develop scientific attitude in children better than science teacher but the pre-requisite is that the science teachers should set an example for the students with a developed scientific attitude and should full of enthusiasm because an enthusiasm helps in context of a) Effective curriculum Transaction by making provisions for optimum physical facilities and providing opportunities for practical work. Therefore, active desire of teachers to cultivate habits and action can gradually lead to acquisition of scientific attitudes.
One of the most problematic areas for foreign language learning is writing. Writing is the most complicated and complex aspect of the language system. This study aimed to investigate the kind of metacognitive strategies EFL students used before and after metacognitive strategy training and the effect of the changes observed. It also aimed to examine the influence of other external factors (L1 transfer, motivation, anxiety) on EFL students' performance when instructed to use metacognitive strategies. The subjects were 22 secondaryschoolstudents in Irbid, Jordan. Two questionnaires were used to gather the data of this study. Questionnaire 1 contains metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation). Questionnaire 2 entails three variables (L1 transfer, motivation, anxiety). This paper helps to understand how the level of writing skills can be increased among Arab EFL students. Hence, metacognitive techniques must be developed to have a mutual connection with self-regulation and learner’s development of self-scripting approaches. The result showed a positive significant correlation between metacognitive strategies and motivation, L1 transfer, and anxiety. Metacognitive strategies played an important role in enhancing students' writing performance and planning, monitoring, and evaluation process in writing performance.