Threat of substitute products . Substitute products are a constant threat in contemporary commerce. If another product can be substituted for a product in the industry under consideration, then there is a threat of substitute products. It is sometimes impossible to know where your competition will come from. For example, video and audio content can be delivered via satellite, wireless, coax cable, cat 5, and fiber optics. The content can in turn be delivered to a variety of devices including mobile phones, televisions, iPODs/MP3 players, game consoles, DVRs, and computers. A similar situation exists for transportation. You can travel via electric car, bus, and air or in the future, by way of a personal jet craft or some type of Segway device. Indeed content delivery can be a substitute for transportation. As video and audio becomes more robust and easy to use, it may be possible to be there without actually being there. Families will soon get together by linking-up and interacting with their plasma and LCD screens using a high bandwidth carrier to communicate video and audio feeds of a birthday party or anniversary. This has already occurred in businesses with the emergence of virtual meetings. This brings up another issue. People set aside a certain amount of dollars for entertainment. However, although technology is not a perfect substitute for
new forces that have changed the nature of innovation sourcing. At first, the internet has disempowered previous competencies such as location, human resources and scientific knowledge. The life span of competitive advantage is therefore becoming shorter and newproducts are demanded faster. Second, due to constant developments in technology and the high competition in the technological sector, the product life cycle becomes shorter as well. A new technical device can lose its value and be replaced by even better products within a few months. Another point is the price war. While countries such as China can easily adapt new ventures and produce them much cheaper than the original product, innovators are forced to come up with new ideas instantly. Additionally, customers nowadays demand quality, speed, customization and design. It’s not only about the value of the product itself but about the associated experience and emotions. Last but not least, the so-called groundswell effect plays an important role in new product developments. Rather than purchasing known products that satisfy needs, customers are now looking for products and services online and are exchanging opinions on internet platforms in form of blogs, social networking sites or special review pages. All these developments changed the business world to a more complex issue and puts pressure on firms regarding newproducts and calls for incremental as well as radical innovations.
Toyota is an example of a Japanese MNC that successfully leveraged its RPV for the global automobile market. To illustrate “Process” we need only examine their production practices which many companies have tried unsuccessfully to adopt. This is because there are “unwritten rules” – or embedded processes - that “govern how people carry out their jobs, how they interact with each other, how products and services flow, and how people identify and address process problems” (Spear & Bowen, 1999). In addition, their “set-based concurrent engineering” product development method discussed by Ward in “The Second Toyota Paradox: How Delaying Decisions Can Make Better Cars Faster” is another example of how its values, resources and processes are finely tuned to a business model (Ward & Liker, 1995). In this development model, Toyota “Values” associated with speed to market, minimizing waste, and high quality are evident as they drive decisions on potential design solutions that follow a parallel development process. Design standardization across different models is an illustration of these values; for example, the seat belts that are identical in both the Camry and Sienna. Their “Resources” – the people, technology, facilities and capital that were acquired to uphold the business model - support Toyota’s very efficient development process which can “consistently bring a new body….from styling freeze to start of production in just 15 months” in comparison to 24 to 30 months for most of their competitors (Morgan & Liker, 2006). Clearly, Toyota’s unique RPVs create strong competencies in proficient development and manufacturing and they provide a competitive advantage.
Building on FareManager 100 or 101, participants in FareManager 200 will acquire the skills to implement more complex pricing decisions for fares. Th e foundations for how to code fare rules are introduced and fare classes expanded upon, including the rule record structures, the sequencing hierarchy, and universal fi elds. Participants are given an overview of the Rules system structure, including the four tabs, universal features, and Record 3 designs. Add-Ons and Constructed fares are introduced. Participants will upload fares and add-ons to a batch and download fares from ATPCO's database. Th e concepts of double-leveling and cancel/ adding of fares are explained and practiced. Participants will learn how to create rule restrictions for Eligibility, Day/Time Application, Seasonality, and Rule Title and Application. Participants will learn how to leverage new functionality in the Rules system to create and revise rule provisions using the Copy, Date Change, and Query tools. Finally, participants will learn how to create, modify, edit, and update routing maps and restrictions using the FareManager Routings tool.
When we set out to address new and less well understood problems there can often be little knowledge or understanding by the development team of the challenges to be addressed. For a clinician, a firm understanding of a critical manufacture process may be missing. For the user, how a particular feature may have clinical advantage may not be appreciated, and for the designer the specifics of a particular medical condition or procedure may not be known. Domains for new product development in health are obviously very broad, from orthotics to cancer treatment and from hardware to system design. Therefore unless the design researchers specialize in one or two interrelated areas, for example oncology and device design, the designers are rarely expert or experienced in any one particular clinical field. There are accepted deficiencies of knowledge in terms of what technical, cost or user acceptance “metrics” may be called on to make positive or negative judgments about a proposed device or system PoP/PoC solution.
The fresh bread samples, after equilibrating for 2 h at room temperature, were placed in sealed polyethylene bags and stored for 7 days, the losses of L. rhamnosus GG through the entire storage period are shown in Fig. 6. The viability loss of three out of four bread systems (ALG@60, ALG/WPC@60 and ALG@180) exhibited a similar pattern as a function of storage time. More speci ﬁ cally, all three samples demonstrated a rather steep decrease in cell counts after 24 h of storage, followed by reduction of the inactivation rate over the successive 48 h reaching a latent-like state (plateau). Then, depending on the ﬁ lm forming material, a gradual recovery of the viability of L. rhamnosus GG was achieved followed by a clear growth stage during the last two days of storage (6th and 7th day). Only the system containing the L. rhamnosus GG immobilised in the sodium alginate matrix dried at oven temperature did not reveal any obvious sign of viability increase. Our results suggest that the direct inoculation and application of edible ﬁ lms with probiotics to bread crust can be considered an appropriate strategy for the production of functional bakery products. Although further studies are required in order to fully understand the interaction of pro- biotics with the individual components and the environmental conditions of the crust matrix; it appears that the composition of the edible ﬁ lms together with the physical changes that take place during storage i.e. bread staling and moisture migration from the core to the bread surface are both in ﬂ uential on probiotics viability. The viability of L. rhamnosus GG in the bread crust appears to be strictly associated with the interactive relationship between the ﬁ lm forming material e.g. type of biopolymers used and the drying method implemented. Thus, it is implied that the implementation of mild drying methods combined with ingredients that favour the interaction with L. rhamnosus GG cells affect, not only the inacti- vation rates during the early storage stages, but also the ability of the strain to grow during latter storage. The latter is of particular importance not only because it modulates the shelf-life of the ﬁ nished product (particularly in the case of modi ﬁ ed atmosphere packaged products) but also because it signi ﬁ cant impacts the po- tential of this technology as a viable route to probiotic inclusion in food materials. L. rhamnosus GG losses observed during the ﬁ rst day of storage were well correlated (r ¼ 0.855, p < 0.001) with the amount of water migrated to the bread crust, and thus these losses could be mainly attributed to osmotic stress. The diminishing effect on the inactivation of L. rhamnosus GG observed during the suc- cessive six days seems to be associated with the hindrance of os- motic stresses and the establishment of acceptable conditions (a w > 0.91) for the growth of Lactobacilli (FAO, 1998).
New product introductions are the most important and risky activity of any growing business. Blockbusters such as RIM’s Blackberry and Apple’s iPod will redefine markets and companies for years to come. The first company to recognize a new marketplace, a new value proposition, and to fill it can earn outsized profits and build substantial competitive advantages, which can last for years. This is not only valid for consumer goods companies. Websense, the first company to recognize the need for Internet security filtering, has grown to a $200 million company with gross margins in excess of 92%, selling its products to corporations all over the world. In high tech companies, newproducts introduced in the prior 18 months often contribute more than half of current revenues.
Of course, this type of comparative analysis assumes that you have similar information about related ser- vices.The first survey I did was an examination of the OCLC Firstsearch service. Our evaluation team eagerly gathered as much data as we could.We also polled users and discovered that x% of respondents were sat- isfied with Firstsearch after using it. Unfortunately we had no comparable data for other services, so were baf- fled as to how to interpret this information.We had no idea if the recorded level of satisfaction was higher, lower, or about the same as that expressed by users of other products.A comprehensive program of continu- ing assessment can fill in these gaps.
• — the simplest and lightest fuel. It is in a gaseous state at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures. Today, most hydrogen is made by steam-reforming natural gas, but since natural gas is a fossil fuel, carbon dioxide is released during the reformation process. New technology is needed (and in the works) to produce, store and transport it. www.nrel.gov/learning/eds_hydrogen.html
According to Salary.com, the average marketing director costs businesses $120,506 per year. And more than likely, the average marketing director will end up doing your marketing all wrong, since they have been trained and experienced in the use of outdated and obsolete marketing practices. A better option is to use our Virtual Marketing Department (VMD) service. With this option, you can retain our services for a fraction of the cost of a Marketing Director, and actually have your marketing systems and strategies developed the right way, using the Power Marketing Program™. Our monthly retainer fee is relatively low because we make our money on the participation fee—which you’ll never have to pay if we can’t grow your company. That’s how confident we are in our ability to bring you new dollars into your business that you’re currently not getting.
Currently, a new drill ship, the HuisDrill 12000, is being developed which will reduce well costs by approximately 20-30%. The vessel features robotics and other new technology in order to decrease time per well. Huisman is continuously exploring and realising new solutions to improve drilling operations and reduce HSE risks. To prove this new technology and solutions Huisman has designed a test tower for the Schiedam yard.
awareness by consumers of healthier bakery products has led to a significant improvement in the health aspects of bread e.g. mineral and vitamin fortified breads, salt, fat and sugar reduced formulations and gluten or allergen free products (Belz, Ryan, & Arendt, 2011; Bigliardi & Galati, 2013; Gallagher, Gormley, & Arendt, 2004). Recent advances in bread making include seeking new ways of delivering heat sensitive bioactive materials, one such example being that of probiotics. Altamirano-Fortoul, Moreno-Terrazas, Quezada-Gallo, and Rosell (2012) described a strategy for delivering probiotics in bread using edible coatings and anhydrobiotics. More specifically, successive layers of starch based coatings and
Regardless of whether a participant was a manager, staff or community member, all participants revealed that their understanding of what a multi-purpose service entailed was poor. Clearly senior staff in health departments could improve strategies that lead to better understanding of processes for the management of change. This could improve trust in the end result, and lead to greater integration between services. Further research is also warranted to determine how trust can be measured prior to initiating projects, how the level of integration can be measured as a component of outcome evaluation and how much integration of services is desirable for a multi-purpose service to be effective.
“Corrupt Act” shall mean any act of seeking, authorizing, offering, promising or granting a financial or other benefit (including a payment, loan, gift or transfer of anything of value) for the purpose of inducing a private person or public official to perform his or her duties dishonestly or in breach of his or her professional, legal or contractual obligations and/or to obtain or retain business for Pegasystems and or Customer in an undue or dishonest manner. “Customer Application” means a unique collection of rules and processes as part of one or more new RuleSets that are
All amounts stated in this brochure are in Australian dollars. The information in this brochure is current as at August 2014. For products that do not have a PDS, full details of current bank fees and charges are available on application. Bank fees and charges may be varied, or new fees and charges introduced, in the future. Westpac will be acting as Agent for American Express for the purchase and sale of foreign notes and the sale of Travellers Cheques.
Oil Condition Analysis determines loss of the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis instrument is used to compare the properties of new oil to the properties of your used oil sample. This test allows our technicians to determine the extent to which the oil has deteriorated during use and to verify that the oil is performing up to specification during the entire oil change period.
Data on the changes in the major weight-related comorbidities are important in assessing the overall risk-benefit profile of a new weight-management product and can be included in the Clinical Studies section of the product’s labeling. However, it is important to recognize that even though secondary efficacy endpoints are prespecified and the overall type 1 error rate is controlled for, that does not necessarily guarantee that all secondary endpoints will be included in labeling if the differences between active-product and placebo-treated groups are of nominal statistical significance. The clinical significance and consistency across studies of any observed differences will be important in determining whether the secondary efficacy data merit inclusion in the Clinical Studies section of the labeling.
During this time, several draft operational plans for the mental health programme in the Belo Horizonte area were issued by the responsible agencies^. Although a more specific evaluation of the proposals for care in the community will be provided in the following chapters, it is possible to say here that they basically repeated the CONASP plan principles and are very superficial as operational guidelines. The interviews and the analysis of the agencies' archives also shows that any systematic evaluation of the professional practice being held since the PISAM was accomplished and incorporated in the new proposals. In addition, the implementation of the programme was done by the simple incorporation of new professionals in the services network, with a very brief training. The basic team is defined in those plans as composed of one psychiatrist, one psychologist and one social worker.
Web Services continues to gather momentum and is rapidly becoming an invaluable part of the software industry. The vast deployment of robust Internet, intranet, and portal applications across the enterprise intensifies the need for alternative delivery mechanisms in addition to the ability to handle any type of content format. No matter what it is or where it must go, content must get distributed quickly, easily, and often with as little human intervention as possible. Combining the flexible capabilities of Web Services with the powerful Documentum enterprise content management platform allows for content control in this new distributed environment while providing a whole solution that is compliant to industry standards.
The new product development process usually includes the stages of market research, preconception, and development - all of them happening before it is marketed, sold and shipped to customers. At every stage, the process is heavily influenced by the personality traits of creators - people who come up with new ideas and develop newproducts. Those personality traits are shaped in a cultural environment in which those creators grew up and live, therefore, the new product design is impacted by their “culture code” (a term introduced by Clotaire (2007), which signifies cultural associations with the particular products or product categories. If their future customers espouse a substantially diﬀerent culture code, the new product acceptance may suﬀer. For example, according to Clotaire (2007), in American culture, automobiles are associated with freedom; while in German culture, cars are associated with engineering perfection. Hence, the culture-induced motivations of American and German consumers aﬀecting their car evaluation and purchasing decision-making are materially diﬀerent. The lack of attention to this factor may dramatically increase business risks and socio-economic costs of car designers and manufacturers. An unsuccessful merger of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler demonstrated the scope of such risks and costs, it was followed by a painful “divorce” and huge financial losses.