Top PDF Development Of Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) Learning Instruments With Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) Strategy To Training Critical Thinking Skills

Development Of Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) Learning Instruments With Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) Strategy To Training Critical Thinking Skills

Development Of Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) Learning Instruments With Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) Strategy To Training Critical Thinking Skills

Abstract- This research aims to: (1) analyze validity instruments consist of Syllabus, Learning Implementation Plan (RPP), Student Worksheet (LKS), handout, and critical thinking skills instrument. (2) Practicality analysis consist of implementation of Learning Implementation Plan (RPP), student’s responses, and obstacles were encountered during teaching and learning process carried out with this learning instruments. (3) Effectiveness analysis consist of critical thinking skills analysis and the item of the geometrical optics test sensitivities The material used in this study is geometrical optics. The type of this research using 4D design (design, define, develop, and dessiminate). Therefore, the research samples are the students of Class VIII students at Alam Insan Mulia Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, academic year 2018/2019. The validity of the Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) learning instruments with Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) strategy developed is valid. The practicality of learning devices as follows: (1) Implementation of the Implementation of Learning Implementation Plan (RPP) developed by 3.9 and the percentage of reliability amounted to 98.23%. The results of observations of the implementation of this RPP indicate that learning that has been implemented can be stated very well and practical. (2) Obstacles found in implementing learning instruments developed as follows: (a) The atmosphere of KBM is quite conducive, but there are still some students do other activities outside the context of learning. (b) Some student’s answers are not by the results of observations and experiment. (c) The unequal ability of students to think critically. (d) The predictions produced by students are not by that the researcher wants. (e) The results of student’s responses with Contextual Teaching And Learning (CTL) with Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) strategies 82% with very strong criteria. (3
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Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

Although CT is an important cognitive skill that schools aim to train up, there are differences of opinions existing in defining it. CT is a rich concept which has been developing for 2500 years. The intellectual root of CT originated in the method of questioning proposed by Socrates who established the impor- tance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accepted ideas as worthy of belief. Since then, different people studied the concept in different views of cognitive development, which led to the diversity of the con- ceptions (e.g., Brell, 1990; McPeck, 1981; Norris, 1985; Rogers, 1990; Seigel, 1988; Siegel & Carey, 1989). The most widely used definition made by Ennis (1991) is that “reasonable reflec- tive thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do” (p. 6). According to the definition, CT was an important component of the process of problem solving. Ennis (1991) divided critical thinking into critical thinking abilities and critical thinking dis- position, but it was still lack of assessment criteria. The Ame-
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The Development of Economic Learning Model through CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning) to Promote Students’ Critical Thinking Skill

The Development of Economic Learning Model through CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning) to Promote Students’ Critical Thinking Skill

Education has an important role in human survival, education has the purpose of developing intelligence, skills, and the potential of Indonesian young generation which are beneficial for themselves and their environment. According to Siswoyo (2008), education is a communication process that includes the transformation of knowledge, values, and skills, which occur inside and outside of school and lasts a long life (life long process) between generations, and education is useful for the lives of individuals, community environment, and the nation. In the education process, learning activities are the most important aspect of achieving these educational goals. Among the many ways to make it happen, one of them is through economic learning in schools. According to Rangkuti (2019) Education is a very fundamental human phenomenon and also has constructive traits in human life. That's why we are required to be able to hold a scientific reflection on education, as a responsibility for the actions taken, namely educating and being educated. 1
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Effectiveness of P3E Learning Model With  Contextual Approach to Train Critical Thinking Skills of Elementary School Students on Science Lessons

Effectiveness of P3E Learning Model With Contextual Approach to Train Critical Thinking Skills of Elementary School Students on Science Lessons

Achievement of student learning outcomes, especially in terms of critical thinking, requires a suitable learning model and can be improve critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are key in education to solve a problem in which there are indicators. Indicators of achieving critical thinking skills must be achieved through syntax in the learning model that will be applied. Facione (2004) explains that critical thinking as a cognitive skill, and in it contains indicators of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, self regulation. From these indicators, one of the learning models suitable for practicing critical thinking skills is the P3E model. The application of the P3E model is able to improve students' critical thinking skills shown in the research conducted by Bahtiar (2016). The P3E model stands for 4 phases (organizing, investigation, presentation, and evaluation). The P3E learning model always pays attention to students' initial knowledge as a basis for further knowledge. The P3E model is suitable to be applied to elementary school students. In line with Piaget's learning theory, children aged 7 to 12 years enter in the concrete operational stage, which still requires concrete objects in the learning process. The P3E learning model invites students to interact directly with the environment and find concepts independently. This can be oriented with a contextual approach. According to Johnson (in Suyadi, 2013: 81) a contextual approach is a learning strategy that emphasizes the process of full student involvement to be able to find a relationship between the material being studied and the reality of real life (surrounding environment), thus encouraging students to apply it in daily life day. "The effectiveness of the P3E Learning Model with a Contextual Approach to Train Primary School Students' Critical Thinking Skills"
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Critical Thinking Skills and Leadership Development

Critical Thinking Skills and Leadership Development

If the National FFA Organization believes effective leaders in their organization should “think critically, think creatively, practice sound decision-making, be problem solvers, commit to life long learning, articulate opinions to persuade others, practice sound study skills, and maximize mental assets and compensate for mental limitations,” as a report by the National FFA Task Force on Leadership and Personal Success (2002) suggests, then a greater effort should be put forth to substantiate the relationship between leadership education and critical thinking. A concerted effort to teach critical thinking in leadership training could yield greater impacts on critical thinking skills.
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The Impacts of 'Problem-Based Learning’ Approach in Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills to Teaching Literature

The Impacts of 'Problem-Based Learning’ Approach in Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills to Teaching Literature

PBL is an excellent environment within which to develop critical thinking skills because it provides opportunities to grow in all four components of critical thinking: (1) PBL can provide a strong grasp of knowledge base-factual and applied; (2) it provides opportunities for the development of critical appraisal skills; (3) its environment encourages students to question; and (4) in PBL faculty step back and allow students to direct their own learning, which becomes the foundation for future professional behaviors (Weissinger, 2003). These steps are compulsory in preparing the students for future workforce who are creative, can bear challenges other than being critical thinkers. Problem-based learning gives hands-on experience for students to learn with complexity, to realize that there are no straightforward and easy answers to problem scenarios, but learning and life takes place in contexts, which affect the kinds of solutions that will be taken at the end of the day. Learning such as this is not just a straightforward method of solving problems, but it helps people to learn how to learn and to link learning with their own interests and motivations (Savin-Baden, 2000). The nature of problem-based learning is the students have to work collaboratively in achieving the objectives of the group. These students are presented open-ended, messy and ill-structured problems that they work together to form a better understanding through the listing of known facts, generation of possible solutions, identification of issues that need further research, and eventual proposal of a resolution with rationale (Weissinger, 2003). Collaboration is a key component of PBL learning environments. Yet, specific structures must be in place (e.g., positive interdependence, individual accountability) for students’ to work together productively (Brush & Saye, 2001). Since
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The impact of a professional development training on primary school teacher's knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention towards teaching higher order thinking skills

The impact of a professional development training on primary school teacher's knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention towards teaching higher order thinking skills

drastic change (Voogt & Roblin, 2012). Students of today and tomorrow need different instruction then twenty or thirty years ago in order to be prepared for future economy (King, Goodson & Rohanni, 1998). A change is needed as complex real-life problems demand solutions obtained by individuals who are able to use higher-order thinking skills (King et al., 1998; Pithers & Soden, 2000). With regards to primary education, this means that teachers need to adapt their teaching strategy and focus on teaching thinking. Unfortunately, however, many teachers find it difficult to include higher-order thinking strategies or strategies that are directed towards inquiry learning in their daily education, mainly because teachers’ attitude towards such teaching strategies is in general negative (Ivie, 1998, Thijs et al., 2014). Additionally, teachers lack knowledge on teaching HOTS as most teachers are not clear on teaching thinking and therefore seem incapable of helping students to develop thinking (Pithers & Soden, 2000; Thijs et al., 2014; Zohar & Schwartzer, 2005).
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Changing Mindsets in the Info-Tech Enabled EFL Classroom

Changing Mindsets in the Info-Tech Enabled EFL Classroom

The potential of Info-Tech - enabled English language teaching in the development and transformation of students’ perspectives has been investigated by few researches and a large part of it has actually been devoted to the impact on the development of students’ critical thinking skills. It is true that a change in perspectives takes place in the classroom, but its efficiency and usefulness is only a potential. Research has shown that English language learners experience a change in their mindsets and perspectives. Three themes of perspective transformation experiences usually emerge from the accounts of participants, language learning, cultural awareness and personal change. (Katleen P. King 2009). Participants recognise a change in their assumptions about the language, a development in intercultural awareness and a feeling of empowerment and self esteem through the learning of the language and its culture. While it is true that changes actually take place and that learners go through a transformation experience, it really is hard to agree on the appropriateness and usefulness of the changes themselves.
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The Effectiveness of Creative Thinking Training on the Critical Thinking and Media Literacy in Students

The Effectiveness of Creative Thinking Training on the Critical Thinking and Media Literacy in Students

In the case of Iran, this issue has been considered and in turn, a plan with name as “Thinking and Research” was entered in the Education System. Undoubtedly, the importance of thinking and reasoning in human life is to the extent that they are referred to as the main distinction between human and other beings. In fact, what distinguishes human from other animals is his remarkable ability to think and reason. Thinking is a process in which we put our information together in an appropriate way so that we can reach a new result. In other words, one’s thinking deeply examines one’s affairs in order to obtain a desirable and reasonable result (D’Alessio et al., 2019; Şendağ & Odabaşı, 2009). All theories of education and learning support the thinking and research and their key role in learning. In fact, in the field of learning one cannot find a theory in which thinking and research are neglected. The sense of curiosity and truth-seeking is an innate affair that exists within the indi- vidual student body and should be gradually activated by providing the right conditions. Obviously, this innate talent must first emerge and flourish in the family and school environment, and then flourish in the environ- ments of other social institutions. But in today’s world, the role of the education system is more significant than other institutions due to economic, scientific, and technical developments. The role of the education sys- tem is important because it has a very wide scope and opportunity and covers a relatively long period of time for the students (D’Alessio et al., 2019). Creative thinking in a nutshell means being able to create something new or find new and effective ways to do better. In the present age, children and adolescents need to improve their creative thinking skills in order to make the right decisions and solve complex societal problems in order to face the amazing developments of the third millennium. They must enhance their research, problem solv- ing, and search skills. In today’s world, nurturing creative thinking is one of the core pillars of the educational system, and schools play a major role in the development of students’ creative thinking. Psychologists believe
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Conceptualising decision making in nursing education

Conceptualising decision making in nursing education

The ability to exhibit sound judgement and decision making skills is a fundamental requirement of undergraduate nursing curricula. In order to acquire such skills, students need to develop critical thinking ability as well as an understanding of how judgements and decisions are reached in complex healthcare environments. The use of techniques such as problem based learning; simulation and feedback have been hypothesised to help with the development of critical thinking skills. In addition a curriculum that incorporates teaching on different ways in which judgements and decisions are reached can potentially help students identify how to avoid errors and mistakes in their clinical practice. Feedback has been shown to be a powerful tool to help with developing decision making skills; evidence for other approaches to teaching critical thinking and decision making skills is currently limited. This paper reviews theoretical concepts that provide a framework for decision making in nursing as well as methods by which it can be taught.
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The Relationship between EFL Teachers’  Critical Thinking Skills and Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction across Gender

The Relationship between EFL Teachers’ Critical Thinking Skills and Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction across Gender

Further, it was found that the negative relationship between male teachers’ inference skills and vocabulary learning instruction was stronger than that of female teachers. Mixed findings have been reported with respect to the role of gender in critical thinking skills and dispositions (Facione, 1990; Walsh & Hardy, 1999). While some studies show that gender cannot predict individuals’ critical thinking skills, it is suggested that women sometimes feel that critical thinking “is synonymous with ‘male logic’, a thought process they find adversarial uncomfortable, and alienating” (Browne, Kubasek & Harris, 1989, p.227). It has also been found that men are more analytical than women (Facione, Sanchez, & Facione, 1994) and generally score higher in critical thinking skill tests (Leach & Good, 2011). Thus, it is possible that male teachers intentionally avoided strategy instruction as “strategy training is a complex process which requires committed and informed teachers who spend an extended period of time working with learners” (Bastanfar & Hashemi, 2010, p. 161). In other words, male teachers with higher critical thinking ability were more aware of the contextual constraints and challenges of teaching English and thus preferred to use teaching techniques that work better in their context of teaching, instead of strategy instruction.
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21ST CENTURY LEARNING FRAMEWORK: USING CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND
LEARNING TO ENHANCE STUDENT CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

21ST CENTURY LEARNING FRAMEWORK: USING CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING TO ENHANCE STUDENT CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

Given the importance of critical thinking skills for students, learning at school should not only aim to improve cognitive learning outcomes but also aims to cultivate students' critical thinking skills. Synder & Synder (2008) state that critical thinking skills are a type of skill that can be learned. The ways to help improve students' critical thinking skills are through a learning strategy that invites active students to use their critical thinking skills, focus on the learning process, and use more challenging assessment techniques for students to think harder. Further, Burbach, Matkin, & Fritz (2004) add that students' critical thinking skills could be improved through active learning.
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Research Design prototype of Teacher Book and Student Book based on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) to Practice Critical Thinking Skills of Grade VII

Research Design prototype of Teacher Book and Student Book based on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) to Practice Critical Thinking Skills of Grade VII

The results of the validation of student books conducted by the validator as shown in table 4.2 shows that the student book developed has an average score of 3.6 with a percentage of 92.2%, the validity mode of the Student Book is 4 with 100% reliability, this means student books are very suitable for use in learning. The results of the development of student books because they are adjusted to the syllabus and have been analyzed material based on contextual teaching and learning (CTL). The student book developed in it contained energy material reading materials in the living system, and worksheets and assessment sheets. Based on the CTL character, the activities that exist in student books also require students to be able to capture the relationship between learning experiences received and real life and encourage them to be able to apply them. In accordance with the statement of Sanjaya (2008), that by being able to connect between the material received and real life, the material received will be embedded tightly in students' memories, so it will not be easy to forget. This student book can also be used to support student activities. The results of validation tests of critical thinking assessment conducted by the validator show that the developed test has an average score of content validity assessment, amounting to 3.3 with an assessment percentage of 89.8%, a validation mode of 3 with 100% reliability. This shows that the developed test is worth testing..
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Vol 11, No 3 (2015)

Vol 11, No 3 (2015)

Critical thinking skills of students in Biology Teaching and Learning Strategies course can be enhanced by applying contextual learning. Students' critical thinking skills can be improved for logical reasons that the introduction of a contextual approach in directing students into realistics thinking according to real life conditions. Various theories of learning is that learned can be implemented on lecture material. This makes it a challenge for students in applying it to everyday life. Subject matter becomes more meaningful for students with application of problem solving and through the process of inquiry and cooperative group work. This makes the students, becoming more diligently to asked question during the group presentation. The average student questions counted as much as 5 questions, making students become more motivated to learn. This is in line with the opinions of Wishler (2013) declaring the interaction in the learning process, in which students will be challenged and motivated in their learning. Besides that, students were trained to think in an advanced organization, this is also in line with Shihusa and Keraro (2009) which states that student motivation were higher after applying advanced thinking organizer. Smith (2010) said that the subject matter can be delivered using the CTL pedagogical model while also build critical and problems solving skills.
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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTANT CURRICULUM DESIGN

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTANT CURRICULUM DESIGN

Each of the themes of the curriculum design is present throughout the entire OTA program. The elementary skills necessary for occupational therapy are introduced early in the program so that the students can build on this foundation. Brightwood Career Institute believes that the students must become competent in certain key areas such as ethics, communication, and documentation. Because of the drive to produce competent OTAs, these areas, as well as others, are addressed and taught many times during the program for continual reinforcement. The program is designed to ensure competence, skill and role acquisition in all areas of occupational therapy.
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Logical, Critical and Creative: Teaching 'Thinking Skills' to Law Students

Logical, Critical and Creative: Teaching 'Thinking Skills' to Law Students

An example of a text intended to assist legal academics teaching legal reasoning rather than law students learning legal reasoning is the recent article Deepening the Discourse Using the Legal Mind’s Eye by Hillary Burgess. 42 Burgess presents research that demonstrates how incorporating visual aids and exercises into learning environments can help students to develop higher-order cognitive skills such as ‘thinking like a lawyer’. Burgess begins by explaining what higher order cognitive skills are and by mapping the various steps in legal reasoning onto Bloom’s taxonomy of learning objectives (level 1 – remembering, level – understanding, level 3 – applying, level 4 – analysing, level 5 – evaluating, and level 6 – creating). Burgess argues that the legal curriculum traditionally teaches the lowest four levels of learning but tests the highest four levels of learning. To help law teachers to teach all six levels of learning, Burgess offers a neuroscience and cognitive psychology perspective on how students learn legal reasoning. She reviews research that indicates that students learn more, learn at deeper levels, and retain information longer when they engage in ‘multimodal’ learning, especially learning involving visual aids and visual exercises, and provides concrete guidelines for law teachers interested in incorporating visual aids and visual exercises effectively when teaching legal reasoning. 43
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Promoting student thinking in primary school : successful strategies in New Zealand's Year 3 6 classrooms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

Promoting student thinking in primary school : successful strategies in New Zealand's Year 3 6 classrooms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

Therefore, the influences affecting teaching methods and the elements of the thinking culture: metacognition, classroom climate, direct thinking skills instruction and learning experienc[r]

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FACTORS  FOR  IMPLEMENTING THE “GUARANTEED LESSON” IN TEACHING TECHNIQUES

FACTORS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE “GUARANTEED LESSON” IN TEACHING TECHNIQUES

-teachers tell one student to read the answers to other students according to assignment. Students will evaluate themselves according to their correct answers to questions. For example, if you look at the example of "Methodology of Mathematics Teaching", questionnaires on the table will be disseminated. The number of tasks in the questionnaire is 3, consisting of theory, simple questions and tests. Theoretical question is 40%, simple questions are 6%, total: 30%, each student has a correct answer to each test - 3%, total: 30% The students will be announced in advance. As a result of the questions asked to the students, the group will be asked one common question on the subject. Students will be able to write their own answers to each question item by answering questions. Comparing the answers to these questions with the teacher's response, based on the correctness of the answers, they identify their rating in the following order, so:
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The Effectiveness of Teaching Critical Thinking Skills through Literature in EFL Context: A Case Study in Spain

The Effectiveness of Teaching Critical Thinking Skills through Literature in EFL Context: A Case Study in Spain

The results show that all the students perceived their competence in the six dimensions between level 2 (below satisfactory) and level 4 (excellent), before and after the work with the literary text. It is significant that the number of students who considered their level of self-reflection, critical awareness, and intercultural awareness as below satisfactory was reduced to zero, i.e. some students who had low initial expectations gained confidence after working with the text. Although the number of students who perceived their level as below satisfactory in critical awareness and reasoning and problem solving slightly increased, there is still a small percentage whose attitude towards their competence in these two dimensions remains below positive. Overall, it wouldn’t be wrong to say that most students saw their competence as good after completing the four phases of the project. It is interesting to note that 42,86% of the students had very high opinion about their critical awareness competence and in the post-test checklist this percentage dropped to 14,29%. In absolute terms it is a lot lower, however, we interpret it as a positive result, in the sense that the proposed activities made students aware of the need to improve their critical awareness and of the complexity of the concept. In their comments, some of these students mentioned that they had underestimated the value of critical awareness and did not have a clear idea of the breadth and depth of the dimension. The language in use dimension scored lower than the other five dimensions. 9,52% of the students viewed their language in use competence as excellent in the pre-test checklist, but the post-test results do not seem to have met their expectations, presumably for two main reasons: (1) their assumption was based on the use of English in class activities that do not require critical thinking skills, and (2) the literary text they worked with has a rich repertoire of more nuanced lexical items than those they were familiar with. The same decreasing tendency from pre to post-test results is clearly observed if we compare the figures in levels 3 (good) and 4 (excellent) of critical awareness and language in use. To establish a correlation pattern, a broader scope research must be conducted. However, we could detect that engaging students in a close critical reading that involved understanding of the literary strategies and interpretation of the meaning of language use drew their attention to the need to improve their competence in these two dimensions.
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The Association of American Colleges and Universities. By Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc.

The Association of American Colleges and Universities. By Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc.

“I don’t think colleges and universities within the United States really teach these individuals the real world, what it’s like being out there in the real world, what the real job requirements are. I mean, the colleges and universities are giving them more of a broad knowledge base, but it’s not being very particular about what to expect when you actually get out to that first job. And I think the internships do an amazing job in terms of education, educating people versus your day- to-day everyday sitting in a class learning from a book perspective.”

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