The pilot solar thermal power plant was developed at the CLECO Alternative Energy Center in Crowley, Louisi- ana, and is operated by the University of Louisiana at Lafayette with the aim of installing and operating a pilot scale solar thermal facility for the first time in Louisiana. The overarching goal of the installation was to encourage the development, implementation and deployment of cost- effective renewable energy technologies in Louisiana, to support the creation of additional employment opportuni- ties, and to stimulate market demand for other emerging renewable energy systems. In addition, the research op- portunities provided by the facility include the evaluation of the feasibility and commercial viability of full scale
The screw expander is a positive displacement rotary design which has the characteristics of both piston and turbine expanders. It is a full-flow power machine and takes the screw compressor as prototype. Molded lines are the basis for the design and development of screw expanders, and its manufacturing process and control system are much more complicated than screw compressors. Screw expanders used in the ORC generator sets for refining adopts the patented screw molded lines with twin-screw 5-6 lobe structure. It consists of male and female rotors, cylinder body, adjusting shim, bearing, bearing kit, and seal assembly, etc. The cylinder body shows the shape of ∞ with two intersected and paralleled screw rotors which rotate to the opposite directions according to a certain transmission ratio  . To reduce leakage of air between the rotors as well as between the rotors and the casing, lubricating oil with a certain amount and pressure is injected in the screw expander during operation, which can cool down and lubricate tooth surfaces and bearings at the same time. The working cycle of the screw expander includes air intake, expansion, and exhaust, and medium pressure varies widely during the whole process. Figure 4 displays the structure diagram of the screw expander, and Figure 5 shows rotor meshing [6-7].
During the rainy seasons, there are frequent power cuts in Assam. Which causes interruption in several works. Also, there is a lack of sufficient power plants in Assam to meet the electrical power demand in the state. There are lots of remote places where grid electricity does not covers its range. These problems can be tackled by the development of small-scale off- grid power plants which can provide electricity to the household and other needs as backup to the main grid electricity and provide full time electricity to the areas where the main grid electricity has not reached yet. However, micro-scalebiomass-fired/solar powered ORC-based CHP (Combined Heat Power) units (<10kWe), having a great potential to meet the energy needs of buildings, have yet to be demonstrated or commercialized . In a work done by Emily Spayde et al. , they have been able to determine the economic, energetic and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-powered ORC with electric energy storage (EES) to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufﬁcient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time). Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE), and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES was also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large ofﬁce, the small ofﬁce and the restaurant, respectively.
Modern energy sources, mainly fossil fuels, are being used inefficiently at a high rate with concern of exhaustion. At the same time, there is growing comprehension and recognition of greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and environmental pollution issues which have drawn worldwide attention to renewable power sources. Recent environmental and energy policies support investigations to increase the use of renewable sources to reduce fossil fuel use and decrease environmental impacts. As a renewable source, biomass is an attractive feedstock for decentralised power generation. The European Union (EU) is increasingly highlighting the objectives of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases and enlarging the portion of renewable energy sources and hence using waste biomass as a valuable resource. A significant amount of renewable energy is derived from biomass feedstock. The renewable electricity provided from biomass feedstock is assumed to be around 14% of the entire renewable electricity production by 2030 in the Eurozone (1). In general, fossil-based fuels are the primary feedstock for fuels and power sources on our planet. The use of biomass feedstock for energy production can reduce the consumption of fossil-based fuel and contribute to decreasing the emissions of greenhouse gas (2). Biomass materials constitute the most significant proportion of carbonaceous waste materials. As an alternative form of energy, the use of waste biomass feedstock to form fuel sources is most welcome and appreciated
The benefit to this cycle is that it is extremely simple in terms of system components. The system requires only a single phase heat exchanger, a turbine, an air cooled condenser, and a pump. Figure 10, page 8, depicts a basic system diagram. The nominal operating pressure of this system is approximately 1000 psia, which suggests that all of the support piping and equipment is commercially available. Given a 15 Million BTU/hr brine source, this system could generate approximately 400 kW net power with a thermal efficiency of 9%  . Additionally, the system can be built to be self regulating by using the power
Abstract: The seminar in Bánovce nad Bebravou was mainly focused on promotion of successful implemented projects in the field of Small and MicroScaleCHP. One of the most interesting examples was application of small cogeneration units in communal boiler house, where the attention was given to electricity demand covered by CHP. This project was presented by BYTTHERM ltd. which is the operator of this CHP, Slovak Energy Agency and INTECH Slovakia ltd, the main supplier of the technology. More than 100 representatives of heat producers in communal sphere were informed with the results of this project. Mr. Zbigniew Kocur, the representative of INTECH Slovakia ltd. presented a Energy efficiency management and tha following results achieved in praxis. The presentation of Mr. Vladimír Hecl was focused on possibilities of European funds in order to gain new investments. Also the prepared amendment in energy legislation was not forgotten. The Milan Dubnicka representative of Ministry economy has brought the new information regarding new energy act and the prediction in energy prices.
In this paper we have presented the simulation tools being developed and have discussed the results obtained from investigating fuel cell micro-CHPs. The results not only confirm the advantages of this technology over conventional heating installations, but also serve to identify the benefits and shortcomings of each technology. Further-more, we have shown that simulations can be used for rapid and simple analysis and optimization of micro-CHPs and guide future development.
Electrical energy produced from burning of biomass and flammable agricultural wastes (biomass sources). Sugarcane bagasse, wood resulting from pruning orchards, wheat straw, poplar wood and sawdust as fuel system were selected. Most power be obtained from the sawdust (46 watt) and pruning of trees for wood for low power (21 watts), respectively. Minimum ignition time of the Sawdust (4 min) and the most time flammable wood from pruned trees (10 min) was measured. At maximum power, the internal thermal efficiency of the engine was measured as 16%. The test results confirm the fact that Stirling engines driven by temperature of biomass gases are able to achieve a valuable output power. (figure 7).
The variation of evaporator, preheater and condenser area with variation of geothermal temperature are given in Figure 5, Figure 6 and Figure 7. This re- veals that, the heat exchanger area will be increased with the increase of the amount of heat transfer rate. The surface areas of these components exponen- tially increase with increasing geothermal temperature as seen in these figures. The heat exchangers designed area in case of Pentane is smaller than in case of R245fa working fluid. The difference of the heat transfer areas occurs because these cycle designs need different heat duty of the heat exchangers. Each heat exchanger design has a different overall heat transfer coefficient and logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD), which are the main factors affecting the heat exchanger. Each one of the working fluids has different thermodynamic properties; different areas of heat exchangers, evaporator and condenser are re- quired.
The interests in low-grade heat sources, which are abundantly available in renewable energy sources, grew dramatically with the awareness of greenhouse effect. A number of novel solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from the low-grade heat. OrganicRankinecycle (ORC) has been paid much more attention in recent years as a very promising technology for energy conversion with the low boiling temperature working fluid (e.g. refrigerants) . Generally, the available low-grade heat sources utilized by the ORC systems include geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass combustion, exhaust gases of gas turbine, and waste heat from power plant . Unlike traditional power cycles, ORC can be applied to small-scale power generation with high flexibility and low maintenance requirements . ORC can be used as a prime mover or integrated with another mover for the combined heat and power generation system. Power generation plants integrating with ORC systems are beneficial to energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions.
Existing energy crisis in the world has diverted human perspective to the optimum usage of the available energy resources. One of these solutions is waste heat recovery systems. Simultaneous production of fresh water, power and cooling from waste heat improves energy efficiency in industrial applications which could be operated by organicRankine cycles. In this article, cogeneration of electricity and heat (CHP) in the petrochemical industry, textile and paper production has been reviewed and the usage of aforesaid cycle in these industries is determined. Designing organicRankinecycle (with operating fluid organic trans-butene) and taking advantage of the excess low pressure steam, a strategy for producing three valuable products of fresh water, power and refrigeration in the petrochemical industries has been offered. Simultaneous production of 10,000 kg/hr fresh water, 1533 kw power and access to the lower temperatures of about 226 K and 260 K were resulted.
Animal and domestic/industrial residues, such as poultry litter, meat and bone meal or sewage sludge in comparison with biomass originated from plants, include significantly higher quantities of inorganic material of different origin. Poultry litter is a by-product of poultry industry which consists of the poultry excrement of chickens, turkeys and the bedding material, wasted feed and feathers . The bedding material may be wood shavings, sawdust, straw, peanut hulls or other fibrous materials. Poultry litter is rich in nutrients like P, K and N and therefore is usually used as fertiliser. The phosphorus can be in organic and inorganic forms. Another by-product of the poultry industry is eggshell waste which can contribute to increased calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) in poultry litter. Meat and bone meal (MBM) as a by-product of the rendering industry, includes parts of animal bones, and meat residues in form of approximately 50% protein, 10% fat and incombustible mineral matter. A dominant mineral in MBM is hydroxyapatite – derived from bones and rich in phosphorous and calcium . Other abundant inorganics present in MBM are nitrogen rich originating from proteins and alkali metals. Sewage sludge is a by-product of waste-water (contaminated by human and other waste from households and industries) treatment processes. Besides the organic matter, which is mostly of biological origin (with approximately 60% content on a dry basis) and other organic, pathogens and microbiological pollutants, sewage sludge consist of very high quantities of inorganic material (on dry basis %). Inorganic constituents include: i) silicates, aluminates, and calcium- and magnesium containing species, ii) organically originated Nitrogen (N)- and Phosphorous (P)-containing components, iii) precipitated P in form of Al-, Ca- or Fe- phosphates in quantities depending upon the type of precipitated agent
An OrganicRankineCycle (ORC) is an instrument which uses an organic working fluid that has a boiling point less than that of water to convert low- temperature heat into mechanical work. The mechanical work that is generated can then be converted into electricity (Quoilin et al., 2013). The ORC cycle has a higher overall energy efficiency than conventional based RankineCycle.
cooling system gives very low COP with slow cooling rate, which require a focus for improvement of its COP with compact designing. Additionally the small scale system must be operating on low temperature driving source. Most of the researchers inclined their work towards aqua- ammonia pair because of the low boiling temperature of ammonia (-33˚ C), which allows to go for cooling effect below 0˚ C. Ammonia is corrosive to copper tubings, toxic and flammable in nature. In addition to these limitations, water as absorbent is reasonably volatile which leads to presence of appreciable amount of water vapour in ammonia vapour leaving the generator. This may result in clogging of evaporator tubing due to which an analyzer and a rectifier is used in aqua-ammonia system, which increases the system complexity. Based on these restrictions of aqua ammonia system, LiBr-water absorption system is more suitable to study.
Bioenergy has an important role to play in helping the UK meet its carbon target in 2050 and the European Renewable Energy Directive objectives for 2030. There are however uncertainties associated with the use of bioenergy, and whether or how much it contributes to green-house gas emission reductions. In order to help identifying environmental benefits and burdens associated with biomass use for energy production, an attributional life cycle assessment has been carried out of a biomass-firedCHP plant: the Heathrow Airport energy centre. This facility burns woodchips sourced from nearby forests providing 2 MWe of electricity and 8 MWth of thermal energy which delivers heat and cooling to Heathrow Terminal 2 and low temperature hot water to Terminal 5. A hot spot analysis is conducted to identify the process steps with the largest environmental impact, starting from the harvesting of the forest residue to the disposal of the boiler ash. A scenario analysis is performed to compare the impacts of the biomass plant against fossil alternatives and to identify which renewable energy sources, between biomass and MSW, should be prioritised for development and investment. The results show a reduction in GHG emissions from using biomass, with further benefits if the bottom ash is collected and re-used as a soil conditioner for land- farming or forestry. The paper also discusses the treatment of biogenic carbon in the assessment.
In this studied, an experimental system was developed using a low temperature vapor generator to vaporize the working fluid for driving the micro – turbine engine, which is considered as one of possible type of the turbine. Other commercially available components were also used. The experimental results were conducted and the turbine performance for various rotation speeds was investigated. It is a model which can work in stable and high efficiency for electric production. This model can use for case of studying in efficiency and energy capability increasing. Include the using with other low temperature waste heat sources which are in the world. These are the way of energy technology development with relate to the sustainability of the world.
Abstract. The object of the study are substances that are used as a working fluid in systems operating on the basis of an organicRankinecycle. The purpose of research is to find substances with the best thermodynamic, thermal and environmental properties. Research conducted on the basis of the analysis of thermodynamic and thermal properties of substances from the base “REFPROP” and with the help of numerical simulation of combined-cycle plant utilization triple cycle, where the lower cycle is an organicRankinecycle. Base “REFPROP” describes and allows to calculate the thermodynamic and thermophysical parameters of most of the main substances used in production processes. On the basis of scientific publications on the use of working fluids in an organicRankinecycle analysis were selected ozone-friendly low- boiling substances: ammonia, butane, pentane and Freon: R134a, R152a, R236fa and R245fa. For these substances have been identified and tabulated molecular weight, temperature of the triple point, boiling point, at atmospheric pressure, the parameters of the critical point, the value of the derivative of the temperature on the entropy of the saturated vapor line and the potential ozone depletion and global warming. It was also identified and tabulated thermodynamic and thermophysical parameters of the steam and liquid substances in a state of saturation at a temperature of 15 qC. This temperature is adopted as the minimum temperature of heat removal in the Rankinecycle when working on the water. Studies have shown that the best thermodynamic, thermal and environmental properties of the considered substances are pentane, butane and R245fa. For a more thorough analysis based on a gas turbine plant NK- 36ST it has developed a mathematical model of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) triple cycle, where the lower cycle is an organicRankinecycle, and is used as the air cooler condenser. Air condenser allows stating material at a temperature below 0 q C. Calculation of the parameters of all substances in the model are based on a base “REFPROP”. Numerical investigations on this model showed that the highest net efficiency will be at work on pentane. Butane and R245fa have the same net efficiency, for 0.8% lower than pentane. Ammonia has a net efficiency of 2.5% is lower than pentane. CCP net efficiency strongly depends on the condensation temperature of the substance, as for pentane at lower temperature of condensation at 10 °C it is increased by 1%.
Many producers of boilers exist in Thailand, as for instance Bangkok Industrial Boilers, Thai K. Boiler, Thai Steam Boiler, Banpong Boiler, STPI Boiler and Hansa Boiler International etc. (Møller, 2008a; Sutiratana, 2008). As far as their efficiency is concerned, two manufacturers in particular can be emphasised, namely Bangkok Industrial Boilers and Hansa Boiler International, of which the latter previously has co-operated with Babcoc Borsig from Berlin, and has a large market share in Thailand for solid fuel boilers and for plants producing thermal energy for industrial use (Møller, 2008a). Bangkok Industrial Boilers or/and Hansa Boiler International could, for example, join forces with Vølund, and start up a domestic production of efficient biomass boilers in Thailand. Vølund has experience with such kind of joint ventures’ from Malaysia, where they have established a private partnership with a Malay manufacturer of boilers for the palm oil industry. Danish manufacturers of district heating pipes, as for instance Løgstør and StarPipes could also es- tablish such joint partnership with a relevant Thai stakeholder. This could for instance be a company named Tor Nam Thai, which produces un-insulated PVC pipes for energy supply (Sutiratana, 2008). Local manufacturers of heat exchangers for the appropriate transmission of heat from the district heating network to industries requiring process heat, already exist in Thailand. Genesis, produces efficient heat exchangers in their factory in Rayon, south east Thailand, at ¼ the price of imported heat exchangers from for instance Finland (Salam, 2008).