This paper demonstrates the design and development of an Integratedmicro-EnvironmentalMonitoringSystem (IEMS), which aims to provide an effective platform for micro-environmentalmonitoring in constructionsites. The system mainly comprises three parts: sensing device, server platform and Android application. The monitoring sensing device is equipped with an Arduino microprocessor, wireless communication modules and environmental sensors including humidity, temperature, dust intensity, UV radiation, noise index sensors. In addition, a correction algorithm and a random error detection method were developed and integrated in the processing engine running at the background server platform. Multiple sets of monitoring sensing devices were deployed in a construction site for evaluation. This system is the first ever developed and used system in constructionsites to monitor micro-environmental conditions for improving safety and health assessment. This system can also be modified for other applications (e.g. in bus terminal, shopping mall, factory, as well as in household apartment).
SUMMARY: Due to increasing demands for the more accurate structural health monitoring of large-scale facilities, e.g. modern high-speed railways and bridges, there is a huge uptake in the development of optical sensor networks (OSN), which can help mitigate issues with conventional electric sensors, especially their sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and size. The existing fibre optic infrastructures are not widely used by OSNs, due to the lack of appropriate multiplexing techniques. Aiming at addressing the implementation issues of optical sensors in urban areas, this study proposes an efficient and cost-effective system for supporting the vibration sensing of unequally distributed points. The proposed system takes advantages of the spectral amplitude encoding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) technique in providing differentiated services in the physical layer with varying code weights. This system utilises more wavelengths (i.e. higher power) in more distant sensing points in order to retrieve vibration signals properly. The mechanism of SAC for OSN is elaborated using simulation results, including the impact of transmission distance and the procedure for allocating codes to different zones. These results indicate the suitability of the proposed system for implementation in existing fibre optic infrastructures. Moreover, the numerical analysis shows a high capacity of the sensor network deploying SAC. The proposed system contributes to the construction research and practice by addressing the implementation issues of structural health monitoring of large-scale facilities in urban areas.
EMS emerges as a tool to enable organisations systematically managing the environment that receives or possibly receives the impact from their conducts, through self commitment and provision of resources. These EMS implementers contribute to produce desirable results in pollution control, of which collectively may be significant in approaching the indefinite sustainable development.
Transportation systems are an important indicator of ur- ban development. The systems are subject to consistent monitoring from a life-cycle point of view, and a process being able to reflect actual construction conditions is needed. To ensure an appropriate construction simulation, the preconstruction preparation includes programming, scheduleing, methods, emergency procedures, etc. While data are created in different stages, 4D simulation is a powerful tool for the evaluation of construction processes , in which both data and the construction process can be visualized, allowing the communication of this infor- mation between different parties. Nevertheless, the simu- lation has limitations in terms of defining actual occur- rences at a site when a very complicated collection of activities and objects is presented. The complexity adds difficulties and uncertainties in creating corresponding digital representations of the data.
As compared to the post, the current decade is observing huge infrastructure development in Pakistan. There are many civil engineering projects in progress as well as under planning. It is believed that all of these projects have the capacity to manage the local industry to achieve glory and international recognition but it is only possible if appropriate strides are made to achieve the same. With this milestone for wonderful era of development, however, the challenges are still higher. The single most challenge that requires quick and strong improvements is safety at sites. It is very important that all occupational injuries and fatalities should be given serious attention. It is also need of the hour to inculcate the higher level of awareness among all employees and employers of the significance of HSE at worksites. The current study will focus on how HSE are managed on housing constructionsites in Lahore, Pakistan and what practices are employed by the management for HSE risk assessment at project sites. Furthermore what are the challenges construction industry is facing in terms of its performance and to provide suggestions for sustainable improvement.
The prerequisite for developing an information and document management solution in which project information can be shared and used to enable and improve construction processes is identifying the sources and nature of information and its flow from a particular source to a specific destination. Thus, the methodology is grounded in empirical modelling which, according to Beynon et al. (2002), “involves a paradigm shift in which experience becomes the primary and primitive ingredient.” In order to understand the source flow of project information a qualitative case study approach was undertaken whereby various actors, knowledge retention practices, access and retrieval of knowledge and issues in sharing knowledge were identified and analyzed. The strength of the case study research method is its ability to perform in-depth investigations when the case under study is broad and complex and cannot be studied outside the context (Klein and Myers, 1999; Yin, 2003). Furthermore, this approach also allows the use of flexible ways of collecting qualitative data and aims at providing an internal information management solution validation during the course of the information and document management systemdevelopment.
A review of research works show that some studies have been carried out on the environmental impact of construction activities (Cardoso, 2005; Ren et al 2012; Uher, 1999; Zolfagharian et al, 2012). Majority of these studies have identified the adverse environmental effects associated with building construction activities. These typically, include water and electricity consumption, ground movement, greenhouse gas emission, noise, waste and dust generation. However there is a dearth of research on the environmental management practices (EMP) employed and the factors that affect or determine environmental practice during construction process especially in the developing world. Studies like, Guggemos and Horvath, 2006; Ahn et al., 2010, revealed that existing studies have concentrated on the environmental performance of buildings during their operational stage (life cycle phase).According to Yahaya and Abidin (2013),there has been many attempts in Malaysia to raise construction stakeholders` awareness and commitment to build with socially and ecologically responsibility. This was done through the Malaysians National Green Policy, the Green Technology Financial Scheme (SFTS) and Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Green Technology Programme. This is however not the case in Nigeria where the building control practices is yet to take off and no building regulations guiding the operations of contractors .However, in the study by Ojo et al.,(2015) it was concluded that in Nigeria the construction process impinge greatly on the environment. The question then is, are there not environmental management system by Nigerian contractors?. Hence, this study explores the environmental management practices (EMP) employed by construction firms in Nigeria and the factors that influence its practice on constructionsites.
Abstract — Data and data retrieval remain central to the challenge of environmental protection initiatives. Approaches such as walk-through inspections and environmentalmonitoring rely on environmental information that is concise, accurate, material timely and usable. However, current methods of collecting environmental data from the field are, on occasion, problematic in that they are labour-intensive and can take a considerable time to process between the point of collection and the period of analysis. These drawbacks create an obstacle for construction managers and can result in unnecessary environmental impacts, prosecutions and delays. Technological based surveillance has become an alternative in an attempt to overcome some of these disadvantages. But, in some circumstances it can be difficult to demonstrate a connection between the pollution detected and a specific source solely using these methods. Therefore, while physical environmental surveillance (observation/walk-through inspection) still remains important some improvements can be made through the application of Internet of Things technologies in order to accommodate the needs of both physical and technological based environmental surveillance in one system. This paper proposes a prototype of the Mobile Environmental Information System. This system is designed to assist constructionenvironmental management teams to efficiently perform surveillance activities and make informed decisions in the light of a better awareness of the current status of environmental constraints and legislation. The user requirements, the conceptual model and the functional specifications as well as the system architecture for the prototype system presented in this paper will form the basis for the development of the prototype system.
Implementations. Sentinella is a smart monitoring solution for the assessment of possible causes of power inefficiency at the photovoltaic panel level based on WSNs . The employment of WSNs in smart grid applications and electrical energy monitoring solutions for large buildings was also investigated , . A series of industrial WSNs achieving the acquisition of heterogeneous sensor signals, higher sampling rates, and higher reliability levels has been developed as well , . However, most of the proposed solutions are based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and ZigBee applications, and they rely on gateways when the data has to be sent to the Internet. Furthermore, in this case, additional applications have to be developed for encapsulating the data in Internet protocols, such as user datagram protocol (UDP) or transmission control protocol (TCP). Another promising technology providing high power efficiency is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), which was first introduced in 2010 with the goal of expanding the use of Bluetooth to power-constrained devices such as wireless sensors . However, a lot of research work still has to be performed in this direction, for
Environmental pollution is a popular issue after World War II. It can be said that pollution is the result of our social development through the means of science. Thus environmental pollution has become the biggest problem to the human race on this planet. Since the onset of the industrial revolution, there has been a steady change in the composition of the atmosphere mainly due the combustion of fossil fuels used for the generation of energy and transportation. Air pollution and water pollution from industries plays major role in creating adverse effect to the organisms. People who works in industries are seriously affected by these pollutants because of the lack of proper management system. Keeping this issue in mind, this project works on monitoring the level of air pollutant and water pollutant in industries and send the corresponding database to pollution control board.
In existing model, the Zigbee based wireless Sensor Networks used to monitor the physical and Environmental conditions. The system consists of a microcontroller, sensors and Zigbee which collects data from different locations along with coordinate‟s information at certain time of a day. The readings for particular location are averaged in a closed time and space. The Global Positioning System (GPS) module is attached to a system to provide accurate representation of pollution sources in an area. The recorded data is periodically transferred to a computer through a Zigbee receiver and then the data will be displayed on the dedicated website with user acceptance. As a result large number of people can be benefited with the large. Which avoided the use of complex routing algorithm but local Computations are very minimal.
ABSTRACT: In the 21 st century the process of cultivation has become a tougher job than before. To overcome the difficulties face by the farmers we have come up with an idea that helps farmers to get maximum yield. This paper presents the design and the implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network that can monitor the air temperature, humidity and ambient light intensity in a crop field. This can help the end users such as farmers in the better understanding of agriculture practices to be adopted for crop management. The system consists of nodes, which are equipped with small size application specific sensors. The sensor data is transmitted via Zig- Bee transreciever to the centrally localized computer terminal for data logging and analysis. The sensor nodes can additionally be programmed from the computer terminal itself according to the changing needs of farmers, thus preventing the need for a redeployment of the Wireless Sensor Network every time some changes are to be made.
Aiming at the current situation of traditional artificial stagnation mode (high cost, small monitoring amount and slow update of monitoring data) in the field of environmentalmonitoring in most areas of China, this paper designs an au- tomatic environment monitoringsystem, which is based on STM32F103RCT6 Collect environmental parameters such as atmosphere, water and soil, and then transmits the data to the terminal collection server through UDP through the ESP8266 module. The terminal collection server transmits the data to the management monitoring center through the internet network, and finally realizes remote environment monitoring. After preliminary text, the system has low energy consumption, strong stability, accurate data transmis- sion and low cost, and has certain practicability.
In all real-field scenarios of source characterization, the degree of uncertainty in terms of source locations and hydrogeologic properties of the aquifer are high. Large amount of measurement data can decrease some of these uncertainties. The number of wells in monitoring network may be restricted by various constraints. The proposed methodology is shown to improve the source identification efficiency as compared to arbitrary measurements. The designed monitoring locations are important in obtaining accurate unknown source identification. FSMT is demonstrated to provide a useful and effective guideline to select the potential locations for monitoring network design. In addition, the results show that there is a trade-off in selecting the optimal monitoring locations in terms of minimizing the maximum normalized error between assumed and interpolated concentration values, and maximizing the sum of the estimated concentration gradient values. However, the ideal levels of trade-off needs to be studied and may depend on site- specific conditions. This study also demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of using surrogate models based linked simulation optimization models together with fractal singularity index mapping technique, and Pareto optimal monitoring network design for effective characterization of unknown contaminant sources in a complex contaminated aquifer with a reactive geochemical transport process.
This report was commissioned by the Wheat Initiative scientific board following the proposal adopted by the G20 Agriculture Ministers in June 2011. The aim of this report is to offer recommendations on the best strategies to follow to develop an integrated Wheat Information System (hereafter called WheatIS) and provide the international wheat research community easy access to wheat genetic information, genomic data and bioinformatics tools. This report is based on results obtained from a community-‐wide consultation and opens the possibility of integrating agronomic data within the WheatIS.
Distributed databases of monitoring subsystems include the data of the automated observation posts, rescue units’ data, dangerous event and infrastructure characteristics. The technology of data collection directly from the monitoring devices (irrespective of their assignment) has the following features. Group of devices (for example, the automated meteorological station, the radiation level sensor etc.) together with the industrial computer equipped with the appropriate software, are integrated in a uniform observation post. Primary measurement data stays at the local database which allows avoiding losses of information in case of a temporal rupture of communication. Special rules of data preprocessing and transfer are used for identification of critical values of the measured parameters, and also for filtering of the redundant information.
When developing such systems, we must ensure the privacy of the person, which can be satisfied here, as our systems are entirely automated and access to the images could be forbidden except in case of emergency. For instance, the system will send an alarm signal toward an outside resource (e.g. via Internet) if and only if an abnormal event is detected (e.g. falling). Better performances and results can be obtained when different methods of acquiring data are combined (wearable devices + webcam images). Test results show that the system is reliable and reduce hospitalization costs by improving the living conditions of elderly people; also this work could be the first phase of implementing a multi-sensor network monitoringsystem for fall detection using more than one webcam also with other wearable devices (blood pressure, respiration…).
This study developed a single micro temperature sensor for the actual temperature distribution in the micro methanol reformer in the past [5, 6], and used the flexible high molecular material, PI as the substrate, and integrated the temperature, flow and pressure sensors into an integratedmicro pressure, temperature and flow sensor. This study further improved the dielectric layer material in the capacitive micro pressure sensor of the integrated multifunction micro sensor, and embedded the integrated multifunction micro sensor in the micro reformer to measure the distribution of temperature, flow and pressure in the micro reformer during reaction and to record the measured data instantly. The data were analyzed for studying the improvement of reformer operating parameters and structure design in order to obtain the optimal methanol conversion efficiency.
Design of Vehicular monitoring and tracking system based on ARM using GSM and GPS is proposed. The vehicular module is used to track, monitor, and surveillance and finds the accident spot and intimate to the monitoring station. The proposed design provides information regarding vehicle Identity, speed, and position on real time basis. This information are collected by the ARM7 TDMI-S core processor LPC2148 by using different modules in the system and dispatch it to the monitoring station where it stores the information in database and display it on graphical user interface (GUI) that is user friendly. GUI is built on Microsoft Visual Basics. The system consists of cooperative components of MEMS accelerometer, microcontroller unit, GPS receiver and GSM module. In the event of accident, this wireless device can send SMS indicating the position of vehicle by GPS system to family member, emergency medical service (EMS) and nearest hospital. The monitoringsystem based on wireless camera and Wireless security cameras are closed-circuit tele- vision (CCTV) cameras that transmit a video and audio signal to a wireless receiver through a radio band and it is used to monitoring driver behavior and drowsiness and position of the vehicle. The threshold algorithm and speed of motorcycle are used to determine fall or accident in real-time.
Monitoring and recording large time series of data and making them availa- ble for studying—are the key roles of environmentalmonitoring systems. This study produce review of three different measurement monitoring sys- tems (NSUNET, WAHASTRAT and MERIEXWA) with same design, which were placed during different time frame in the Northern Serbia (Vojvodina Province). Each of three monitoring systems has different demands and re- quirements which were addressed accordingly in their design. Power supply conditions for two systems are primary cells and solar panels, while NSUNET has constant power supply only during nighttime. Data is transmitted in MERIEXWA using binary protocol, WAHASTRAT using http, while NSUNET sends data over ftp. Same topology is used in all systems—each node sends data directly to the central location (in case of NSUNET two loca- tions are provided for backup purposes). NSUNET system sends data using specific structure and stores them as plain text files. It also has different ap- proach for time synchronization and monitoring issues. The main result of this study is to present how to create system that provides good quality and unchanged data from monitoring sensor to the end user while maintaining whole data structure transmission costs low. Furthermore, data collected from NSUNET were used in order to assess the influence of urbanization on regional climate modification, which leads to the creation of urban climate. Propositions for new systemdevelopment combining best from all three sys- tems are discussed.