Top PDF Development of methods ensuring balanced budgets in the medium term

Development of methods ensuring balanced budgets in the medium term

Development of methods ensuring balanced budgets in the medium term

Against the background of constantly changing economic and political conditions, the gap between theory and practice in the field of balanced budgets increased, which led to decision-making by the authorities in accordance with the current economic situation. Based on the peculiarities of economic relations in the Russian financial science, two economic schools are clearly defined: reproduction and distribution (Rodionova, 2009). In the practical aspect of forming and executing of a balanced budget, in our opinion, it is necessary to consider the provisions and the arguments of two theoretical concepts. The issues of budget legal relations and the balance in budgets investigated at the regional level (Kuznetsov et al., 2013). In addition, we consider it necessary to take into account the results of the evolution of a theoretical economic thought about the role of the state in making decisions on regulating state financial flows when choosing methods of balancing budgets (Bogoslavtseva, 2012). In our opinion, despite debates about the role of the state, the functions of finance and budget in the regulation of budgetary issues in domestic and foreign economic and financial science at the present stage is in the process of convergence. However, the main problem lies behind the external simplicity of solving the problem. It is choosing the optimal set of methods for balancing budgets for each country. The development of standards for the application of methods of balancing budgets in various economic situations seems to be able to strengthen the basic indicators of budgets, but this is a task for the future. Consequently, the reality of the current complex geopolitical situation is that it is necessary to use the best global practices of balanced budgets, considering peculiarities and a risk-oriented approach to generate budget indicators for each country.
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2015/16 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND 2015/16 MEDIUM-TERM BUDGET NEWSLETTER

2015/16 INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND 2015/16 MEDIUM-TERM BUDGET NEWSLETTER

These considerations led to the development of the 2011/16 IDP with its targets and the financial plan as contained in the 2011/12 – 2012/13 Medium-term Revenue and Expenditure Framework (MTREF). During this Council term, the IDP has evolved, while not compromising the five-year focus, to address emerging developments such as the need to have a long-term vision for the city, which was articulated in the Tshwane Vision 2055. This strategic emphasis sought to ensure that while short- term imperatives are addressed, key strategic interventions are identified and planned for to lay a foundation for the capital city that all would like to see in 2055. These key interventions towards remaking the city focused on the following thematic areas:
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EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

Genovese further explained that the DG JRC supplements the outlook with a partial stochastic analysis, taking into account alternative macroeconomic developments and yield levels taken from history. In addition to the stochastic analysis, the standard medium-term outlook is also complemented with “what-if” scenarios. These scenarios are used to change assumptions with regard to major drivers of the EU agricultural markets in order to show what could happen to the main outlook results if alternative pathways compared to the standard assumptions are taken. This year, the alternative scenarios assess the possible impacts of (i) the trade dispute between the US and China (conducted with the Aglink-Cosimo model), (ii) the drivers for protein rich crops development in the EU (Aglink-Cosimo), and (iii) the reduction of households’ food waste (MAGNET model). Moreover, the standard outlook is further accompanied by additional analysis on the results of cereals and oilseeds markets at Member State(MS) level (AGMEMOD model), the analysis of environmental indicators such as carbon footprint, biodiversity and soil erosion (CAPRI and RUSLE models), the interlinkages between organic farming and climate change (literature review) and the impacts of climate change in Europe (CAPRI model).
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EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

Concerning demand, a slowdown of the dairy imports’ growth is expected (as some countries are increasing their self-sufficiency). The main drivers for an increase of demand for EU products are expected to be population growth in Africa, income growth in Asia, changing consumers’ preferences and habits (e.g. eating dairy), and the development of cooling systems and food supply chains in developing countries.

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Report on the long and medium term development of the shipbuilding market.

Report on the long and medium term development of the shipbuilding market.

Table X LI shows the sums of the low and high estimates made by the sectorial analysis, as regards the long and medium term needs for new tonnage to be delivered from 1 January 1969 onwards, to satisfy the expansion and replacement needs of the world fleet for tankers, bulk carriers and cargo vessels, until mid 1980, distinguishing the proportion which is to be commissioned before 1 July 1975. For each category of ships, the deadweight tonnage, as previously mentioned, has been converted into gross tonnage, so that results may be compared with those of the overall approach. It must be pointed out that, as the relative importance of cargo vessels is much greater in the estimate expressed in grt than in that expressed in tdw, the wide range of these forecasts during the first period leads to a high estimate which is 60% above the low estimate, expressed in grt, whereas in tdw the difference is only 50% . On the other hand, in the second period, the range is very narrow: 7 % in tdw.
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EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook

Patty Clayton (AHDB) concluded the panel presentations in presenting her expectations regarding the future developments in the European milk and dairy markets, and providing some insights on the experience of the UK with POs and aligned contracts. As a general comment, Mr. Clayton briefly highlighted that the global demand growth for dairy products may continue to increase, but there may be a shift in where the demand will come from. Most growth may be seen in developing countries where population is the key driver, implying growth in SMP demand. At the same time there will also be an increasing demand for higher value products such as cheese and butter, primarily due to changing preferences driven by increasing middle classes. The global demand growth in higher value products may favour the EU dairy industry, as there is processing capacity in those segments (but also in powder) due to the complementarity in production and recent investments. Notwithstanding, looking at the decrease in EU farm profits (or increase in farm debts), the capability to expand EU milk production may be somewhat inhibited in the short-term; that is, the ability to take advantage of the global demand increase will depend on how quickly the EU farm sector can recover, especially compared with the farm sectors in New Zealand and the US.
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Report on the long and medium term development of the shipbuilding market

Report on the long and medium term development of the shipbuilding market

At the present time, our working group which has completed the revision of its overall forecasts, expressed in gross tonnage, is able to submit its new conclusions on the expected develo[r]

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Medium-Term Load Forecasting Of Covenant University Using

The Regression Analysis Methods

Medium-Term Load Forecasting Of Covenant University Using The Regression Analysis Methods

Forecasting is the process of making statements about events whose actual outcomes have not yet been observed [1]. It is the basic facet of decision making [2]. Load forecasting is the projection of electrical load that will be required by a certain geographical area with the use of previous electrical load usage in the said geographical area. Electrical load forecasting has a lot of applications. They include: Energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract evaluation and infrastructure development. It is a very essential part of an efficient power system planning and operation. This is why it has become a major research area in the field of electrical engineering. The time period in which the forecast is carried out is fundamental to the results and use of the forecast. Short-term forecast, which is from one hour to one week, helps to provide a great saving potential for economic and secured operation of power system; medium-term forecast, which is from a week to a year, concerns with scheduling of fuel supply and maintenance operation; and long-term forecast, which is from a year upwards, is useful for planning operations.
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Medium-Term Load Forecasting Of Covenant University Using The Regression Analysis Methods

Medium-Term Load Forecasting Of Covenant University Using The Regression Analysis Methods

From [15], forecasting methods were divided into two. They are: qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative forecasting methods generally use the opinions of experts to predict future load subjectively. These methods are useful when there is little or no historical data available. These methods include: subjective curve fitting, Delphi method and technological comparisons. Quantitative methods include: regression analysis, decomposition methods, exponential smoothing, and the Box- Jenkins methodology. Forecasts helps in the making of financial decisions, the creation of a system design, the development of fuels and energy policies, for environmental impact studies, rate setting and capacity plans decisions. It aids in planning by improving the decisions made by the planners. The basic boundaries of a forecast model are based on the basic boundaries of the modeler’s understanding. Modeling has the potential to help formalize the decision problems, extend the scope of the analysis, and guide the decision process [16].Load forecasting helps an electric utility to make important decisions including decisions on purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development [15].
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MEDIUM-TERM PLAN

MEDIUM-TERM PLAN

Recent joint reports by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and IICA repeatedly identify the different challenges associated with agriculture that require urgent attention. In addition, these reports continue to recognize the role that this sector plays in the development and prosperity of nations, in fighting poverty and inequality and in achieving environmental sustainability and food security. Several world and regional fora related to global development have pointed to future challenges in terms of prosperity, sustainability and equity in general, including the protection of human rights, poverty reduction, hunger eradication, improvement of nutrition, protection of ecosystems, construction of knowledge societies and development of inclusive economies, among others.
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DRAFT MEDIUM TERM FINANCIAL PLAN

DRAFT MEDIUM TERM FINANCIAL PLAN

The 2014 Budget Statement forecast an unallocated balance in the Consolidated Fund of £5.4 million. This was revised in the 2015 budget to £14.2 million after considering the ‘Proposed measures to balance the Consolidated Fund’. The actual balance was £9.5 million less than expected at £4.707 million. This difference is primarily as a result of lower than expected General Revenue Income (£3.3 million), and transactions not finalised by the year end such as proposed measures to transfer £6.1 million from the Housing Development Fund and £1.0 million from rephrasing capital projects and lower than budgeted property receipts (£1.6 million). This was offset by the earlier than anticipated return of £2.7 million from the Restructuring Provision and other smaller differences. This MTFP proposes that plans should aim that the Consolidated Fund be maintained at a minimum working capital balance of £20 million on an unallocated basis, to ensure that in the event that income variations occur, short-term decisions on funding do not need to be implemented to ensure the Consolidated Fund remains in balance.
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Medium Term Business Cycles

Medium Term Business Cycles

In section 2 we present evidence on medium term fluctuations. Roughly, speaking, we construct measures of medium term cycles by running a much smoother trend through the data than is typically used in the conventional high frequency analysis. We show for a number of key variables that the medium term cycle is considerably more variable and persistent than the conventionally measured cycle. These findings, further, are statistically significant and not an artifact of a small sample size. In addi- tion, there are a number of interesting patterns. For example, over the medium term there is a strong co-movement between output and both disembodied and embodied technological change. Total factor productivity (TFP) moves procyclically over the medium term while the relative price of capital (a measure of embodied technological change) moves countercyclically. Research and development (R&D) moves procycli- cally. The medium term cycle, however, is not only a productivity phenomenon. As we show, measures of both the efficiency and intensity of resource utilization also play a role.
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Scenarios of economic development in Romania   medium to long term forecasting models

Scenarios of economic development in Romania medium to long term forecasting models

In order to obtain plausible scenarios of economic development in Romania up to the 2015 horizon, we used a mix of forecasting models, from ones classified as “medium- term” to those covering longer forecasting periods. Based on the analysis of the economic transition period we mainly used three models: a) A sustainability function model (public debt and fiscal deficits); b) A simple econometric model, based on a production function, in which FDI and exports are introduced as inputs in addition to labour and domestic capital (also developed as a quarterly model); c) A standard Cobb-Douglas model (also used in the case of the main economic sectors). In this paper we are synthetically presenting the basic equations of the models, and also their main simulation outputs.
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MEDIUM TERM FINANCIAL PLAN

MEDIUM TERM FINANCIAL PLAN

Note: In response to proposals to increase States total expenditure limits in relation to additional funding for a new Sea Cadets Headquarters the Council of Ministers has agreed alternative funding measures. There is the potential to deliver facilities for the Sea Cadets without the need for further funds to be drawn from the Consolidated Fund. Jersey Property Holdings has held preliminary discussions with a third party about the possibility of a joint venture at the Le Galots site to provide Sea Cadet facilities as well as some community facilities and commercial development. Should this approach not be successful, the Council of Ministers will support the inclusion of the £800,000 in the 2014 capital programme as part of the 2014 annual Budget process.
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Local Politics, Budgets and Development Programmes in Croatia

Local Politics, Budgets and Development Programmes in Croatia

Local elections in Croatia take place every four years, parts of the budgets are planned for up to three years, while strategic development programmes cover periods of five to ten years. Technically, the political, financial and developmental programming cycles can be matched, and implementation of the programmes ensured. However, political programmes are generally vague and reflect short-term interests, budgets are every so often fictive and revised and development programmes grow into visionary shopping lists. Local politicians are mainly concerned about financing flows and this is what they are usually fighting for at council meetings and in various ministries at national level. Local administration then proceeds according to the wishes of the political decision- makers, without referring to any program in the end. Consequently, political accountability is lacking, fiscal management is not transparent and development is lagging behind.
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A Study on Effective Methods for Ensuring Privacy in Cloud Computing Environment

A Study on Effective Methods for Ensuring Privacy in Cloud Computing Environment

 Server side protection: The first necessary condition of cloud computing is that both of the server and database on the front end must be trusted has to be satisfied. The assurance of confidential, integrity and authentication is very important for those information transaction, data manipulation, and service provided by cloud computing on the remote side through networking. In order to monitor and process the Internet hacking, thoroughly comprehend the source, technique, and intension of networking attack and analyze their attacking behavior is a must for information protection. A honey-net has been deployed on the Intranet of a simulated enterprise for security purpose. Within the honey net, there are some honey-pots that store important data such as personal, salary, research and development project, military intelligence, or important news are installed on the server and database systems. Inside the Intranet, some folders or directories are open intended for monitoring and tracing the behavior and visiting frequency and record the tracks that have been accessed by the hackers. After analyzing and comprehending all of the hacking information, the corresponding derivation is quiet useful for enhancing the design of network-based intrusion detection and prevention systems.
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Ensuring the long term viability of the New Zealand seed industry

Ensuring the long term viability of the New Zealand seed industry

The New Zealand seed industry is currently vibrant, so why be concerned about its long-term survival? Nearly a decade ago Pyke et al. (2004) in their commentary on herbage seed production noted that the future viability of the industry would require increased profitability for seed growers, and measures to combat issues around land use and water availability. In 2012 factors which are/could become threats to the industry‟s survival, let alone growth, include:

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Balanced Scorecard: an empirical study of small and medium size enterprises

Balanced Scorecard: an empirical study of small and medium size enterprises

A teoria atribui vantagens ao Balanced Scorecard como método de avaliação de desempenho, em comparação a medidas exclusivamente financeiras. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as taxas de utilização e a difusão do conhecimento sobre o Balanced Scorecard nas pequenas e médias empresas industriais portuguesas, pesquisando a existência de fatores que expliquem por que o método não é conhecido em todas as empresas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com os responsáveis pela contabilidade gerencial de 58 empresas indus- triais localizadas em onze distritos portugueses. As evidências reunidas permitem concluir que muito poucas empresas utilizam o Balanced Scorecard e que a maioria dos responsáveis entrevistados não o conhece. A pesquisa de fatores explicativos permite concluir que o conhecimento desse mé- todo está associado a características individuais dos responsáveis pela contabilidade gerencial, como formação acadêmica e idade, bem como características da própria empresa, com tamanho.
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Medium-Term Debt Management Strategy

Medium-Term Debt Management Strategy

• Issuance market class: This indicator discriminates whether debt is raised in capital markets or elsewhere in the financial system. Colombian Government has decided to concentrate its efforts in raising capital in open markets for two main reasons: i) there are issuance strategies for internal and external debt, and giving depth to the yield curve enables fund source diversification and cuts in costs, and ii) this deepening of the curve makes corporate debt less costly and more available. This is not, by any means, a restriction to contracting liabilities with multilateral organizations, but rather a search for an adequate balance in funding sources. • Average life : This indicator encompasses maturity profile indices, which reflect amortization concentrations in each fiscal term.
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Medium-Term Business Plan

Medium-Term Business Plan

Plant Engineering Segment Service Solution Segment Domestic Business Overseas Business Strengthen EPC Segment Reinforce O&M Segment Expand PPP Segment Build foundations of Ov[r]

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