In the recent years, various researchers and engineers (Ilechie, 1985; Babatunde and Okoli, 1988; Manuwa, 1997; Obiakor and Babatunde, 1999; Olakanmi, 2004; Koya and Faborode, 2005; Koya, 2006; Olukunle et al., 2008; Jimoh and Olukunle, 2012) had developed different types of prototypes and concepts for mechanized palmnut cracking devices. So far, palmnut cracking operation had recorded certain level of feat, the process however has quite a number of deficiencies, notably, high operational speed of the existing cracking devices makes design modification a necessity in order to minimize mechanical damage and improve the recovery of the products. Other defects of the existing crackers include: kernels breakages, which may be due to insufficient nut dryness, uncracked nuts in the finished product, which may be caused by inappropriate spacing of blow bars as well as the high nut feeding rate into the cracking chamber. Fortunately, the knowledge of minimum impact force required for nut cracking relevant to the design improvement of the existing mechanical nutcrackers has been investigated (Ofei, 2007; Koya and Faborode, 2005). The focus of this study was therefore aimed at developing a modifiedpalm-nutcracker that minimizes kernel breakage for enhanced subsequent product separation.
The developed performance efficiency model of the modified system, based on Buckingham’s π theorem, showed adeptness in predicting the performance of the integrated machine in terms of its modelling parameters, which varied jointly and directly with cracking force, moisture content, coefficient of friction, shape of the particle and gravitational acceleration, and inversely with feed rate, shaft speed of cracker, speed of rotating incline drum and length of the slide. The overall predicted performance ranged between 88.26%-99.98%, based on the particle sizes. The results of correlation between numerical values of predicted performance efficiency and experimental results showed that there was a significant relationship (at optimum R 2 value of 0.996), implying that
Abstract- The Palm kernel cracker is a machine used for cracking palm nuts by palm fruit farmers and palm fruit products related industries. The conventional palm kernel cracker which uses a long rotating hammer for cracking nuts was discovered to be less efficient since it misses any nut that is not in its line of action or axis of rotation. Also by virtue of its design, it is only capable of cracking the nuts and as such makes the palmnut farmer expand enormous extra energy in the course of to manually separate the cracked shells from the kernels. A modifiedpalm kernel cracker with a cracking rectangular channel welded to a cracking flywheel with a centralized hole through which every nut must pass and as such capable of making contact with every nut and thus cracking nearly all the nuts was sequentially designed and fabricated in this project to overcome the earlier mentioned constraints. The improved palmnutcracker also incorporates two different set of filters (separators) for separating the kernels from the cracked shells.
requirements of some number of nuts, whose shell can be processed to brittleness and will improve the efficiency of shelling operation of quite a number of nuts. The machine can be modified for better efficiency by optimizing the parameters of design. Large scale commercial production of the machine could actually reduce the unit cost, thus making the use of the machine economical.
Abstract: Common traditional techniques of breaking palm kernel nuts in rural areas where it is produced involved a lots of drudgery and hazard. The goal of this research work was to design, construct and test the performance of a palm kernel nut cracking machine for local use at affordable cost. Samples were test-ran, cracked and replicated at different shaft speeds (r/min). with developed machine. The results showed that the un-cracked nuts were 2.50%, 2.00%, 1.50%, 1.25% and 1.00 %, the partially cracked were 2.75%, 2.75%, 2.25%, 2.00% and 1.75 %, the un-broken kernels were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94 %, that of broken kernels were 1.75%, 1.50%, 1.50%, 2.50% and 3.25 % at set speeds of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 r/min respectively. The throughput of the machine increased from 10.91 to 38.00 g/s as the speed of the machine increased from 800 to 2400 r/min. Also the performance efficiencies of the developed machine were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94% while the overall efficiencies were 90.86%, 92.12%, 93.58%, 93.08% and 93.06 % for the set speeds. The cost of the developed palmnutcracker was N150,000 (US$ 909), while the imported machines of similar capacity had market price range between N250,000 (US$ 1,515) to N300,000 (US$ 1,818). Conclusively, the locally-made machine performed well and was found cheaper and more economical for the establishment of small scale industry especially in the developing countries than imported types.
Within this self-contained narrative, the moment builds on our previous knowledge and will go on to inform evaluations of the characters of Sean and Tina by Fitz and, in consequence, by us too. It sits with a series of other scenes in the episode when he offers devastatingly accurate readings of the crime and the psychology of the perpetrators, moments which punctuate and mark the development of the crime narrative and its rhythmic and dramatic flow across the episode. These operate within the mix of brilliance and arrogance combined in Fitz’s personality leading from his display in the alley, managing the balance to a lesser or greater degree, and include his appearance on ‘Lenny Lion’, when he meets Tina in a pub and his interrogation of her at the station. The timing of the scene also promptly counters Bilborough’s cynicism, which is rooted in his own inability to respond to the space. Despite the DCI’s knowledge of the street lamp, his evaluation demonstrates none of the sensitivity to the possibilities of the space, or its finer details. 2 The scene
Oil palm is a common plant in the Southern part of Nigeria. Specifically the south-eastern part believes that it has some traditional values associated with it. Crude palm oil is one of the major products of palm oil processing plants with palm oil effluent as a by-product. This palm oil effluent is often accompanied by palm oil sludge which contains substantial quantities of solids left-over after the liquid must have drained. However, palm oil sludge are sources of pollution to the environment if discharged untreated, this is due to large oxygen depleting capabilities when present in aquatic systems (Hassan et al., 2013). According to Okwute et al., 2007 from their work titled “The environmental impact of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some p hysico- chemical parameters and total aerobic bio-load of soil at a dump site in Anyingba, Kogi state Nigeria.”studies on POME dump site revealed that the physico -chemical properties of the soil at this dump sites were obviously altered due to its acidic nature. Palm oil sludge are produced and discharged into the environment in millions of tonnes from both milling plants and individual households nationwide, thus, posing a big treat to the environment. Anaerobic digestion is the most suitable method for the treatment of effluents containing high concentration of organic carbon such as POME (Borja et al., 1996a). Projection depicts that 555, 457 and 409 million m 3 of
ii. The farmer community is not yet willing to be directly involved in managing the commercial business of the production of the composite particleboards from oil palm trees, with their own strength or in groups. The expectation of the farmers is that the business should be taken over directly by the survey either by the private sector or government Barriers to farmers' communities, especially in matters of capital, technical skills, business management, marketing results and others such as bureaucracy and business communication. This is motivated by the quality of human resources both in terms of formal education, non-formal education, poor and limited knowledge.
Cashew industry is one of the leading producers of edible nuts in the world. Cashew tree with botanical name Anacardium occidentale belongs to the Anacardaceae family. It is made up of 20- 25% edible nut, 2-5% testa, and the outer hard skin shell occupies 65-75% . This tree is abundantly scattered in Nigeria and is grown mainly for processing and exporting of the edible nut while the shell is dumped as waste. According to FAO , Nigeria recorded an increase in cashew production from thirty thousand (30,000) in 1990 to one hundred and seventy six thousand, eight hundred (176,800) tons in the year 2000. This is over one hundred percent (100%) increment and it shows an increase in demand which expected to be constant over a period of time. On that premise, Federal Government of Nigeria through the ministry of Agriculture (2019) has announced establishment of four (4) more processing plant to handle the excess production. It therefore means that more of these wastes are expected and so alternative utilization of the wastes becomes very imperative.
Construction works in Myanmar are a great momentum with the development of country and population with the advancement of construction industries, ceiling sheet is an essential building components. The basic constituents of ceiling sheets making are cement, sand, fibre and water. The major factors affecting the characteristics of fibre reinforced concrete are water-cement ratio, percentage of fibres, and length of fibres.
Activated carbon was prepared from nipa palmnut by chemical activation in phosphoric acid at different activating conditions. The quality of the carbon is dependent on the preparation condition. The optimum condition for preparing activated carbon for lead(11) removal from aqueous solution was obtained at activation temperature of 500 0 C, activation time of 1hr and acid impregnation ratio of 1:2 (acid/precursor, wt basis). The experimental results obtained were in agree
Figure 10 represents the average temperature profile received at the absorber surface. It can be observed that the temperature increase from 0 to 1600K in less than 500 seconds and stabilised at this value until 3500 seconds. The maximum temperature of 1600K obtained during this simulation shows that the waste energy from the combustion of palmnut shells can be used as a radiative source of a TPV system. Because, from the open literature it is shown that a typical TPV radiative heat source is normally comprised in the range 1000–1800 K .
Areca palm (Areca catechu) is an erect, unbranched palm reaching heights of 12-30 m, depending upon the environmental conditions. .Areca nutpalm is an monoecious plant with male and female flowers occurring on the same spadix. The stem is marked with scars of the fallen leaves in a regular annulated form, which becomes visible only when the palm is about 3 years old. Girth depends on genetic variation and soil conditions. Root system adventitious, typical of monocots (Laurijssen, et.al., 2010). The adult palm has 7- 12 open leaves, each with a sheath, a rachis and leaflets. The leaf stalk extends as the midrib until the end of the leaf and ends as leaflets. Male flowers very numerous, sessile, without bracts, calyx 1-leaved, small, 3- cornered, 3-parted, petals, oblong, rigid striated, stamens, anthers. Female flowers are solitary or 2 or more near the base of each ramification of the spadix, sessile, without bracts, sepals permanent, staminodes, connate stigmas, short, triangular. Fruits are monolocular, one-seeded berry, 3.8-5 cm long, smooth orange or scarlet when ripe, with a dense fibrous outer layer. The generic name is derived from the common name used by the people of the Malabar Coast in the south western part of India. Every year 3-4 inflorescences are produced. The first inflorescence on the young palms is produced only by male flowers. Areca nut almost always exists in cultivation therefore, the conditions of its natural habitats are difficult to predict. It thrives in the areas of high rainfall. Although tolerant to moderate elevations on mountains, it generally do not grow best in low altitudes. Being a shade-loving species, it grows well in a a mixed cultivation with fruit trees. Soil should be deep to ensure a well-developed root system with high organic carbon content and a pH range from acidic to neutral (Sunita Chauhan and A.K.Sharma, 2014).
The production and use of biodiesel has increased signi- ficantly in many countries around the world using numerous feedstock sources. Unfortunately, it is in nascent status in many African countries. Over the past decade, consumption of transport fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased at a rate of about 7% per year in line with increased economic activity (Mulugetta, 2008). This has had a great economic impact on about thirty-five crude oil-importing countries in Africa. With large landmass for farming and abundance of edible and non-edible oils, some of which grow in the wild, Sub-Saharan Africa is a region with a fairly high potential for biodiesel production. One of the promising sources of biodiesel production is the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), a deciduous tree which grows naturally in the wild, espe- cially in the savannah belt of Africa. Shea tree produces the shea nut which is processed into shea butter.
The cashew fruit is unusual in comparison with other tree nuts since the nut is outside the fruit. The cashew apple is an edible false fruit, attached to the externally born nut by a stem. In its raw state, the shell of the nut is leathery, not brittle. It contains the thick vesicant oil, CNSL, within a sponge-like interior. A thin test skin surrounds the kernel and keeps it separated from the inside of the shell. The primary products of cashew nuts are the kernels which have value as confectionery nuts.
The challenge for development of biodegradable polymers lies in the fact that such polymers should be able to be proc- essed on the existing equipments, stable during storage and usage, and degrade when disposed off after their intended life- time . There is a need for a research to develop new tech- niques for utilization of renewable resources to synthesize new intermediates/monomers for polymers for greener sustainable future.
The explosion of a conventional fire cracker generates a blast wave that spreads out from a point source. The blast wave consists of two parts — a shock wave of high pressure, followed closely by a blast wind, or air in motion. The physics of blast waves is nonlinear and complex. In general, damage produced by blast waves decreases exponentially with distance from the point source of the blast. This factor is very important in hand injuries, because injury occurs mostly when the victim is holding the cracker in his/ her hand.
Stickiness becomes a major parameter when producing rice crackers with high quality. The major rice variety in Sri Lanka is Indica variety. They are high in amylose and low in stickiness. So specially bred rice is used for rice cracker production. But the stickiness of these rice varieties varies depending on the batch. So the major objective of this study is to develop rapid analytical methods to select suitable rice varieties for rice cracker production and minimize the wastage of rice.
In this project, many trees like coconut tree, areca nut tree, and palm trees are so tall that climbing them becomes risky. Hence harvesting fruits and nuts and maintaining them becomes difficult. So development of a unique tree climbing mechanism is necessary which may be used for maintaining and harvesting applications. After researching existing climbing robot designs, a robot prototype was built using concepts from the existing designs. The prototype was then tested to determine the effectiveness of the design. The mechanical structure is designed to move the structure upwards against the gravitational forces in successive body movements similar to a tree climber. Tree climbing robot has the potential to be applied to various pursuits, such as harvesting, tree maintenance and observation of tree dwelling animals.
This study has provided GI and GL values for three common staple carbohydrate-rich foods in the Ivorian diet. The pounded yam with eggplant sauce and cassava paste with granulates palmnut sauce, which has high GI, and high GL are hyperglycemic foods these two (2) foods must be eaten in very small quantities. Rice with ground- nut sauce is a low-GI food but its GL remains high. This meal, which seems to be advised to the diabetics diet must be consumed moderately. These data will serve as nutritional guidelines for the prevention and the man- agement of diabetes mellitus in Côte d’Ivoire.