Top PDF Development of Nanosphere Lithography for Semiconductor Device Applications

Development of Nanosphere Lithography for Semiconductor Device Applications

Development of Nanosphere Lithography for Semiconductor Device Applications

As an electric field comes in contact with the metallic nanoparticles, it would cause the electrons inside the metal to respond in return. When the electric field interacts with the NPs at the resonance frequency, the electrons, although still bounded by the metal NP, oscillate in response. This resonance frequency is a function of many things, including not only the type, size, and shape of the metal NPs, but also the environment it is in. Due to this unique property, LSPR is not only used for optical applications for its obvious enhancement and specific wavelengths, but -tuned to detect a specific chemical or molecule [17,18]. LSPR provides many more degrees of freedom than its closely related counterpart, surface plasmon resonance, as the latter is mostly based on a structure of thin metal film, versus metal NPs.
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Fabrication of periodic nanoparticle arrays using nanosphere lithography technique and thin film gold as electrically enhanced catalysts

Fabrication of periodic nanoparticle arrays using nanosphere lithography technique and thin film gold as electrically enhanced catalysts

The technical development of nanofabrication is driven by the demand of miniaturization of device features with improved performance and lower cost in the electronic and information industry. This development would provide new opportunities for fundamental research in low dimensional physics. Particularly, regular arrays of nanoparticles (NP)s can exhibit interesting physics and chemical properties. Physical properties mostly studied in characterization of optical and electrical (Su et al., 2009) areas however chemical properties usually studied in biomedical (Wood, 2007) and catalysis (Johnson, 2003). Polystyrene nanospheres (PSNs) in this research act as templates in fabrication of periodic nanoparticle arrays (PNPAs) i.e. nanotriangles, periodic nanoholes arrays (PNHAs) and nanocups (NCs).
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The fabrication and lithography of conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers and development of their applications

The fabrication and lithography of conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers and development of their applications

Also of note is the difference in exposure times between this work and that of Rose et al. who typically expose their device to the vapour for 2 minutes and report a 30-fold increase in sensitivity (ASE) afforded by a 1 second exposure. Exposure times in this work were 60 minutes, however there was no pre-saturation of the atmosphere with the explosive vapour before being introduced to the detector. Since this above work was completed, ongoing improvements to the experimental set-up [51] have shown that a bisfluorene film gives a measurable response to DNB (vapour pressure ~ 10 -5 mbar) within 250 seconds when mixed with a nitrogen stream. The recovery time of the device can also be varied and takes as little as 20 seconds when the sample chamber is vented using a vacuum pump. Recovery of the device when venting with a nitrogen stream is of the order of 300 seconds while a measurable recovery to the output emission occurs in air over a period of several hours. In this latter case however, recovery is incomplete due to degradation of the film in oxygen.
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Uniform SiGe/Si quantum well nanorod and nanodot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

Uniform SiGe/Si quantum well nanorod and nanodot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

Over the past decades, there has been enormous interest in fabricating periodic semiconductor nanostructures, in which the semiconductor nanodot or nanorod array has shown its great potential for future applications in pho- tonic crystals [1], nanoscale transistors [2], field electron emitters [3], biomaterials [4], and light-emitting devices [5]. The well-known top-down techniques providing ac- curate size and geometric control in periodic semicon- ductor nanostructure patterning include laser interference lithography [6], nanoimprint lithography [7], ion beam lithography [8], and electron beam lithography [9]. How- ever, the cost and complexity of these techniques increase dramatically with the demand for reduced feature sizes over large areas. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) has emerged as an alternative nanofabrication technique, where a mono- disperse or multidisperse nanosphere template acts as an etching or deposition mask to transfer its pattern to the underlying substrate [10-12]. The sizes of nanospheres
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Maskless Microscopic Lithography through Shaping  Ultraviolet Laser with Digital Micro mirror Device

Maskless Microscopic Lithography through Shaping Ultraviolet Laser with Digital Micro mirror Device

Micro-fabrication is essential to modern science and technology. As the most successful and main manufac- turing technology in micro-fabrication, lithography plays a great role since its invention in 1959 [1]. Although li- thography brings the rapid development of semiconduc- tor industry, there are rare applications in non-semicon- ductor areas, such as biology, chemistry, medicine, which require non-flat surfaces to fabricate on. Different from lithography, soft lithography is another micro-fabrication technology arose in 1990s [2], and it has wider applica- tions. It is a kind of micro-graphics replication technol- ogy. Just like a seal, it can copy micro-models to any surfaces without considering the flatness requirement.
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Au nanostructure arrays for plasmonic applications: annealed island films versus nanoimprint lithography

Au nanostructure arrays for plasmonic applications: annealed island films versus nanoimprint lithography

AML received his PhD degree in Physical and Mathematical Sciences from the V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2013. He is currently a researcher at the Department of Functional Optoelectronics of the V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He is an author of over 70 scientific publications, including 15 journal articles and 3 patents of Ukraine. His research interests include the creation, experimental studies, and computer simulations of optical properties of disordered and ordered plasmonic nanosystems based on high-conductive metal nanostructures and development of relevant biosensor and biochemical devices. VKL is currently a PhD student at the Department of Functional Optoelectronics of the V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He has 12 scientific publications, including two journal articles and two patents of Ukraine. His research is related to the fabrication and experimental investigation of plasmonic nanostructure arrays for surface-enhanced fluorescence applications and development of relevant sensor devices. VIN received his PhD degree in Biological Sciences from the Institute of Biochemistry of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1973. He currently holds a leading researcher position at the Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology of the Department of Molecular Immunology at the O. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He is an author of over 150 scientific publications and 3 patents in biophysics, biochemistry, and biotechnology. His current research interests are in the field of molecular diagnostic methods, creation of different biosensor systems, history of development of
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Electron beam lithography and induced deposition for nanoplasmonic applications

Electron beam lithography and induced deposition for nanoplasmonic applications

that lead to discoveries of integrated circuits by Jack Kilby [72] and Robert Noyce [73]. Once the theory and concepts of integrated circuits were developed, the limiting factor to access the incredible potential offered by ICs and transistors was the fabrication resolution, which resulted in the research effort being directed there, motivating the development and improvement of electron beam lithogra- phy. Another key event accelerating the development of lithography systems took place in 1965, when Gordon Moore predicted a trend, based on a limited set of data points, that the amount of transistors per area would double every year [74]. This statement has become widely known as Moore’s law, and the semiconductor fabrication industry has kept up with the prediction for decades, although the process has slowed down. Considering the short period and small amount of data points, Moore’s law is arguably more likely to be Moore’s self-fulfilling prophecy. Moore set a roadmap for the in- dustry, and the industry has risen up to face the challenge and has committed considerable efforts to stay in the race. In 1975 fabrication technology enabled a minimum feature size of an integrated circuit transistor of around 8 µm; by 1982 that minimum size had decreased to around 2 µm [71]. The smallest transistor size set to become commercially available in 2017 is 10 nm [75]. The scaling down of electronic components has slowed down over the years, as the challenges faced to create the fabrication technology and methods necessary to fabricate the features become harder. Moore’s law has already come to an end as transitor size decreases can no longer keep up with the speed dictated by Moore’s predicition, and the continuing decrease of transistor size will eventually run into physical limits.
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Organic semiconductor lasers : compact hybrid light sources and development of applications

Organic semiconductor lasers : compact hybrid light sources and development of applications

spin coating and inkjet printing techniques, dramatically simplifying device fabrication. Two families of polymers, namely poly(phenylenevinylene)s (PPVs)[15-17] (Figure 2.8 (c)) and polyfluorenes [18-20] (Figure 2.8 (d)), have been widely studied during the past twenty years due to their great potential as light emitting materials for lasers and LEDs. Another two more recently studied types of organic semiconductors are conjugated dendrimers and spiro-compounds. The distinctive feature of conjugated dendrimers, such as the 1 st generation dendron with bis-fluorene core [21]shown in Figure 2.8 (e), is the separated control of light emission and solubility. The central chromophore core defines the emission wavelength, while the surrounding dendrons with surface groups confer solubility. The branched structure effectively prevents aggregation quenching at high concentration by keeping the chromophores apart [22-23]. Oligomers have a molecular structure between the long chain polymers and small molecules and contain limited number of the repeating units. Figure 2.8 (f) shows a molecule formed by two oligomers coupling to each other with a spiro linkage [24-25].
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Semiconductor-to-metal Transition Control in Novel VO2/Silicon and VO2/Sapphire Epitaxial Thin Film Heterostructures for Device Applications.

Semiconductor-to-metal Transition Control in Novel VO2/Silicon and VO2/Sapphire Epitaxial Thin Film Heterostructures for Device Applications.

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincerest thanks to my research supervisor Prof. Jagdish Narayan for his guidance, support and constant encouragement throughout this work. His commitment towards research and passion for science has left a lasting impression on me. I really appreciate the great degree of freedom he had given to me to carry out the research. His expertise in the field and innovative ideas played a very important role in completion of my work and my development as a researcher. I am also deeply thankful to him for his patience and useful advices during the times of my personal injuries. I also want to express my appreciation for my other committee member Prof. John T. Prater. His suggestions and advice during the weekly research group meetings were of immense help and have contributed to the successful completion of this work. I am also grateful to the other two members of my committee Prof. Mike Rigsbee and Prof. John Muth for their contributions of time, guidance, and expertise, which can only improve the quality of my dissertation.
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Experience: Design, Development and Evaluation of a Wearable Device for mHealth Applications | KA MOAMOA

Experience: Design, Development and Evaluation of a Wearable Device for mHealth Applications | KA MOAMOA

Wrist-worn devices hold great potential as a platform for mobile health (mHealth) applications because they comprise a familiar, convenient form factor and can embed sensors in proximity to the human body. Despite this potential, how- ever, they are severely limited in battery life, storage, band- width, computing power, and screen size. In this paper, we describe the experience of the research and development team designing, implementing and evaluating Amulet – an open-hardware, open-software wrist-worn computing de- vice – and its experience using Amulet to deploy mHealth apps in the field. In the past five years the team conducted 11 studies in the lab and in the field, involving 204 participants and collecting over 77,780 hours of sensor data. We describe the technical issues the team encountered and the lessons they learned, and conclude with a set of recommendations. We anticipate the experience described herein will be useful for the development of other research-oriented computing platforms. It should also be useful for researchers interested in developing and deploying mHealth applications, whether with the Amulet system or with other wearable platforms.
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Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

Lithography can be proceeded after autofocus. The signal generator is adjusted to the frequency of 2.2MHz after completing focus. This system requires rapidly ON/OFF actions for laser light source; therefore, digital output was used to control laser light source. The nano-positioning moving range can be extended to 120 μm and the lithography can be completed by controlling spot constant on-time and matching with nano-positioning after arranging the path. The photoresist S1813 compatible with wavelength of 405μm produced by Shipley company was used in this study.
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lithography techniques.ppt

lithography techniques.ppt

• Lithography is a process that uses focused radiant energy and chemical films that are affected by this energy to create precise temporary patterns in silicon wafers or other materi[r]

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Photonic Analysis of Semiconductor Fibonacci Superlattices: Properties and Applications

Photonic Analysis of Semiconductor Fibonacci Superlattices: Properties and Applications

The experimental discovery of quasicrystals [1] has given rise to a sudden breakthrough in the area of solid state physics. The structure of quasicrystals exhibits long-range order or correlations between distant parts, but at the same time there is no underlying periodicity, in the sense that a shifted copy of the crystal never matches exactly the original one. In fact, quasicrystals represent an intermediate stage between random media and periodic crystals, effectively combining both localization properties as a result of short-range disorder and the presence of band gaps due to long-range correlations [2]. The concept of quasiperiodicity was readily transferred to photonic crystals and proved to be of great value for many practical purposes [3, 4]. Photonic quasicrystals are deterministically generated dielectric structures with a non-periodic modulation of the refractive index. In the one-dimensional (1D) case, they can be formed by stacking together dielectric layers of several different types according to the substitutional sequence under investigation (Cantor, Fibonacci, Rudin-Shapiro, Thue-Morse, etc.) [6]. The Fibonacci sequence is of particular importance, since it leads to the existence of two incommensurable periods in the spatial spectrum of the structure. Such behavior is typical of sequences with a so-called pure point spectrum, which makes the Fibonacci sequence truly quasiperiodic, as a consequence of the appearance of Bragg-like peaks in the spatial spectrum [5]. This property has been demonstrated to be very valuable for nonlinear optical applications, such as third harmonic generation [7]. In fact, the latter is a two-stage process, and for each stage different phase matching conditions should be met. The Fibonacci sequence allows to fulfill both of them simultaneously and on the same crystal [8]. Studies of some other aspects of wave propagation in the Fibonacci quasicrystals carried out in Refs. [9–13] have considerably improved our understanding of wave transport in the Fibonacci quasiperiodic structures.
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Combined Electromagnetic and Drift Diffusion Models for Microwave Semiconductor Device

Combined Electromagnetic and Drift Diffusion Models for Microwave Semiconductor Device

Propagation and radiative effects become more and more important for the integrated circuit domain, today sub- micron semiconductor are operated under high frequen- cies. This is particularly important for the characteriza- tion of interconnected structures loaded at digital and drivers. Indeed, it is well known that electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and signal integrity (SI) are strongly affected by the geometry of interconnects and by the possibly complex nonlinear/dynamic behavior of the electronic devices collocated at their terminations.

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Cooling and Heating Treatment Device Based on Semiconductor Refrigeration Technology

Cooling and Heating Treatment Device Based on Semiconductor Refrigeration Technology

However, in the event of bruises, heatstrokes, etc., there is usually no ice or cold water around, and it's hard to get a heat source of suitable temperature when you need hot compress. Whether it can be treated by cold and hot treatment in time is of great significance for later recovery. The hot and cold compress products on the market are not easy to carry, and cannot meet the demand of cold and hot compress in time, and the cooling and heating speed is slow, while the temperature is uncontrollable, there is a certain safety hazard, so it is urgently needed to be safe, reliable and easy to carry. The hot and cold compress exercise therapy device.
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ASSEMBLY AND TEST PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR SCALABLE PACKAGE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE

ASSEMBLY AND TEST PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR SCALABLE PACKAGE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE

The Scalable Package Semiconductor Device is one of the newest and latest developed device in the plant, which functions as a diode for mobile and computer applications. The device is considered high density as its 6” single wafer is equivalent to 400,000 units compared to conventional device consisting of only 1,000 units. In addition, it is considered as a device with high complexity as state-of-the-art platforms are needed to satisfy its output process. Furthermore, the device has a very thin die and with the smallest total package dimension. The process of assembly manufacturing includes a step cutting method of wafers, compression molding, and in-strip testing, which are unlikely to be found on other semiconductor industries. Ultimately, complex errors and top reject contributor of identified critical processes are corrected and the target or required process capability index is effectively achieved.
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Design, fabrication and applications of microplasma device

Design, fabrication and applications of microplasma device

Karanassios [4] from the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) micromachined and fabricated a DC planar-geometry self-igniting, atmospheric pressure MPD on chips for analysis of microsamples of liquids, solids or gases by optical emission spectroscopy. The device consisted of a top microscope glass slide with fixed inlet and outlet tubes, and a bottom plate with gold electrodes spaced by an etched area defining the microplasma chamber. The analytical performance of the device was poor. Signal with an appreciable signal-to-noise ratio were obtained only from highly concentrated (1000 ppm) standard solution [4]. Also the lifetime of the device was short, only few hours of operation.
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Plasmonics : numerical methods and device applications

Plasmonics : numerical methods and device applications

共a兲 For oxide tric function than the core dielectric thicknesses of 250 nm, the structure supports conventional energy limit, the sb SP truly represen waveguiding modes with cutoff wave [r]

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Electroplating of semiconductor Materials for Applications in Large Area Electronics: A Review

Electroplating of semiconductor Materials for Applications in Large Area Electronics: A Review

This work describes electroplating as a robust material deposition technique with wide applications ranging from surface protection to large-area electronics and nano-technology while focusing on semiconductor deposition. The manuscript also reviews the pros and cons of electroplating techniques. The effect of growth parameters such as temperature, pH, stirring rate, precursor, solvent and cathodic voltage, and post-growth heat treatments of the deposited were iterated. The capability of electroplated material to be comparable and possibly superior to semiconductor materials grown using other cash intensive techniques are also highlighted with experimental evidence. Electroplated materials can be applicable in large-area devices such as photovoltaic solar panels and large-area display panels in which intricate shapes are required. Bandgap grading, alteration of elemental composition, and different conductivity type are also possible intrinsically with a change in the cathodic voltage. Other advantages such as columnar growth of nanorods which are tightly packed and normal to the substrate could trigger many new applications in the nanotechnology area.
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State of Medical Device Development State of Medical Device Development seapine.com 1

State of Medical Device Development State of Medical Device Development seapine.com 1

As this year’s survey shows, some medical device companies are embracing ways to accelerate their products’ time to market and lower development costs . By adopting more streamlined, integrated development methodologies and processes, they’re able to move through the design and development phases in less time. With new development tools, they are seeing the benefits of traceability beyond just compliance, and they’re reducing the burden of documentation .

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