Consequently, to encourage the competition between different pavements, the tools for designing robust concrete pavements have to be brought forward. In order to emphasize concrete pavements as an alternative in road construction, the design must also be competitive.
Feature driven development emphasizes on scaling the larger projects to develop systems of software systems. A well-described process will be helpful and efficient to implement software project.Process steps should be logical and those must be very clear to each team member. For developing overall models, system prepares a feature list, and then creates plans as per features and then features get designed and developed accordingly. Design and building of features performed in iteration mode.
real life. Therefore, the robot bot must make continuous adjustments to its robot’s direction as opposed to simply shooting in a straight line and turning only when a curve in the arena approaches. To ensure the robot bot can mimic human behavior in this manner, some AI techniques were used for implementing the bots in Robots, which are explained in detail in the following section.C# for the programming language, unity software where we worked for the game , autodesking for the background of the game . if we first talk about the blender the it is a software where we develop our own characters for the game or for the required game. Blender is the free and open source 3D creation suite. It supports the entirety of the 3D pipeline—modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, even video editing and game creation. Advanced users employ Blender’s API for Python scripting to customize the application and write specialized tools; often these are included in Blender’s future releases. Blender is well suited to individuals and small studios who benefit from its unified pipeline and responsive development process. Examples from many Blender- based projects are available in the showcase. Blender is cross-platform and runs equally well on Linux, Windows, and Macintosh computers. Its interface uses OpenGL to provide a consistent experience. To confirm specific compatibility, the list of supported platforms indicates those regularly tested by the development team.
Evaluation of Iowa Pavements - Phase 1. The objective of this Phase II study is the development of a fully-automated software system for rapid processing of the FWD data accompanied by a user manual. The software system can automatically read the FWD raw data collected by the Iowa DOT’s JILS-20 type FWD machine, process and analyze the collected data with the rapid prediction algorithms developed during the phase I study. This report, which can also be used as a user-manual for the software, contains examples or case studies for all three pavement types (flexible, rigid, and composite) illustrating the step-by-step procedure in using the software. Some of specific features of the fully-automated software system described in this report are summarized below:
As I was writing the final chapters in this book in the summer of 2009, I realized that software engineering was 40 years old. The name ‘software engineering’ was proposed in 1969 at a NATO conference to discuss softwaredevelopment problems— large software systems were late, did not deliver the functionality needed by their users, cost more than expected, and were unreliable. I did not attend that conference but, a year later, I wrote my first program and started my professional life in software. Progress in software engineering has been remarkable over my professional life- time. Our societies could not function without large, professional software systems. For building business systems, there is an alphabet soup of technologies—J2EE, .NET, SaaS, SAP, BPEL4WS, SOAP, CBSE, etc.—that support the development and deployment of large enterprise applications. National utilities and infrastructure— energy, communications, and transport—all rely on complex and mostly reliable computer systems. Software has allowed us to explore space and to create the World Wide Web, the most significant information system in the history of mankind. Humanity is now faced with a new set of challenges—climate change and extreme weather, declining natural resources, an increasing world population to be fed and housed, international terrorism, and the need to help elderly people lead satisfying and fulfilled lives. We need new technologies to help us address these problems and, for sure, software will play a central role in these technologies.
R. Edward Minchin et al., (2008) developed a model to measure the quality of pavements in Florida. The methodology adopted was as follows: identified acceptance quality characteristics regarding materials used in constructing the pavement; conducted focus group meetings to procure input from pavement experts from Florida Department of Transportation, construction industry, academia and consulting firms to generate model weighting factors by using SuperDecision software in which Analytical Hierarchical Process was coded; formulated the Construction Quality Index by using a statistical tool.
ABSTRACT: Roads are considered as the national capital of every countries and a large part of the development budget is spend for maintenance and improvements of roads. Therefore, it is necessary to use a management and maintenance system as a tool for decision making and optimizing the maintenance costs. In this article, one of the most used software for management and maintenance of roads, called Real Cost is introduced. The Semnan-Firoozkooh road was considered as a case study to further understand the real situation compared with theoretical conditions. First, the required input data were collected. Then, the software determined the most cost-effective alternative for pavement maintenance for both users and employer regarding the net present value (NPV).
This huge mass of waste also consists of fine particles, which nowadays is one of the environmental problems around the world. The demand of natural cement is too high due to its extensive use in concrete and rapid construction in developing countries, which leads to its scarcity. To overcome from this crisis, partial replacement of cement with marble dust might be economical alternative and a step towards sustainable development. The use of M40 design mix for pavement concrete will be carried for tests.
ABSTRACT: Various methods for development of design charts have been discussed. In Group Index Method the total thickness of pavement (surfacing, base and sub base) is determined. Also the thickness of sub-base is determined. The CBR method is probably the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement. The CBR method is based on strength parameter of the material and is, therefore, more rational than the Group Index Method. North Dakota Method is similar to the CBR method. Pavementthickness is found from the design curve which is between pavementthickness and cone bearing ratio. The Burmister’s Design Method is based on the concept of two-layer system, consisting of road surfacing, base course and the sub-base as top layer of thickness h, and the sub-grade as bottom layer of infinite extent. In this method, the thickness corresponding to deflection of 5 mm has been recommended by Burmister as the required thickness of pavement. U.S. Navy Plate Bearing Test Method is also based on Burmister’s two-layer theory. This method uses modulus of elasticity of base course and sub-grade. California Resistance Value Method uses California Resistance value, called R-value. In McLeod Method curves are plotted between depth of construction and CBR for traffic conditions. Maharaj and Gill have performed axisymmetric finite element analysis by varying different parameters to develop design charts. The parameters varied are thickness of pavement, pressure and elastic modulus of subgrade. Based on finite element analysis varying above parameters four types of design charts have been developed. Each of the design charts has three parameters. For two known parameters, the third parameters can be obtained.
This paper presents the results of fatigue bending tests on prismatic samples of recycled tyre rubber-ﬁlled concrete (RRFC) with different volumetric fractions (VF) of rubber (0%, 3.5% and 5%) after a long term exposition to natural weathering in Madrid (Spain) (one year ageing). From these experimental results, an analytical model based on classical Westergaard’s well known equations has been developed to calculate the minimum thickness of RRFC for rigid pavements subjected to high density tra c, in order to obtain a durability of these rigid pavements of 106 cycles of 13 tons (127 kN) axle load. In this investigation any value of the modulus of sub-grade reaction for rigidpavementdesign have been considered.
The purposes of a sub base are to permit the building of relatively thick pavement at low cost. The quality of sub bases can vary within wide limits, as long as the thicknessdesign criteria are fulfilled. The purpose of a pavement is to provide a smooth surface over which vehicles may pass under all climatic conditions and there is affected by the characteristics of the subgrade. Desirable properties that the subgrade should possess include strength, drainage, ease of compaction and permanency of compaction .
ABSTRACT: The construction of foundations of most engineering structures requires adequate information about the engineering properties of the soil and sub-soil condition of the area this is more important especially in the design and construction of highways. Usually the subgrade strength of the soil is mostly expressed in terms of CBR (California Bearing Ratio). Weaker subgrade essentially requires thicker layers whereasthe stronger subgrade works well with thinner pavement layers. The pavement and the subgrade mutually must withstand the traffic volume. The present paper focuses at investigating and establishing the sub-soil types and profile to determine the engineering characteristics of the underlying soils. Representative soil samples are collected and analyzed in the laboratory for geotechnical engineering standards. The laboratory investigations have been carried out on a number of soil samples procured from different roadwork sites of proposed site. The site characterized by low volume rural roads where the sustainable load is limited to 3tonns. The total length of road is 3350 meters passing through two villages. The load bearing capacity of the pavement is analyzed using the Plaxis software and concluded regarding the stability and deformation characteristics of the road.
This paper presents application of mechanistic-empirical methods in design of semi-rigidpavement for two sections of a motorway in Poland, with a total length 88 km. The main design data and assumptions were the following: (a) For economic reasons the design strategy assumed that pavement structure would be constructed in two stages - the first stage design for 7 mln standard axle loads 115 kN and the second stage design for subsequent 14.6 mln standard axle loads 115 kN. (b) Pavement structure in the first construction stage would consist of asphalt surfacing and two cement stabilized layers (base and subbase course) placed on drainage layer. (c) The second construction stage would consist of recycling of the top of existing asphalt layers and adding new 5 cm wearing course. (d) To minimize reflective cracking in semi-rigidpavement several alternative solutions were considered. (e) Due to various subgrade soils which mostly consist of clays and sandy clays, subgrade would be stabilized in situ to reach required modulus at the formation level below pavement structure. The choice of stabilization method was left to the contractor. (f) Minimum thickness of pavement structure was 75 cm due to frost heave protection.
This paper presents facts about various research activities that are taking place around the world since the last one decade on development and study of behaviour of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) using polypropylene fiber. Hence in this research work study the behavior of ECC using polypropylene fiber incorporating with Fly ash. In the prepared mix design o%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of polypropylene fiber is used. Also 30%, 40% and 50% Fly ash is replaced with cement. The experimental study is to present the effect of addition of polypropylene fiber and replacement of Fly ash with cement on the behavior of concrete under compressive and tensile test.
A mechanistic-empirical design has been used to evaluate the benefit of introducing Aramid fiber into the asphalt mixtures that containing coarse steel slag aggregate under applied load in terms of reduction asphalt thickness and extension in service life of the asphalt mixtures during its service life. The layer thickness reduction (LTR) concept represents an aspect of mechanistic–empirical design, which used to determine the possibility of reduce asphalt layer thickness, taking into account that the service life of the asphalt layer kept constant for the asphalt concrete layer with and without fiber. The second aspect of the mechanistic–empirical design is described as the Traffic Benefit Ratio (TBR) that shows the potential of extension service life of asphalt layer; this can be concluded if the thickness of the asphalt layer kept fixed for the asphalt concrete layer with or without fiber. Similarly, ultra-thin asphalt overlay was evaluated using MEPD to investigate its ability in terms of improve the service life of existing asphalt layer. The resilient modulus of existing layer was selected as 2500 Mpa, based on the assume that existing pavement with Mix1 lost 40% of its service life in order to evaluate the benefit of ultra-thin asphalt overlay in terms of increase the service life of existing layer. Whereas, Bisar software was used to analyse responses of the pavement section to the applied load in terms of the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer and vertical compressive strain at the top of the subgrade layer. These strains could be described as the most important responses, which used to calculate fatigue and rutting behavior of the asphalt section under applied load. In this study, super single axle of 898 Kpa was adopted as applied load on the surface layer, this load was selected to evaluate the asphalt mixture under heavy load. The thickness of the pavement section layers and its elastic modulus described in the Figures 12 and 13, respectively.
As stated above, the localized settlement of any one component layer of the flexible pavement structure could be enough to cause pavement failure. This demands that each one of the layers should be carefully designed and laid. Thus to maintain the stability of the pavement structure as a whole, each layer should be stable within itself and thereby making the total pavement maintain its stability. One of the major challenges facing pavement engineers is how to select the optimal repair strategy for a flexible pavement that is aging and exhibiting distress. This selection process can be relatively straightforward if the cause of the pavement distress is known. Unfortunately, ﬁnding the cause of the distress is often complex.
This rapid shift in equipment size has raised concerns within the pavement industry as these large and heavy vehicles are being operated on public highways and local roads. Pavementdesign methodologies and state statutes are not quick enough to respond to this change in the agricultural industry, hence there is potential for these vehicles to cause significant pavement damage. The agricultural vehicles are defined as “implements of husbandry” in the Minnesota statutes. At present, the law states that all “implements of husbandry” are exempted from axle weight and gross vehicle weight restrictions in Minnesota. However implements of husbandry must comply with the 500 lbs per inch of tire width restriction. Therefore, these vehicles are capable of legally operating on public roads with very large loads as long as the tires are sufficiently wide. Although some restrictions exist, they are typically difficult to enforce and most vary from state to state [3, 4]. There are still a number of states in the Midwest which completely exempt agricultural vehicles from any load restrictions. On the other hand, some studies have been conducted to address pavement damage generated by heavy agricultural vehicle loading.
By Huber and Heiman (1987) it was studied that the permanent deformation occurs due to lateral movement of soil subgrade and due to laying of week layers of HMA (Hot Mix Asphalt). It is the result of acting repeated loads which increase the pressure on road due to increase in traffic volume and cause movement of materials used in the pavement layers. In this the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) Road test report (1962) has given the main idea that due to lateral movements of subgrades permanent deformation occurs . The report present in the study of joint paper that permanent deformation is caused due to traffic volumes, axle loads and tyre pressure. A. Types of Rutting in Asphaltic Concrete: