Besides the usual technical and operational constraints, the authors considered temperature and pressure drop in their model. Zhou et al.  proposed and compared two mathematical models to minimize the total annual cost of a combined cooling, heating and power system (CCHP) based on two assumptions: constant efficiency and off-design characteristics of different components. Powell et al.  presented a dynamic optimization to find the optimal charging/discharging time for thermal storage, which is used to shift cooling and electrical loads. Three scenarios were considered for costs: fuel-only, fuel with revenue from selling excess power, and fuel with both purchasing and selling. Jie et al.  introduced an optimizationmodel to minimize the sum of pumping and heat loss costs for an existing district heating system. Four different strategies were considered and compared based on considering constant or variable flow rates for primary and secondary sides of the district. The best solution is when both the primary and secondary mass flow rates are under controlled. Jiang et al.  proposed a model considering wind turbine as one of the energy sources for electric water heater besides using solar water heater and gas-fire boiler. The authors minimized fuels consumption (kilogram coal equivalent) based on boiler’s set- point temperature and flow rate of the variable speed pumps. Ren et al.  developed an optimization for optimal planning of a grid-connected hybrid PV/fuel cell/battery districtenergysystem to minimize both annual CO2 emission and running costs. An extra constraint the authors considered is that the simultaneous buy-back and selling electricity is prohibited as a policy. The dynamic grid price, as a pivotal role, was neglected in the simulation. Fang et al.  proposed a static model to find the optimal plant supply temperatures and load allocation among the plants based on the real-time end-user measurements to optimize heat production planning. Automated meter reading data was employed to approximate the heat losses, flow rates, and nodal temperatures within the network. Kim et al.  considered several district systems simultaneously. They tackled the problem of combining and optimization of eleven real-world district heating systems to achieve minimum total cost and maximum profits. But their model did not include any pumping cost and storage and network losses for the sake of simplicity.
infrastructure to support collaborative design and manu- facturing. Based on the Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) mechanism, agents and an event-based mechanism, the functional modules of the systems can be linked and coordinated effectively. Shyamsundar and Gadh  devel- oped a new geometric representation named as AREP and a collaborative prototyping system based on this represen- tation to perform real-time geometric modification for components/sub-assemblies in an assembly model. In the work of Choi et al. , Web service architectures were utilized to establish a new generation of distributed design and manufacturing platform based on XML schemas and a communication protocol SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) to provide a neutral data exchange format and effective capabilities in interoperability, integration and Internet accessibility of services. From these works, some common characteristics can be observed and an important trend is that application programs in product design, process planning, engineering analysis and simulation are embedded in a Web environment as Application Service Providers (ASPs) for remote invoking and manipulation to support distributed product design and development. This manner can bring many advantages such as avoiding complicated installations for individual computers, easily upgrading application modules and lowering the acqui- sition costs for Small and Middle Enterprise (SMEs) through renting services.
Abstract. In Taiwan, rapidly increasing urban population has outstripped the ability of urban public infrastructure, regional resources and the surrounding environment to support it. This has led to social problems such as overcrowding, congestion, energy shortages, excessive building density, lack of green space, excessive waste volume, environmental population and crime. These have had a negative impact not only within cities but upon their surrounding areas as well. Consequently, this study proceeds to explore the main urban design factors that affect sustainability of urban development concerning Taiwan cities. Through the evaluation decision-making systemmodel and expert groups giving evaluation values and feedback, the study found twenty- eight items of key influencing factors with eight major objectives, and propose strategies for sustainable development in the future to improve the quality and quantity of urban design and cities competitiveness. This research, in addition to providing references to relevant urban sustainability systemdesign for deployment and R&D, also provides developing and underdeveloped countries access to urban sustainable development assessment and forecasts for the future.
One of the strategies for reduction of energy consumption in railway systems is to execute efficient driving by presenting optimized speed profile considering running time, energy consumption and practical constraints. In this paper, by using real route data, an approach based on combination of Genetic and Particle swarm (GA-PSO) algorithms in order to optimize the fuel consumption is provided. The model of train takes into account the length and mass of train, running resistance, tractive effort curves for each notch, signaling system, variations of the motor efficiency with respect to speed and effort ratio, auxiliary equipment consumption and rotary inertia. The route characteristics included in the model are speed limits, gradients, gradient transitions (and its effect along the train) and curves. GA-PSO algorithm combining the benefits of both the original algorithms GA and PSO is validated by formulating the optimization problem. The GA-PSO performance is evaluated by comparing it with a GA algorithm. Further, it is used for obtaining the optimal speed profiles for a locomotive equipped with a GT26CW engine on Tehran- Tappe_sefid block.
developing a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) with high energy and high power specifications. The main objective of coupling batteries and UCs is to reduce the current stress in the batteries in order to decrease it size and cost and to improve its life-time .The Power Distribution Control Strategy (PDCS) of a HESS has a great effect on its behavior . The common PDCS is the UC based PDCS. This PDCS commands to the UC to supply the demand power of the vehicle up to the UC limits and then the battery generates the excess demand power of the vehicle . In addition, some complicated PDCS are introduced in the literature of the HESS, such as the UC state of charge control (,) and another based on an optimizationmodel using neural networks . In this paper, a simple UC based PDCS is implemented for the SHEB. In addition, a new simple PDCS is established as a battery based one. The main idea of the battery based PDCS is to use the battery as the prior ESS to provide the demand power of the vehicle. When the battery power is not enough, the battery based PDCS commands the DC/DC converter to utilize the UC pack to provide the excess demand power. In addition, the PDCS charges the UC in the normal working modes, in order to prepare it for the next high power situation. Also, four parameters are introduced for tuning the PDCS performance. The Design of Experiment (DoE) method is utilized to optimize the parameters of the battery based PDCS.
The issue of how to promote local participation in the decentralizedplanningsystem is still a common theme in planning literature even after the introduction of the new decentralizedplanningmodel. A study in 2000 on "Rural DistrictPlanning" in Ghana, prepared by a team (led by Botchie) from the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) points out the inability of local governments to promote participatory democracy due their limited financial resource and technical capacity to design, implement, monitor and evaluate plans (see also Ayee, 1996). There is also the issue of no clear horizontal planning line at the local level, specifying the collaborative planning efforts expected from local planning authorities as they dealt with planning issues transcending their local boundaries (ibid). It is thus argued by ISSER and IIED report that the dependence -mainly for resources- of the decentralized government departments on their central departments still creates a vertical institutional relationship, thereby weakening "potentially useful horizontal integration of institutional responsibilities" at the local level. Such horizontal integration -being the focus of this paper- also refers to collaborations by multi-jurisdictional decentralized departments, responsible for local planning decisions and implementation.
The purpose of this chapter is to apply RO to develop a strategy for deep decarbonization in the United States. The United States currently has no federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation policy, has withdrawn from the Paris Climate Accord, and repealed the EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Given the lack of near-term federal action to address climate change, it is critical to evaluate other potential policies for emission reduction. In this work, we perform RO to develop insights about robust future technology pathways that achieve the targets set forth in the Obama’s Mid-Century Strategy (MCS). While the MCS may not be a feasible option from a political perspective, results from the RO can be used to inform alternative policy options that can achieve deep emissions reductions with a similar portfolio of technologies. The RO formulation is implemented in an open source ESOM called Tools for EnergyModelOptimization and Analysis (Temoa), in conjunction with a US input dataset to explore robust technology development pathways that result in deep decarbonization. To perform this analysis, we develop an emissions constraint to represent the MCS developed under the Obama Administration. The MCS is designed to meet the US nationally determined contribution under the Paris Agreement. While RO has been used for several decades, its application to energysystemoptimization models has been very limited. The RO formulation presented here is generalized, and can be applied to other ESOMs and datasets.
Abstract The European buildings occupy a key place among the major energy consumer sectors, with high sav- ings potential. The development of urban planning tools helpful to understand the right policy strategies turning the settled sustainable targets into real energy consumption savings is now a real challenge. Into this paper is described a methodology, for the mid-long term scenarios analysis, able to asses the buildings energy consumption of a municipality by means of a simulation approach and of a geo-referenced characterization of the stock. A thermal model, based on real consumption data, has been used to evaluate space heating energy demand; different savings opportunities have been simulated. Moreover, from the geo-referenced representation of the district heating network, through the integrated procedure, it is possible to perform the optimi- zation of the network layout. A case study application in Turin is presented. Main results are the evaluation of energy consumptions, total costs of the interventions and the release of policy suggestions. Thanks to geo-referenced maps is allowed to put in evidence criticalities and policy effects through thematic maps. The methodology highlights the advantages of coupling a geographical information system application and energy demand forecasting model to build up a tool aimed at supporting decision-making.
In this study, a multi-objective optimization is developed to establish the optimal design of a decentralized multi-energysystem, by maximizing the renewable energy coverage rate and minimizing the operation costs at the same time. To retrace the typical demand profile that groups together the different uses of a neighbourhood, historical data are used in addition to simulation of buildings. On this basis, a set of energy production systems are modeled to form a multi-energysystem providing energy to a neighbourhood in Nantes (France). An optimal sizing of the technologies is carried out using a genetic algorithm. Two objective functions are considered based on renewable energy coverage rate and operation/total cost. The study shows that renewable energy systems integration leads to higher total costs compared to a boiler only system, whereas when considering operation costs only, it is possible to reach a 12 % renewable energysystem coverage rate and realize cost savings at the same time.
Steering system in vehicle illustrates direction and corning at required angle. Steering system is a group of linkages that transmit the movement of steering wheel of the steering wheel to the front, and sometimes the rear, wheels. The primary purpose of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle. When a vehicle is being driven straight ahead, the steering system must keep it from wandering without requiring the driver to make constant corrections.
The solar energy is an important part of the renewable energies. Their abundance and low cost are two great strategic advantages, that they turn it an excellent energy alternative for developed and developing countries. PCM storage unit for a solar cooker is proposed for the this project work .The storage materials for temperatures applicable for food cooking range is required to be selected .There is need to design the system by quantifying the storage materials ,type, technical parameters and its incorporation in to the solar cookers or new device of the solar cookers. The project work is planned accordingly, but literature is reviewed in every aspects of the components of the solar thermal cooking system.
Nowadays, most of the research in the energy field is to develop sources of energy for future. Non-renewable resource like oil resource being over tapped and eventually bound to end, it is time to find new renewable sources of energy for the future. Piezoelectric materials are being more and more studied and researches because it is very specific generation and interesting properties. In fact, piezoelectric materials have the ability to produce electrical energy from mechanical energy, for example it able to convert mechanical behaviour like vibrations into electricity. Such devices are commonly referred to as energy harvesters and can be used in applications where outside power is unavailable and batteries are not a feasible option.
Several empirical studies reveal inconsistencies in planning and budgeting in many regions in Indonesia. Despite being the cause of inconsistencies, the budgetary authority of the local representative is unlikely to be abolished. It is reflected in the work of the local representatives in the area of budget allocation. The research is a normative legal research and supported by statutory and conceptual approaches; it is a reform-oriented research. The results show that the essence of the budget function of local representatives is supervision. Through this function, the local representatives supervise the determination of sources of regional revenue and expenditure in one year. It is carried out by discussing and approving or disapproving the draft proposed by the regional head. The local representative is still referred to as a controlling agency for regional budgeting and expenditure (control of budget). It is intended for the regional budget can truly be an instrument to realize community welfare through planning. Currently, the mechanism of budget discussion is long and complicated, making it difficult for local governments to maintain the consistency of plans in the budgeting process. The mechanism of discussion must be reconstructed in its concept as a way to maintain the consistency of budgeting decisions with planning.
2.2 Overview on Past Projects 5 2.2.1 Digital Household Energy Meter 5 2.2.2 Design and Implementation of a Home energy monitoring system using lab view 6 2.2.3 Meter Reading System Based on Xbee 8 2.3 Electrical Energy Meter 9 2.3.1 Analogue Energy Meter 9 2.3.2 Digital Energy Meter 10
The largest share of oil and petroleum product consumption is observed in the transport (81%); industry and agriculture lags behind significantly, by 6% and 7% respectively. Oil product consumption in other areas is insignificant and is close to the statistical error. Based on the ABC method it is appropriate to create petroleum product consumption models only for three major groups. Based on system dynamic principles it is appropriate to do so only in the case if all groups of consumption are different from each other; like it is in the group of petroleum products. Petroleum products consumption in transport is related to the amount of vehicles and intensity of their use; in industry it is related to the development of national industries; but in agriculture to the land use and type of work. A more detailed analysis of these factors will be presented later. It is important to note that the above mentioned distribution of energy use could be applied not only to prediction of resource consumption, but also to pollution evaluation. So, for example, oil consumption growth in transport will result in almost directly proportional increase of CO 2 emissions, but
While computers have provided a great service in the ofﬁce automation arena, they have led to billions of dollars in lost revenue due to attacks by both hackers and insiders. Most ofﬁces and universities rely heavily on their distributed computer environment, which for the purposes of this study, consists of workstations and a shared ﬁle system. This ﬁle sys- tem is typically stored on a centralized ﬁle server that is managed by a system administra- tor with super-user privileges. The need to back up the ﬁle system requires that the super- user has the ability to read the entire ﬁle system. When the end users want to read a ﬁle, the ﬁle is sent across the network without any protection against rogue users simply read- ing the data as it travels. A more sophisticated hacker could also modify or prevent the modiﬁcation of data.
illegal and will be prohibited in practice. Rosenhal  presents a cooperative game that provides transfer prices for the intermediate products in the supply chain to allocate the net profit in a fair manner. It applies when the market prices for the products are known and when the values differ. In the work of , fairness is defined as facilities burden sharing. A benchmark is set first, then the respective participant cost is compared with this benchmark and the objective is to minimise the absolute deviation of the difference. In this way, the sum of the unfairness is minimised, but the result shows the fair solutions sacrifice one third on average in solution quality. The Nash bargaining framework from cooperative game theory has been applied for ‘fair’ solution in different areas. It has been applied by Yaiche et al.  for bandwidth allocation of services in high-speed networks. Ganji et al.  develop a discrete stochastic dynamic Nash game model for reservoir operation and water allocation with the assumption that the decision maker has sufficient information of the random element of the game. Gjerdrum et al.  propose a methodology based on the game theoretical bargaining concepts developed by Nash, which considers fair profit sharing between two coordinating enterprises. The minimum profit of each participant is achieved first, and a non-linear objective function is formed as the product of the differences from the calculated and minimum benefit values. Ideally, the two enterprises should have the same amount of benefit differences. Gjerdrum et al.  also presented a model framework based on game theoretical Nash, which is applied to find the fair, optimised profit distribution among participants of multi-enterprise supply chains. It is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming model including a non-linear Nash- type objective function. A separable programming approach is applied to convert the model to mixed-integer linear programming form. The results indicate this method can produce fairly distributed profits with low errors on solutions.
In this study, two case studies have been made for the proposed work comprising of a pilot scale study for Iskandar Malaysia (IM) Region and a broader scale study for whole state of Johor. There are sixty six palm oil mils in Johor generating about 8.5 million ton per annum of palm oil biomass. Out of these, five mills are situated within IM region. In this study, palm biomass is categorized into two different categories, solid biomass as well as liquid biomass. Solid palm biomass is consisted of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm fiber, and palm shell. Liquid biomass consists of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The other biomass from palm is not considered because they are not used for energy generation. Since the electricity generation facilities will be placed on different optimal locations in the locality, therefore, only solid palm oil biomass is considered and POME is assumed to be consumed on mill site. Three categories of solid palm biomass will be used to generate electricity. The energy in form of heat and other by-products are also not considered, as this study is focused on decentralized electricity generation scenario development from palm oil biomass. Only the electricity production lines are optimized because they are subjected to government policies as compared to other products used currently for other smaller usages. The solid biomass is assumed to undergo three types of biomass conversion technologies named direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis to produce electricity. For each type of processing technology the generation capacity is considered as comparison basis.