vegetated land and water bodies. The same phenomenon was also described by Lestari et al.  where the built-up area in Jakarta progressively increase with average of 548 ha/year during period of 1997-2012.
Opengreenspace (OGS) is known as one of the indicators being used for assessing the convenience level of an urban area. OGS play some roles, mainly in absorbing the negative results of urban activities. OGS creates benefits toward environmental components in the form among others of absorbing heat, reducing noise level and air pollution level, and acts as carbon sink through oxygenation process. Through its role in amelioration of micro climate, OGS could reduce surface temperature which influences directly the distribution of airtemperature   .
In a sense, proper greenopenspace has favorably functioned, for instance, the local microclimate regulator, oxygen producer and provider of animal habitat and absorber of air, water, and soil media pollutants. The priority in the development of greenspace is the level of tree vegetation . In an attempt to contribute to their provision in the city; one of the state-owned companies, namely Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) seeks to create environmentally friendly and sustainable parts in Duri Kosambi Substation Area, as it is crossed by major roads which are considered to produce very high pollution. The greenopenspace planning in Duri Kosambi is also part of PLN's implementation of corporate social responsibility. Besides that, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) alerted Global Response to Climate Change in 1992. In this convention, Indonesia started to commit targets to reduce GCG emissions by 29% of its owned ventures and by 41% with international assistance by 2030 .
The development of an urban area needs to pay attention to the environmental carrying capacity. One of the way to achieve sustainable urban development is to apply one of the attributes of greencity namely greenopenspace (GOS). The purpose of the research are to analyze the types of land use in the years of 2010 and 2017, to analysis land use changes from 2010 to 2017, predicting land use change, analyzing the adequacy of GOS by area acreage and population number, and to determine the direction of GOS development in the Jember City.The research was conducted in the Capital of Jember Regency, namely Jember City with the total area of 9,900 ha. Methods of data analysis are the spatial analysis, analysis of population growth with quadratic growth model, Cellular Automata-Markov, and synthesis of greenopenspace (GOS) development direction based on potential land and the value of the land. The results showed that there are ten types of land use in the Jember City, those are forest, mixed gardens, dryland agriculture, open land, cemetery, plantation, settlements and buildings, paddy fields, shrubs and grasses, and river. A relatively large land use changed in the period of 2010- 2017 were dryland agriculture and paddy fields into settlements and buildings. The results of land use prediction with Cellular Automata-Markov described the trend of land use change becomes settlements (buildings) and plantations. The adequacy of public GOS by area as well as population still lacking whereas the adequacy of private GOS has been exceeded. The GOS acreage based on number of population is lower than those GOS based on an area. The GOS development planning is required to fulfill the needs. The consideration used to draw up the directives is the existing land use, regional spatial plan (RTRW), prediction of land use in the year of 2024, distribution of GOS, and land values. Development plans of GOS consist of two stages namely stage 1 and stage 2 with three priorities, namely priority 1, priority 2, and priority 3 with the total area 1,052 ha and funding require approximately two trillion rupiahs. The acreage of potential land for development of GOS has already enough to fulfill the needs of GOS based on population, however, not yet sufficient to fulfill the needs of GOS based on regency area.
We apply this method to Banjarbaru City, South Kalimantan province, Indonesia, as a case study because this city has been experiencing UHI symptoms since the capitalcity of South Kalimantan was moved from Banjarmasin City to Banjarbaru City in 2011. The local weather service station of Banjarbaru City recorded the increase of average airtemperature these recent years, from 27.8 ͼC in 2006 to 28.3 in 2014. The main reason why the capitalcity of South Kalimantan was moved is because Banjarmasin City has been too crowded with overpopulation and the airtemperature is too hot for its citizens. Based from Central Statistics Bureau’s data, the population growth rate of Banjarbaru City is 4.88%, faster than the population growth average in South Kalimantan which is only 1.98%. If the population and airtemperature of Banjarbaru City keep increasing while its urban planning system is still the same, like what had been applied in Banjarmasin City, there will be a possibility that Banjarbaru City can become the second Banjarmasin City in the future. Therefore, an earlier urban heat island mitigation is needed to prevent the effect of urban heat island furthermore by adding greenopenspace in the right location where it is needed to be cooled down.
Results of the study also concluded that social capital gives effect on innovation. These findings also strengthen the research findings by Camps and Marques (2011) and Kassa (2007). “Paguyuban” and association can also be empowered to strengthen the cooperation network in accessing the information, the adaptation of innovation technology, organizational training, health insurance market, market pricing, access to capital, norms of cooperation and other positive activities. The strong communication and co-operation are needed to be done on a regular basis through activities such as gathering, mutual aid, and community service run by local SMEs. This approves that social capital plays a very strong adhesive to create and produce innovations designed by companies both from the aspect of design, the variance and the quality of the product. Hopefully this research has some implications for the theory and the managerial strategy which soughts: the role of empowerment and social capital which can accelerate the dissemination and implementation of Green IT in order to improve creativity and also creative innovations of SMEs in Bantul, Yogyakarta. “Paguyuban” and association can be useful to strengthen the growth of industrial clusters in a region. Dissemination of information which is closely related to market access, capital, and the adoption of innovative products and processes as well as other positive benefits are greatly needed by SMEs of batik craftsmen. Empowerment can be done regularly by the local or central government, the universities and the community itself.
The above figures may be a positive sign that the public are already aware of the role of greenspace in boosting their economic welfare. The Banjarbaru City Government could build on this situation by adopting the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) and Ecological Land-use Complementation (ELC) concepts as decision tools for local and regional development, as well as to finance the greencity programme. GPI measures offer the opportunity to better engage with the public and decision-makers during discussion of economic, social and environmental goals and policies. ELC-structures, on the other hand, accommodate multi-party participation whose members represent areas in which participatory management approaches could be developed. These can thus be managed by different landholders and green-area user groups (e.g. community neighbourhood groups, horticulture clubs, allotment associations, green-keepers, farmers and various government maintenance staff). One such approach is adaptive co-management, which can be tailored to suit specific sites and situations, and involves collaboration with various organisations at different levels in society. Adaptive co-management emphasises learning-by-doing in management, with management objectives treated as ‘experiments’ from which people can learn by testing and evaluating different management policies. Ecosystem service valuation can provide governments, organisations and private landowners with a way of calculating rates of return on conservation and restoration investment. Banjarbaru City Government may also consider adopting the methods behind a success story in China; here the Green Credit Policy adopted in 2007 involved a multi-faceted approach, combining environmental and economic policies to combat pollution and national resource and energy consumption (Bagstad and Shamminb, 2012; Colding, 2007; Olsson et al., 2004; Folke et al., 2003; Gadgil et al., 2000; Walters, 1986; Schmidt et al., 2011; Aizawa and Yang, 2010).
The symposium focuses on new ideas to empower students to deliver a more sustainable future. It will showcase the best international experience of engaging students with an emphasis upon holistic approach- es linking student- led activities, the informal curriculum, the formal curriculum and the campus and city as living laboratories. The Symposium will challenge participants to consider the merits of holistic approaches, and explore not only what we are doing but what we are trying to achieve – the outcomes as well as inputs. Which initiatives are making a difference? Why? What can we learn from them?What are the new projects and partnerships that can take forward the agenda of engaged learning for sustainability.
simulation can predict the airflow numerically without creating a prototype, thus save cost, time and manpower. Hence, an optimum environment should be able to simulate by using CFD software in analyzing the temperature and air flow inside passenger compartment, in order to improve the thermal comfort level. Thermal comfort of passengers inside vehicle can be evaluated by Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD).
For this, the study was further divided into two parts (1) Identification of influencing factors for the greencity aspect of Nashik city and select the most significant influencing factors using Delphi technique and (2) assigning the weights to the selected factors and sub factors using AHP and develop the GCI model using WSM. The data regarding greencity factors were obtained from GCI scores. Afterward, the values for GCI for the six zones of Nashik city were checked for normality. The data set of six zones followed the normal distribution. The responses from each zone were collected. The rating scale 1 to 5 was given to that responses, after that average of each parameter is taken and put it in the model to evaluate of greencity index of each zone. From that index, we came to know that which zone is lagging behind. West zone has good greencity index on the other hand Satpur zone is lagging behind. Therefore the proposal is given to Satpur zone.
Abstract: Average global temperatures have increased over the last decades and a further rising trend is predicted. Such events are usually explained in the scientific community because of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, as evidenced by reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The paper presents data on the concentration of greenhouse gases in the territory of the Republic of Serbia for 1999, 1998 and 2013. Comparison of airtemperature as one of the basic climatic elements was performed. This is done by using the data processing meteorological stations in Kragujevac. Data were compared to the state of airtemperature for the period 1961-90. years and 1981-2010. years. The obtained results show that the airtemperature increased by 0.6° degrees Celsius.
Based on the results obtained, the city of Banda Aceh can be said to have a category of GreenOpenSpace that is uncomfortable. Replanting trees in the city of Banda Aceh needs to be done to improve conditions of comfort. Based on observations showing that trees have a positive influence on human comfort. The shade provided by the tree will give a smaller THI value (more comfortable) compared to the open land area. Therefore the presence of trees in urban areas is very important to control the microclimate in urban areas so that it supports more comfortable conditions in a city, especially Banda Aceh City.
Equation (2) is estimated iteratively by ordinary least squares (OLS) for all the geographical samples by distance starting from every city. In other words, we obtain 58 different estimates (51 for CBSAs) of the Pareto exponent for each city. After running all the regressions, we obtain 1,665,962 Pareto exponent –distance pairs for places, 204,959 in the case of urban areas and 45,912 for CBSAs. Single-city samples are excluded. 16 Next, to summarize all these point esti- mates, we conduct a non-parametric estimation of the relationship between distance and the esti- mated Pareto exponents using local polynomial smoothing. The local polynomial smoother ﬁts the Pareto exponent to a polynomial form of distance via locally weighted least squares, and a Gaussian kernel function is used to calculate the locally weighted polynomial regression. 17 Figure 2 shows the results, including the 95% con ﬁdence intervals. The results are similar for the three city de ﬁnitions: as distance increases, the Pareto exponent decreases. The decreasing Pareto expo- nent converges to the value estimated for the entire sample of cities, which is represented by the horizontal line in Figure 2. A possible explanation for this convergence is that, as distance increases, so does the number of cities within the samples. This situation decreases the coef ﬁcient (Eeckhout, 2004). The fourth section below discusses the placebo regressions run to test whether sample size is the only factor driving the results. Finally, the estimated coef ﬁcients of urban areas and CBSAs tend to be higher than those of places because of the different de ﬁnition of cities (González-Val, 2012). Empirical research has established that the city size data are typically well described by a power law with an exponent between 0.8 and 1.2 (Gabaix, 2009). In the case of urban areas and CBSAs, the average estimated exponent is between 0.8 and 1.2 for all dis- tances beyond 30 and 75 miles, respectively. Moreover, for short distances (50 –75 miles for urban areas and 75 –80 miles in the case of CBSAs), an exponent of 1 falls within the conﬁdence bands. Therefore, we cannot reject Zipf ’s law for those geographical samples at those distances.
To transition from the sanitary city of the twentieth century to the sustainable city of the twenty-first, new knowledge needs to be developed and applied to understanding the role of nature in cities and in supplying the resource requirements for their growth. Cities are, of course, human creations, a big factor in contributing to the drivers of human ecological geochemical change (Vitousek, Mooney, Lubchenco, & Mellilo, 1997). This review suggests bridging between three distinct research paths concerned with urban areas and nature: urban ecosystem services, urban metabolism and urban political ecology. New Urbanism inspired Farr's definition of Sustainable Urbanism is based around bringing everything closer together, using higher quality goods, being more efficient, and having everything within walking distance, but Sustainable urbanism closes the loop. The criticism of New Urbanism is that it attempts to apply 19th century urban form to 21st century cities and that New Urbanism excludes
Equation (2) is estimated iteratively by OLS for all of our geographical samples by distance starting from every city. In other words, we obtain 58 different estimates (51 for CBSAs) of the Pareto exponent for each city. After running all of the regressions, we obtain 1,665,962 Pareto exponent-distance pairs for places, 204,959 in the case of urban areas, and 45,912 for CBSAs. Single-city samples are excluded. 16 Next, to summarise all these point-estimates, we conduct a nonparametric estimation of the relationship between distance and the estimated Pareto exponents using local polynomial smoothing. The local polynomial smoother fits the Pareto exponent to a polynomial form of distance via locally weighted least squares, and a Gaussian kernel function is used to calculate the locally weighted polynomial regression. 17 Figure 2 shows the results, including the 95% confidence intervals. Our results are similar for the three city definitions: as distance increases, the Pareto exponent decreases. The decreasing Pareto exponent converges to the value estimated for the entire sample of cities, which is represented by the horizontal line in Figure 2. A possible explanation for this convergence is that, as distance increases, so does the number of cities within the samples. This situation decreases the coefficient (Eeckhout, 2004). In Section 4.2, we discuss the placebo regressions that we run to test whether sample size is the only factor driving our results. Finally, the estimated coefficients of urban areas and CBSAs tend to be higher than those of places because of the different definition of cities (González- Val, 2012). Empirical research has established that the city size data are typically well
From the point of view of users regarding the use of social media as a means of mobilizing social awareness, Sulistyo and Azmawati (2016) found in their research that communication through social media is relatively cheap and easy to access, so it is easy to gather people to engage in one social movement. If community involvement in mainstream media is very limited, but in social media such as Facebook it is more open, everyone can aspire opinions, so it can be said in that context social media has more power. Meanwhile, Barker (2009) detects transcendence of identification with defined group and collective self-esteem, ie individual identity derived from values, emotional meanings and knowledge aspects associated with group membership. Similarly, it was observed that adolescents who exhibit low levels of collective confidence are sought, to a higher extent than others, compensation formulas through social networking sites.
cuci bersama, dan area karyawan yang berisi loker untuk penyimpanan barang karyawan food court.
Pengumpulan data baik fisik maupun non-fisik didapatkan baik observasi maupun wawancara langsung baik dengan penghuni, staff apartemen dan karyawan food court. Dari data yang telah dikumpulkan dapat terlihat berbagai masalah yang ada di food court seperti interior yang kurang menarik, furniture seperti kursi dan meja yang hanya berkapasitas empat orang, sehingga pengunjung yang datang lebih dari empat harus menambah meja dan kursi. Kurangnya fasilitas seperti stop kontak juga makin mengurangi ketertarikan pengunjung untuk datang. Klient menginginkan sebuah desain yang mampu mencerminkan citra dari Apartemen Green Pramuka City.
Fig.4 illustrates the airtemperature distributions for three different geometries. Temperature profiles are uneven in simple type dryer design when compared to other two designs. The reason for this can be attributed to size of the drying air outlet in simple type cabinet design which is less in compared with the width of the tray. More uniformity in the distribution of airtemperature in designs (b) and (c) are found, which can be accredited with their cabinet design modifications like hood – type ceilings in (b) and (c) and inserting a deflector in design (c). Among all the three geometries hood type ceiling with deflector cabinet design has shown appreciable uniformity in distribution of airtemperature. Drying air temperatures in simple design cabinet type are higher than that of other geometries.
Other research to predict the concentration of PM2.5 in an area has been done by Gu et al. . They designed a new picture-based PM2.5 concentration predictor using pictures taken from mobile phones or cameras. Zhao et al.  also have proposed a multivariate linear regression model to get a short period prediction of PM2.5. Moreover, Huang et al.  have developed a high-performance machine-learning model to predict PM2.5 levels in North China Plain area. They used the random forest model with the latest Multi- angle implementation of atmospheric correction aerosol optical depth, meteorological parameters, land cover, and ground PM2.5 measurements from 2013 to 2015. As the study result, they can provide reliable historical data of PM2.5 concentrations in China.
b. Second statement “after graduation, I will open my own business” showed a very positive thing because the majority strongly agreed with the statement. Figure 2 shows that 70% answered strongly agree, 17% answered agreed, 10% answered disagree, and 5% answered strongly disagree. Interest in opening their own business from homeschooling students shows that they willing to independent later on. Interest in entrepreneurship not merely owned by someone, but can nurture and developed. The factors that encourage interest in entrepreneurship the environments that often found in entrepreneurial activities, school and school teachers who teach entrepreneurship, social partners, family environment, friends who can invited to discuss entrepreneurial ideas, formal education, business experience small. Interest in entrepreneurship not merely owned by someone, but can nurture and developed. Factors affecting entrepreneur interest in an object begins with one's attention to the object. Interest something that very decisive in every effort, then interest needs to develop in each student . Interest not taken from birth, but grows and develops according to the factors that influence it.
Likewise, community metrics also fall into the following broad categories to measure structural and compositional differences in species assembled at local scales: species richness, total abundance, species relative abundance, compositional and trait based (Smith et al. 2009, Magurran and McGill 2011, Hill et al. 2016, Santini et al. 2016). These are important to recognize when matching the measured community responses to the processes driving change (i.e., “Linking community change processes and temperature dimensions”). The total number of different species in a community is measured using species richness metrics. The net loss and gain of species translates to a change in richness. The total abundance of a community is simply the sum of all individuals in a community and is often related to species richness as a result of sampling effects (i.e., more individuals increases the probability of a new species being present). The distribution of individuals between species represents the structure of a community and is often summarized by the shape of species relative abundance distributions. A change in structure occurs with shifts in species relative abundances (e.g., few rare species versus many common species), but these changes are agnostic to spe- cies identity (i.e., the same structure, but the assemblage comprises all new species). Therefore, structural change can represent richness and total abundance changes simultaneously. Compositional metrics describe how both species’ relative abundances and identities shift and therefore measure the reorganization of species abundances in a community. The losses or gains of spe- cies measures the turnover component of compositional change (Baselga and Leprieur 2015). Finally, trait-based metrics quan- tify the diversity, range and values of the traits and niche properties of species within a community; these are often relevant to a particular driver of interest (e.g., species thermal limits and warming).