Despite its popularity, the concept of servicequality in the marketing literature is still ambiguously and vaguely defined. Several measure- ment scales have been proposed, but some of these take into account only the method of measurement and ignore the idea that the same instrument may not be able to be automatically applied in diﬀerent in- dustries or in diﬀerent cultures. Therefore the purpose of this paper is twofold: first to validate the perceivedretailbankingservice scale in the case of a small transitional economy of Europe, and second to re- search servicequality-customersatisfactionrelationship and the role of perceivedvalue within it. Content validity, face validity, construct va- lidity, convergent validity, discriminant validity as well as nomological validity were assessed with efa, cfa and sem. The present research is the first attempt to measure the relationships among the concepts re- searched in the retailing banking industry in transitional economies in Europe. Therefore, its major finding, that the perceivedvalue variable has a potential to be mediating variable between perceivedquality and customersatisfactionrelationship in retailbanking settings, could be of interest also for other researchers in transitional economies in Europe and also for researchers from other environments.
A statistical package (SPSS) version 17.0 is used to analyze the questionnaire data. Firstly, the validity and reliability of measurement scales is measured. Secondly, Pearson correlation analysis and descriptive statistics is conducted to analyze the constructs and test direct relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. Thirdly, stepwise regression analysis is used to examine the mediating effect of perceivedvalue of perceivedservicequality on customersatisfaction. By using stepwise regression analysis, this study may assess the direct relationship between independent and dependent variables as well as show the causal relationship and the nature of relationship between variables. It can accurately quantify the magnitude and direction of each independent variable, and vary the mediating variable relationship between many independent variables and one dependent variable. The mediator variable can be clearly measured when a previously significant effect of predictor variables is reduced to non significant or reduced in terms of effect size after the inclusion of mediator variables into the analysis (Baron and Kenny, 1986).
The first hypothesis is testing about the relationship between servicequality and customersatisfaction. The result indicates that there is a positive relationship between these two variables which is consistent with the research conducted by Cronin and Taylor (1992). The authors conducted a research in four industry- banking, fast food, dry-cleaning and pest-control for the purpose of identifying the interrelationship between servicequality, customersatisfaction and purchase intention and the result showed that the servicequality was the antecedent of customersatisfaction. The construct of servicequality and customersatisfaction is to a certain extent, highly related. Besides, the result of the study also supported through the finding of Woodside, Frey and Daly (1989). The author signifies that their study results also gave support to the idea that servicequality and customersatisfaction are two related constructs. Lastly, Sureshchandar, Rajendran and Anantharaman (2002) indicated that increase in either servicequality or satisfaction is likely to cause the other one variable to increase as well in banking industry and there is a high relationship between the two variables.
In other words, the perceivedquality of service will influence customersatisfaction, which will in turn lead to brand loyalty. In general, it is about the customer’s feeling of product quality and the features provided to them such as performance and reliability of the product and the promises made by the product brand to meet the expectations of the customers (Zeithaml, 2000). If the component of perceivedquality and satisfaction become regular then it is perfect for brand loyalty. Thus, perceivedquality has positive effect on brand satisfaction. Seen quality has likewise an impact on the brand trust as suggested by many researchers (Corritore et al., 2003). Perceivedvalue is defined as the value of product according to its price in the mind of customers. Customers do not know the cost incurred on the products. After using the product, the customer will analyse through feelings whether the price of the product is more than it’s worth or not. This is the point that makes a customer willing to pay for the product or not. In such situations manufacturers or producers will apply marketing strategies to create higher value of the product and services in the eyes of customer. The customer evaluates whether the product quality and services meet expectations (Olsen, 2002). It is a relative concept that can change based on the people’s experiences and expectations of the product brand. Some researchers and practitioners considered the relationship of perceivedquality and satisfaction, Olsen (2002), Darsono and Junaedi (2006).
The term Empathy with regards to customersatisfaction means the belief by the customer that the company understands the situation of the customer as portrayed in the message (PARASURAMAN; ZEITHMAN; BERRY, 1988). Customer expectation is the standard of service expected from the company by the customer. Personal value is the recognition accorded the customer as a partner in the business relationship as reflected in the communication process (GRONROOS, 2000) . Reliability is the ability to deliver the quality of services with regard to time, manner, and cost as promised (PARASURAMAN; ZEITHMAN; BERRY, 1988). The term Responsiveness means the readiness of the insurer to respond to the insured as required. Credibility is the trust placed on the marketer by the customer based on experience (KOTLER; KELLER, 2012). Assurance (Physical evidence) is the tangible proof supplied to the customer with regard to specific service performance (PARASURAMAN; ZEITHMAN; BERRY, 1988). The second hypothesis was proposed based on Gronroos’ definition of personal value accorded to the customer through relationship communication that would enhance the customer’s satisfaction.
The purpose of this study is to survey the relationship between servicequality and customersatisfaction and the main objective is to discuss the impact of perceivedservicequality dimensions on customersatisfaction in the airline industry in Ghana. The data were collected with self-administered questionnaire and interview. Perceivedservicequality was measured using modified SERVQUAL model. The Questionnaires were distributed to only international airline passengers at Kotoka international airport, Accra, Ghana at both arrival and departure Terminal. Descriptive analysis, reliability and validity analysis and correlation analysis, were performed to analyze the data. The findings revealed that all five dimensions of perceivedservicequality, namely responsiveness, reliability, empathy, Assurance, and tangibles had a significant and positive relationship with customersatisfaction. These results indicate in the
Factors such as servicequality, consumer satisfaction, and value are frequently viewed as key building blocks of customer loyalty (Chen, 2008). Cronin et al., (2000) provided evidence that customersatisfaction, value and quality directly influence behavioral intentions. A higher quality of service, perceivedvalue and high levels of satisfaction can result in positive behavioral intentions and ultimately loyalty. In general authors agree that servicequality, customersatisfaction and perceivedvalue are important antecedents of brand loyalty. But only a few of them study these constructs as interlinked. They are intangible, complex and relatively vague, but also strategically important concepts. There are only a few researches which study the relationship between these factors in the same context. There is a need for studying these factors interlinked in the same context in different service industries. No research has simultaneously compared the relative influence of these three important constructs on service encounter outcomes (Cronin et al., 2000). This gap generates a new call for a research to examine simultaneously the relative influence of these constructs towards brand loyalty in the service sector. Also, most of the studies till now are done in developed countries, so there is a need to validate these models in developing countries, across different settings and cultures. According to Bowen and Shoemaker (1998), customer loyalty is particularly important to the hotel industry because of the strong competition. There are not similar studies in Albania. As tourism is considered an important means of development, there must be studies on it. The hotel sector is an important part of the holistic and tourism industry.
The successfull of Islamic Banking on the global market depends on the company’s commitment to provide excellent service to their customers. The concept of Muslim customerperceivedvalue (MCPV) is composed of six dimensions that consists of quality, price, emotional value, social value, Islamic phisical attribute, and Islamic non phisical attribute. The purposes of this research are to determine the influence of MCPV to customersatisfaction of Islamic Banking at Malang Raya dan the role of religiosity in moderating those effects. One hundred and four respondents, who are customers of Islamic Banking, were involved in this research. Accidental sampling was used as sampling technique and instrument was tested by validity and reliability testing. Futhermore, data were analized by moderated regression analysis (MRA). The results of this research shows (1) Simoultaneously, Muslim customerperceivedvalue (MCPV) influences the customersatisfaction and partially, there are only three variables that influence customersatisfaction such as price, social value, and Islamic non phisical attribute. Other variables such as quality, emotional value, and Islamic phisical attribute does not influence customersatisfaction; (2) Religiosity as a moderating variable on the influence Islamic non phisical attribute to the customersatisfaction. The moderating effect is streghtening the existing influence.
There is growing evidence of variation in the outcomes of studies on the dimensions of e-servicequality that have surfaced in an attempt to address the key attributes of servicequality of online services, directly or indirectly, (Han & Baek, 2004; Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Malhotra, 2005). Barnes and Vidgen (2003) developed the Web Quality instrument (WebQual) with 24 items, specifically for online servicequality measurement. Seven dimensions, namely reliability, competence, responsiveness, access, credibility, communication and understanding of the individual were established. The model developed by Parasuraman et al. (2005), referred to as the electronic servicequality instrument (E-SQ) comprised seven dimensions, namely efficiency, fulfilment, system availability, privacy, responsiveness, compensation and contact. Various other researchers used modified versions of e-servicequality dimensions (Santos, 2003; Yang & Fang, 2004; Jun & Cai, 2001) to measure these dimensions in different types of retail settings.
loyalty strategy from an only-satisfaction strategy can substantially increase customer retention and reduce marketing costs (Stan, Caemmerer, & Cattan-Jallet, 2013). Camarero et al. (2005) found from a Spanish case study that customer loyalty has positive impacts on both a firm’s mar- ket performance and its economic performance. Generally, customer loyalty has been referred to as the link between customer attitude, repeat purchasing, and financial performance (Heskett et al., 2008). In terms of the antecedents of customer loyalty, a number of constructs have been proposed by previous studies. Yee, Yeung, and Cheng (2010) found that employee loyalty, servicequality, and customersatisfaction have a positive influence on customer loyalty in a high-contact service industry. In addition, according to Oliver (1999), loyalty can be developed through differ- ent phases, which are cognitive sense, affective sense, conative manner, and finally behavioural manner. The first three phases are usually referred as attitudinal loyalty which are dependent on the experiences that customers have with service providers (overall satisfaction). Completing these three stages can lead to the behavioral loyalty as the final stage. This evolvement process of customer loyalty is confirmed by a meta-analysis about the antecedents of customer loyalty by Pan, Sheng and Xie (2012). In this study, by conducting a meta-analysis, the authors also found the empirical evidences supporting that customersatisfaction, trust, commitment and loyalty program memberships have positive influences on customer loyalty. In addition, the product- related attributes such as quality, value, brand reputation and switching cost also determine level of loyalty from customers. In this study, the author attempt to evaluate the relationships between customer loyalty and two other constructs which are popular in relationship marketing, espe- cially in service context industry, customersatisfaction and servicequality.
Primary data is the main source for this study when the quantitative method was conducted. It mentions to the data that this study have through data observing or directly collecting from survey, observation or experimentation. The questionnaires were conducted by survey to get primary data. Survey was conducted by sent correctly to customers who use internet bankingservice at Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Foreign Trade of Vietnam (Vietcombank) Binh Duong Branch, Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade (Vietinbank) Binh Duong Branch, Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Agribank) Di An transaction office and Investment and Industrial Development Corporation (Becamex IDC) Binh Duong Province with the help of staff in these companies. Respondents were required to do this survey as soon as possible and the completely survey will be collected right away. Moreover, through some related theories and researches, primary data may be also collected with carefully review.
Abstract: Drawn on 428 online banking users, this study proposed and tests a scale to assess online servicequality. Thereafter, the study also proposed and tests a structural model that to assess the mediation role of perceivedvalue and customersatisfaction between the constructs of servicequality and customer loyalty. The scale validity was confirmed by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the causal effects and the mediation role was assessed based on Sobel tests. Five dimensions including Efficiency, Performance Capacity, Security, Responsiveness and Contact were confirmed as underlying factors of perceived online servicequality. Perceivedservicequality was shown to have direct/indirect effects on customer loyalty through perceivedvalue and customersatisfaction. Besides, perceivedvalue and customersatisfaction were also found to directly and positively affect customer loyalty. However, only their partially mediation effects were confirmed. Hence, antecedents such as online servicequality, perceivedvalue and satisfaction can be used to forecast customer loyalty online service. However, it is more important to increase customerperceivedvalue and customersatisfaction in the first place by enhancing servicequality, instead of fixing what went wrong to overcome dissatisfaction.
Reliability refers to the ability to deliver expected standard at all time, how the organization handle customer services problem, performing right services for the first time, providing services within promised time and maintaining error free record. In regards to ATMs services, Jay and Barry (2014) noted that the reliability of machine parts or product parts is considered as consistently good in quality or performance which is able to be treated at any time. For ATM environment condition and technical reliability are equated to reliable design that is functional. Stiakakis and Georgiadis (2009) found reliability as fundamental criterion of superior electronic servicequality. Yang and Fang (2004) stated that reliability consists of accurate order of fulfilment, accurate record, accurate quote, accurate billing, and accurate calculation of commissions which keep the service promising to the customer. There are the two important factors that give effects to the bankingservice; consistency and dependability. First, consistency refers to uniformity or compatibility between things or parts. This means that the quality is always the same, doing things in the same way and having the same standards. Frei et al. (1999) suggest that servicequality should include uniformity of service output around an ideal target value determined by customers. Banks need to address the changing needs in predictable and consistent manner. Second, dependability refers to the assurance of providing services as expected. Trust is another key factor influencing the adoption of various types of service in electronic banking (Rexha et al., 2003). For that reason, ATM security has been considered as one of major concerns for financial institutions. While ATM dominated the machine-customer interaction, expectation of occurrence for errors during employee-customer interaction at bank premises can be minimised. For that reason, ATMs should provide accurate transaction such as correct details of customers, routine transaction records, and receipt printing. Information accuracy and order accuracy is another critical dimension in providing online servicequality (Collier & Bienstock, 2006).
management to take a look at strategies that emphasise relationship creation in service delivery which lead to stronger customer loyalty in retailbanking. The study further shows that customers who perceive their bank staffs to give caring, customized service and individualised attention) tend to be more loyal than those who perceive their banks to be investing more in tangibles. Put another way, providing customers with care and individualised attention is more important than providing a conducive business environment to the customer that appeals emotional aspects of the service experience. Therefore, bank managers would be well advised to focus on the employee training programmes so that they can offer personalized or customized service. This will result in the development and maintenance of a long-term relationship with the customers. Customerperceivedvalue one of the critical success factors that influence the competitiveness of retailbanking organizations. A bank can differentiate itself from competitors by providing high customerperceivedvalue. The findings of the study showed that the dimensions of customerperceivedvalue can be used by banks to attract and maintain their customers. To survive in the competitive banking industry, banks have to develop new strategies which will satisfy their customers. Since it is impossible to have product differentiation in a competitive environment like the banking industry (Ioanna, 2002) as all banks are delivering the same products, bank management should try to differentiate their firm from competitors through service delivery. Today’s customers have more choices for their financial needs than ever before (Harwood, 2002).
customerperceivedvalue in banking services includes functional valuedevelopment, functional value of personnel, functional value of service, functional value of price, emotional value, and social value. Mahmoud and Abduh (2014) stated that perceivedvalue positively affects interest to support Sharia banking in Russia. Rasyeed and Abadi (2014) stated that there is a significant relationship between perceivedvalue and consumer loyalty. Chang and Wang (2011) argued that customerperceivedvalue affects customersatisfaction and loyalty. Rahayu (2016) stated that there are three variables to affect partially on customersatisfaction, namely emotional value, social value, and Islamic nonphysical attribute. The other three variables of quality, price, and Islamic physical attributes have no partial effect on customersatisfaction. One concept development of customerperceivedvalue is Muslim customerperceivedvalue (MCPV). It can be applied to Sharia banking industry as recommended by Eid and Ghohary (2015). During this time the concept has been applied at Muslim countries in Middle East. Sharia banking industry in Indonesia has largest Muslim consumers and largest potential market that has not been serviced well. Some Muslim societies are even fanatical to choose Islamic banks with profit sharing rule, not interest or usury. But on other hand, growth rate of Sharia banking in Indonesia is very slow compared with conventional banking growth rate. There is still a lack of research to specialize in concepts and values of Muslim consumers becomes the basis for further research in order to test and develop the existing concepts. Mokhlis (2009) stated that Muslim consumers have unique characteristics when they decide to buy anything, they always consider the doctrine of their religion, which is Islam. Furthermore, religiosity is recognized as one most important culture to influence on consumers’ behavior
The instrument was designed based on the previous literature. Each construct was measured using seven-point Likert scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). Specifically, items for functional value, emotional value and economic value were operationalized based on ’s study. Environmental value is a newly developed construct, and its measurement items were adapted from the construct of “sustainability” in ’s study. Example items for “environmental value” is described as follows: “The bicycle sharing service is beneficial to reduce environment pollution” and “The bicycle sharing service is a sustainable mode of consumption”. Satisfaction and continuance intention were designed drawing upon ’s study. The instrument was refined to better fit the research context of bicycle sharing service. A pilot study was conducted before the final data collection. A total of 96 college students with bicycle sharing usage experiences were invited to complete the questionnaires, and 92 valid questionnaires were received. We deleted items with factor loadings lower than 0.7 to improve the reliability and validity of the constructs . Table 2 describes the items for each construct and corresponding references.
Perceivedvalue variabel has a significant effect on customersatisfaction. It can be seen from the value of the path coefficient of 0.320 with a probability value (prob.) of 0.002 which smaller than the value of α = 0.05 (Hypothesis 3, accepted). It means that higher level of perceivedvalue can produce higher level of customersatisfaction. Conceptually, companies that able to deliver more value than competitors will win the competition. This was revealed by Mittal and Sheth (2001) through the concept of valuespace. There are three main components in the concept of customervalue space, namely: performance, price, and personalization (3P's of Value Space). The results also show that servicequality was significantly affects to customersatisfaction through perceivedvalue mediation. The amount of indirect effect of servicequality toward customersatisfaction was 0.123 = (0.386 x 0.320), (Hypothesis 4, accepted).
Nowadays, consumer lifestyles have shifted to favor more convenience-oriented and time-saving options for meal occasions, as more and more Malaysians have less time and energy to prepare scratch meals at home. This trend has not only boosted demand for all foodservice subsectors in the country, but is being reflected in the changing landscape of the industry. There are many fast food restaurants that operate in Malaysia. For new restaurant or restaurants that are still in development, they have to compete with the restaurants that already have brand awareness and consumer loyalty. In addition to ensuring that the food is delicious, we need to ensure that the service provided can satisfactioncustomer. In this era, technology like IT is important to competitive with another restaurant that has been successful additionally technology usage may serve as a source of competitive advantage to the fast food restaurants. Therefore, the online service used to measure the level of customersatisfaction. Fast Food Restaurant needs to adopt the perceivedservicequality (SERVQUAL) to enhance customersatisfaction in order to compete in this industry. The importance of servicequality in improving customersatisfaction and loyalty in traditional business settings has been established through the use of such instruments as SERVQUAL. However, these established servicequality dimensions, or similar measures, have not been applied to electronic commerce settings. This finding, E-QUAL more suitable to be used to measure user satisfaction with the online service. E-QUAL is based on the proven conceptual framework of the SERVQUAL instrument and is adjusted for the unique attributes of the electronic commerce.
Dari kesimpulan yang ada maka ada be- berapa masukan yang dapat dijadikan acuan bagi manajer perusahaan provider internet agar dapat terus meningkatkan customer re- tention yaitu dengan meningkatkan customersatisfaction, customer trust, switching barriers, customerperceivedvalue dan customerservicequality . Berdasarkan temuan penelitian ini me- nunjukkan bahwa switching barriers dan cus- tomer satisfaction merupakan variabel yang memiliki pengaruh langsung dan lebih besar terhadap customer retention. Sedangkan cus- tomer trust tidak memiliki pengaruh terhadap customer retention . Oleh karena itu, perusa- haan provider internet ini (Telkom dan First Media) perlu melakukan relationship strategi yang lebih dalam meningkatkan switching barriers dan customersatisfaction dan ba- gaimana membangun kembali customer trust dalam rangka meningkatkan customer reten- tion. Adapun masukan-masukan untuk provider internet ini yaitu :
Keller (1993) defined Brand image: "perceptions about a brand as refer to any brand aspect within the consumer memory “lee, lee,wu. (2011) and defined customersatisfaction as the “customers’ evaluation of a product or service in terms of whether that product or service has met their needs and expectations”. Anand Kumar Jaiswal (2008) the purpose of this study was to investigate of the perception servicequality and examine the Interaction effect of servicequality, brand image on customersatisfaction when seeking treatment in private healthcare settings in the Sudan. Despite the many studies that covered the relationship between quality of service and customersatisfaction (Ehigie, Megan Taylor, (2009); caruana (2002); Baker (2000); Fatma(2014); Lo, Mahamad, Ramayah, Mosahab, (2010)) , however it was only in developed countries, and these studies did not cover the interaction between the quality of service and the brand and its impact on customersatisfaction. This study will contribute knowledge to the theory and practice of servicequality, brand image and customersatisfaction particularly for medical firms. Its theoretical significance will add more insights compared to previous empirical studies done in this area, especially on the issue of servicequality, For policy makers as medical institutions, this study provides a framework on the determinants of servicequality , brand image and satisfaction in developing countries.