Top PDF Developmental social case work : a process model

Developmental social case work : a process model

Developmental social case work : a process model

Social development, as it has been conceptualised in South Africa, rests on five pillars (Patel, 2005): 1. First, a rights-based approach is adopted (Lombard and Twikirize, 2014), aligned with the Bill of Human Rights in the South African Constitution (RSA, 1996). Key human rights are prioritised, including the right to basic services (such as housing, education and health care) and equal access to social welfare services regardless of race. Ife (2012: 42-71) details three “generations” of human rights that are of concern to social work, viz. civil and political rights (which have been the main focus of human rights movements); economic, social and cultural rights (which have been the main focus of social work); and collective rights to benefit from economic growth and to live in harmonious and environmentally safe contexts (which have emerged only more recently). Midgley (2010) argues that human rights are a prerequisite for authentic citizenship and thus securing the human rights of all peoples is a central role of social development.
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Criminal Sanction of Social Work in the Corruption Case in Indonesia

Criminal Sanction of Social Work in the Corruption Case in Indonesia

In connection with the provision of additional criminal sanctions of social work to corruptors to achieve legal certainty, justice and legal benefits, it is necessary to establish institutions such as the Institute for Implementing criminal sanctions of social work (LPPKS) under the Ministry of Social Affairs. The authority to supervise the implementation of criminal sanctions of social work must have normative, effective and efficient and accountable legitimacy. The patterns of resolving humiliating corrupt convicts by involving the community and the Ministry of Social Affairs provoked a positive reaction that the recovery of values disturbed by corruption crime was not only converted by the deprivation of liberty and property of corruptor but also the dignity of human beings as sinners. This is like the conversion theory that researchers use to analyze this part of the labeling and stigmatization process of corruptors which does not end when physical punishment is in prison but outside the prison through means of repentance and remorse. This situation will also encourage the prevalence of corruption which is potential to occur due to applicative general prevency. Because according to Kristin Gardner and Owen James: 3
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The role of agency social work in England : a case study

The role of agency social work in England : a case study

private agencies who were reported as providing staff of very variable quality. Schools themselves were criticised for some instances of using agency staff for longer-term cover, both cost and quality of teaching being seen to suffer as a result of such practice. Evidence emerged from the Ofsted report that agency staff are given the most demanding classes, with the more able children being taught by employed staff. Parallels might be drawn here with work by Carey (2006), who reported that agency social workers were given the most difficult cases. Supply teachers in secondary schools were found to be four times more likely than permanent teachers to give sub-standard lessons. Lack of support to agency teachers was noted, as were schools that accept any stand-in just to comply with teaching ratios, regardless of that person’s competence. Some agency staff were found to lack basic knowledge of the National Curriculum and the vetting process of some agencies also came in for criticism regarding a lack of robustness. Direct evidence was found whereby the attainment of pupils taught by agency staff over long periods contrasted markedly with those taught by employed staff, the report noting that agency workers are often not told about pupils’ particular
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Exploring the Flipped Classroom Model: In Social Work Education

Exploring the Flipped Classroom Model: In Social Work Education

completing homework outside of the classroom. The majority of articles addressing flipped classrooms are found in academic disciplines such as mathematics, health sciences, and economics, which means a lack of information on applications of this pedagogy in social work. The limited information regarding the flipped classroom in social work literature relates to the fact that elements of this pedagogy have been present since the inception of social work education. In the past, social work’s educational pioneers provided students with an interactive pedagogical model. At the turn of the 20 th century, social work educators such as Sophonisba Breckinridge and Mary Richmond provided students with case examples designed for engagement in the classroom. Breckinridge’s (1924) historical text Family Welfare Work in a Metropolitan Community provided 44 case records to be used in the classroom. In this text, she offered students entire case records from the field. The students and class were guided through the case process and asked to critically consider how to improve outcomes.
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Testing a developmental cascade model of emotional and social competence and early peer acceptance

Testing a developmental cascade model of emotional and social competence and early peer acceptance

Although early work on the predictors of peer relationships focused on how children were processing social cues and gen- erating responses to specific peer behaviors (Dodge, Pettit, McClaskey, & Brown, 1986), more recent work has focused on the emotion-relevant behavior children exhibit in peer envi- ronments and how it may predict their response to the behavior of others. Much of this work has focused on how children man- age these emotion-relevant behaviors, with the assumption that failure to regulate emotions is a proximal cause of peer relation- ship difficulties (Denham et al., 2003; Eisenberg, Fabes, Bernz- weig, & Karbon, 1993; Halberstadt, Denham, & Dunsmore, 2001). From a developmental perspective, success or failure at important developmental tasks, such as the acquisition of emotion regulation skills during toddlerhood and preschool, likely plays some role in the trajectory of more serious problem behavior as children enter peer and school contexts (Hill, Deg- nan, Calkins, & Keane, 2006; Keane & Calkins, 2004). More- over, from this standpoint, early childhood behavior problems are considered a risk factor for later antisocial behavior and sug- gest that the mechanism(s) responsible for ongoing behavioral difficulties are to be found in the interactions between very early child functioning, particularly with respect to the regulation of arousal, and the contexts in which the development of regula- tion is occurring: namely family and peer relationships.
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Critical analysis of the indian social work education model

Critical analysis of the indian social work education model

Gopala Krishna Gokhale, one of the greatest political and social leaders of India, realized the need to tap the idealism of independence era and channel it towards national upliftment. For this purpose, after his retirement, he the Servants of India Society (SIS). The college of the Servants of India Society was housed at Pune and was designed like an academy with courses, residential training and a well equipped library. The Society’s aims were secular e graduate men, were recruited after a very rigorous selection process. The training period was for 5 years and the subjects taught included history, economics, public finance, law and journalism. Every inmate had to undergo a probation period under Gokhale before he was allowed to act independently. After the probation, the members of the society were entitled to a modest remuneration. The Servants of India were involved in a variety of political and social activities, which included r the Indian National Congress, journalism, education, social reform, relief work, advocacy, lobbying, community organization and so on. The society acquired high standing in the country through its work. Gokhale’s aim was to enroll at least one Servant of India for the erstwhile 275 districts of the country (Nanda, 1977: 169-
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Social support at work and at home: Dual-buffering effects in the work-family conflict process

Social support at work and at home: Dual-buffering effects in the work-family conflict process

Support at Work and at Home Note. = unstandardized HLM coefficient. SE = standard error. PA = positive affect. NA = negative affect. The X – M and M – Y models were estimated simultaneously. Mediation and moderated mediation tests were conducted with Bauer et al.’s (2006) procedures in HLM 6. We also tested alternative models in which social support variables were aggregated across days into level-2 variables; we did not find significant cross- level interactions. Furthermore, we tested a competing model in which social support at home acted as a first-stage moderator and social support at work acted as a second-stage moderator; these interactions did not provide significant results. We reanalyzed the paths in our mediation model while controlling for prior-day levels and average levels of emotional exhaustion and work-family conflict; the results of these analyses replicated the results reported in this table. Results are also robust to the effects of level-2 control variables (i.e., the sample descriptors mentioned in the Method section) on the level-1 intercepts, and tests of cross-level interactions with gender revealed that the slopes in our model are not different for men and women. Finally, considering the possibility of couple-level effects, we estimated three-level models in HLM to control for
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Analysis of Fusion Process Model—Case Study

Analysis of Fusion Process Model—Case Study

Development started once client approved the design do- cuments and development of components started based on the priority of component. Initially teams started working on two independent components UI design and database creation. As the client was extensively involved during the design phase, each small level detail was in- corporated in UI design and database design after lot of modification before approval. Now, the team had clear vision for development. These components were imme- diately approved by client after completion. Now the base was ready to build a complete software system on it. The team started work on User entity and authorization part. The client was involved in the development also and a few minor modifications suggested by the client, which were immediately applied. After the development team evaluated these components and found that if they would have implement log framework and internation- alization during development rather than considering it as an extra activity, they could have saved a lot of time in development and testing. All the customer suggestion and evaluation results were noted down for predecessor components. The team moved the component immedi- ately to testing phase after completion of development. The testing results of each component were used as guidelines for the development and evaluation of other components.
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The Process of Integrating Experience with Learning of First Year Social Work Students

The Process of Integrating Experience with Learning of First Year Social Work Students

said, ‘Once you learn a theory, you search your mind to find a corresponding experience, it is eas- ier this way.’ Another expressed, ‘It’s difficult to think of the theory while you are experiencing.’ Concerning the depth of our students’ reflection, Kolb’s model of experiential learning (1933) was used as a reference. It views learning as a four stage cycle. Immediate concrete experience forms the basis for observation and reflection. These observations are assimilated into a theory from which new implications for action can be deduced and these implications will lead to further expe- rience. Half of the students were just at the early level of reflection. They were able to associate a concept with experience, or vice versa. A few could go further, as they evaluated their own action in that particular experience and asked questions such as ‘how’ he/she could handle that situation better. They could be described as ‘practice-oriented’. What was lacking, however, were the ‘why’ questions such as ‘Why is it so?’ or ‘Can there be anything wrong with the concepts itself?’ One explanation may be that as students have different interpretations of reflective learning, they thought they had already gone through the learning process and that was what it should be. Or, it has something to do with their ability to go further. Concerning the lack of ‘why’ questions, it may be typical of the Chinese culture that one seldom challenges, especially those in authority. Students may feel that what is written in the books or taught by the lecturers should be right, so they think that they themselves do not understand the material being taught.
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Work-family Conflict and Family Stress Processes: Developmental Implications for Youth Social-emotional Functioning

Work-family Conflict and Family Stress Processes: Developmental Implications for Youth Social-emotional Functioning

21 to understand the developmental impact of work-family conflict, a theoretical model that explains youth outcomes as a function of spillover must be utilized. Although initially developed to explain the consequences of losses in family income, the Family Stress Model may be particularly useful in examining the indirect effects of work-family conflict on youth social-emotional adjustment (Conger, Ge, Elder, Lorenz, & Simons,1994; Conger et al. 2002; Elder, 1974; Hoffman, 1989; McLoyd, 1990). This theoretical model disentangles one route by which economic hardship indirectly affects children’s social-emotional functioning through a chain of mediated effects in which parental mental health and parenting are the central mechanisms. More specifically, economic hardship is related to increases in parent stress and diminished parent mental health (e.g., increases in depressive symptoms and irritability). Diminished parent mental health is, in turn, related to impaired parent-child interactions due to increases in inconsistent, harsh, punitive punishment and decreases in warm, nurturant parenting; these changes in parent-child relationships, ultimately, undermine children’s self-regulatory capacities, resulting in poorer social-emotional outcomes (e.g., depression and anxiety) (Conger et al. 1994; Conger et al. 2002; Elder, 1974; McLoyd, 1990).
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The Social Security Disability Process and the Brain Injury Case

The Social Security Disability Process and the Brain Injury Case

(d) The adversity of functional restrictions to sedentary work at advanced age (55 or over) for individuals with no relevant past work or who can no longer perform vocationally relevant past work and have no transferable skills, warrants a finding of disabled in the absence of the rare situation where the individual has recently completed education which provides a basis for direct entry into skilled sedentary work. Advanced age and a history of unskilled work or no work experience would ordinarily offset any vocational advantages that might accrue by reason of any remote past education, whether it is more or less than limited education.
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The Case for Restorative Justice: A Crucial Adjunct to the Social Work Curriculum

The Case for Restorative Justice: A Crucial Adjunct to the Social Work Curriculum

Also from a Canadian perspective, Barsky (2001) makes a strong case for the social work curriculum to include the theory and principles of family mediation. Skills of mediation can be applied to dealing with concerns between the child welfare agency and family and parent-child conflict, for example. In interdisciplinary teams, social workers can ad- vocate for culturally appropriate models and raise awareness of gender- based power imbalances in relationships and of the possibility of wife abuse. Two Canadian social work educators, Burt Galaway and Joe Hudson’s (1996) volume, Restorative Justice: International Perspec- tives is especially useful in providing detailed descriptions of Canadian indigenously based practices such as circle sentencing. As social work educators who got their training in Canada, both Galaway and Hudson (2000) have also edited the definitive study on family group confer- encing. Their text, Family Group Conferencing: New Directions in Community-Centered Child and Family Practice, describes a model of which all social workers interested in child welfare innovation and juve- nile justice should be aware.
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Social Work Best Practice Healthcare Case Management Standards

Social Work Best Practice Healthcare Case Management Standards

Reassessment is an ongoing process, with a formal reassessment conducted at prescribed intervals and whenever there is a significant change in the patient’s health, abilities, living situation, family involvement, etc. Reassessment should include evaluation of the type and intensity of case management services required, with changes made to the treatment plan accordingly.

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A Planning Process Model for Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Building Construction

A Planning Process Model for Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Building Construction

Since solving problems through the cooperative efforts of individuals within one group or several groups is fundamental to any planning endeavor, the planning process can also be seen as a social process [Fitzpatrick at al. 1994]. While working on a project, the degree of collaboration among team members varies widely. During activities which involve intensive information interchange and cooperation, it is important to recognizes the parallel, rather than sequential, nature of information flows. This approach raises concerns relating to the ability of a group of individuals to function as a coherent entity with collective intelligence, rather than a collection of independent individuals [Smith 1994]. Therefore, an important requirement for the achievement of a state of collective intelligence is a high rate of information transfer among individual team members. Also, the ability of individual team members to quickly adjust themselves to changing conditions is crucial in order to optimize time constraints, quality standards and cost.
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Ontology building as a social technical process : a case study

Ontology building as a social technical process : a case study

In a similar vein, in the end of each teleconference, the PI (the chair of the meeting) would draw up some notes including action plans. These minutes and action plans serve as an ordering device for ensuring the orderly character of work (Button and Sharrock, 1996). The action plans informed the team members of the progress of the project, and allowed them to achieve the formatted arrangements of the project. Interestingly, there is another kind of action plan written and co-written by people on a less managerial level than the PI, the chair of the meeting. At an interview, the ontologist reported that he kept a plan himself, and shared that with the domain expert whenever it got updated. In this document, he documented his design decision, the rationale, and reminded himself of the to-do items. Describing this document, he said:
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The process of other-focus : a synthetic social psychophysiological model

The process of other-focus : a synthetic social psychophysiological model

The other-focus model combines insights from psychophysiological and social psychological work that explores why people make the sometimes costly but essential choice to affiliate with and invest in others. Other-focus begins when the environment is construed as safe, secure and controllable. Empirical work finds that oxytocin is related to other-focused behavior, positive emotions, social contact and coping with stress, and may also promote vagal activity in humans, although more investigation of this point is needed. High baseline vagal tone is related to positive emotions and other-focused attention and behavior, as well as beneficial long-term health outcomes, in child, adolescent and adult samples, while low baseline vagal tone is related to negative behavioral outcomes, social dysfunction and affective disorders. Over time, other-focus results in improved physical and mental health.
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Scaling and deepening the Reclaiming Social Work model

Scaling and deepening the Reclaiming Social Work model

In the present study, observations of social work sessions with families – most of which were home visits – were conducted by an evaluation researcher who, with the informed consent of the family, audio recorded the interaction. Tapes were then allocated to a team of coders, headed by a researcher trained in both social work and motivational interviewing coding. Members of the team were trained in coding, both with simulated and live tapes, and then allocated audio tapes. Researchers coded tapes blind, in that they did not code tapes from an observation they had been part of, and did not know whether any particular tape pertained to any research variable used in the study. Coding of tapes involved a double-coding process, whereby a sub-sample of tapes were analysed by two researchers to ensure inter- rater reliability (IRR); two researchers listening to the same session would not deviate by more than 1 point on the 5 point scale in their assessment of skill in each of the 7 domains (for a full discussion see Whittaker et al., 2016).
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Social integration of children with visual impairment: A developmental model

Social integration of children with visual impairment: A developmental model

In general, the results of this study don't support the findings of previous research (Erwin, 1993; Rettig, 1994; Skellenger & Hill, 1994; Troster & Brambring, 1993, 1994; Warren, 1984). The Slovenian subject demonstrated a greater degree of social competence, and as a result, was less prone to social isolation than the US peer. What is the cause of such differences? In this study, it is impossible to answer this question due to the limitations of the study mentioned above. However, according to our speculation that in the case of visual impairment, personality characteristics have greater impact on social development than cultural ones, it could be assumed that designing a highly individualized intervention program for development of social competence should be a priority for a blind child. It is important that such a program be independent of cultural influences.
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Financial literacy education within a developmental social work paradigm

Financial literacy education within a developmental social work paradigm

communities assert that few of them are useful in their working areas (Jacob et al., 2000). The main reason is that a fundamental principle of adult learning (Cohen et al., 2004; Knowles, 1995), that is, not to provide education as a one-size-fits-all process based on a generic instruction manual (Robinson, 2002), is negated, thereby ignoring the uniqueness of individuals, groups and communities. The principles underlying adult learning, such as individualisation (compare Knowles, 1995 and Biestek, 1957) and the processes and methodologies of financial education can be viewed within a developmental social work paradigm, which according to Patel (2005) deliver services in an integrated fashion, informed by a generalist approach to social work practice as expounded by authors such as Compton and Galaway (1999), Hepworth, Rooney, Rooney, Strom-Gottfried and Larsen (2006), Johnson and Yanca (2004), Miley, O’Melia and DuBois (2001) and Kirst- Ashman and Hull (2002).
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The Power of Being Present at Work. Co-Creative Process Inquiry as a Developmental Approach

The Power of Being Present at Work. Co-Creative Process Inquiry as a Developmental Approach

Many practitioners have studied their own developmental practices or in some cases described systematically a particular kind of developmental approach. For example Seppälä-Järvinen (1999) has researched the character of developmental work in the social and health sector in Finland. Hicks (2010) has researched and developed an approach named co- constructive consulting in the context of business consulting in large companies. All these studies have taken different approaches to explore particular development work. These multiple ways of exploring show how important it is to choose the way of exploring or/and evaluating a particular approach that fits to this approach and context. I will give some examples here. Filander (2000) has explored how, in the 1990s, public-sector practitioners who participate in developmental work make sense of their relation to on-going public sector changes. Her perspective focused on how discursive power operates in people’s lives. Thus, Filander (2000, 247) looks at developmental work as a process of negotiation and struggle between different kinds of discourses and as a script used by people in their talk. Seppänen-Järvelä (1999) has analysed the nature and characteristics of development work from the perspective of development work experts. The material is analysed according to grounded theory and presented as a new developmental approach, actor-centred process development. Kuula (2000) has analysed how action researchers view their work; she explicates their views through narrating tensions and conflicts in field work. On the other hand, there are practitioners who have explored their own practice from a relational constructionist view. Hicks (2010) has presented a co- constructive consultation as one kind of future-oriented approach, which is based on relational constructionism. He shares his own path on how his thinking changed through researching. Kavanagh (2008) has examined communities of practice from a relational constructionist view, focusing on power issues.
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