Pulses occupy a predominant position in any discussion related to food and nutritional security and environmental sustainability. Besides their nutritional value (about 20-30 per cent protein), pulses enhance productivity of soil in terms of yield of subsequent crops. Increase in yield of subsequent crop to the tune of about 20-40 per cent has been recorded (Pande and Joshi, 1995, IIPR, 1998; 1999). In India, owing to its diverse agro-climatic conditions, pulses are grown throughout the year. Presently, India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world, accounting for about 25 per cent of their global production, 27 per cent of their global consumption and about 33 per cent of the world’s area under pulses (FAO, 2008). However, production performance of pulses in India has remained stagnant. The growth in production and productivity of pulses has lagged behind the population growth rate which has resulted into a decline in per capita availability of pulses from 66 g/day during triennium ending (TE) 1965 to 33 g/day during TE 2005 (Agricultural
clinical presentation, where alternate diagnosis seems unlikely are treated as tubercular pleural effusions in India. This remains the standard of care even to this day. Given the fact that perfor- ming a pleural biopsy is not feasible at all health care centers, and also considering the invasive nature of this diagnostic procedure, it is not put into routine clinical practice. Sensitivity of ADA when combined with lymphocyte predominant exudates, in high prevalence areas has stood the test of time in deciding the initiation of ATT. Low and variable sensitivity of pleural fluid CBNAAT, as shown again in our study, should probably make us reconsider our decision about performing this test routinely (or including it in diagnostic protocol). Timely diagnosis of PTB (drug sensitive and resistant) is the need of the hour, and we are of the honest opinion that the available resources have to be channelized in doing the same. We suggest that pleural fluid genexpert should be performed only when the diagnosis is in doubt and can change the patient management.
Summary : Amoebiasis is a disease of parasitic origin res- ponsible for dysentery and extra-intestinal complications. The infection is by Entamoeba histolytica, an amoeba whose geographical distribution is cosmopolitan, but that is more prevalent in tropical areas. Only a few infections are sympto- matic and some of them may cause extra-intestinal complica- tions. Hepatic amoebiasis is the most frequently observed. We report the case of a Belgian woman who developed an amoebic liver abscess after returning from a trip to India. The diagno- sis was confirmed by PCR detection of E. histolytica DNA per- formed on the abscess fluid. The epidemiological, diagnosis and treatment aspects are discussed.
Scrub typhus being a life threatening infectious disease and always creating diagnostic dilemma in terms of rapid turnaround time and accuracy, qRT PCR can become a very good option to achieve the desired result with molecular level of accuracy and boost up the rapid patient management. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of qRT PCR in comparison to commonly used IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix tests to diagnose scrub typhus, as well as to look for the demographic and clinical profile of the disease in North-East India. It was a hospital-based prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India, over a period of 1 year, in which all the samples from suspected scrub typhus cases were screened by Weil-Felix test as per institute’s diagnostic protocol after which IgM ELISA for Scrub Typhus was performed. All the IgM positive samples and 20 highly suspected but ELISA negative samples were subjected to qRT PCR, targeting 56 kDa type specific gene of O. tsutsugamushi. Statistical analysis was done by MS-Excel for Windows v2013® and MedCalc® v17.9 for Windows (MedCalc Software, Acacialaan 22, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium). In this study we have successfully evaluated the performance of qRT PCR kit for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Out of 54 samples tested, 24 IgM ELISA positive samples and 3 IgM ELISA negative samples have shown the presence of bacterial DNA with quantification of DNA copies. It has also been observed that 21 out of 27 PCR positive samples (77.8%) were detected within the 1 st 7 days of illness. All the demographic as well as clinical data were also analysed. The performance of the commercial qRT PCR kit used in our study is satisfactory, which provides extra advantage of quantification of DNA copies and increases diagnostic accuracy within the 1 st week of fever.
could/should play in social engineering. However, considering that in PIL cases judges (rather than the legislature) play a key role and the law is judge made law, one should not over-estimate what courts could deliver through PIL/SAL in a democracy. No doubt, courts could help in providing an official recognition to the voices of minorities or destitutes that might be ignored otherwise, but it would be unrealistic to expect that they could achieve social transformation on their own. Secondly, as we will note in the next section, the character of the PIL in India has changed a lot in the second phase in that now it is not limited to espousing the interests of disadvantaged sections of society or to redressing state repression and governmental lawlessness. In fact, in the second phase, the focus of PIL in India has shifted from poor to the middle class and from redressing state exploitation of disadvantaged groups to pleas for civic participation in governance. Although there are still differences between how the PIL jurisprudence has unfolded in the United States and India, the distinction as to the subject-matter or the basic objective of the PIL is not that much as it
HRP-2 have been reported recently from India,  as well as some African countries [30,32]. In this study, three P. falciparum samples showed no HRP-2 test line but Pan specific test line, thus considered as P. vivax , as other types of malaria were absent in the study samples. The intraspecies variation, mutation or deletions in the HRP-2 gene can cause non-expression of HRP-2  which may explain this. Parascreen identified three P. vivax -positive samples with parasitaemia ranging from 16 to 200 parasites/uL as negative. This might be due to low pLDH level, as pLDH level is directly proportional to parasitaemia . In many studies, a reduced sensitiv- ity for non-falciparum malaria detection, compared to falciparum detection, in combined HRP-2/pLDH RDTs has also been reported [5,6,11,26].
Double Jeopardy law in India essentially protects a person from multiple punishments or successive prosecution based on same facts of a case where the elements of multiple prosecutions are similar to those for which the accused has already been prosecuted or has been acquitted by the court. Going by the basic principle of law, a new charge cannot be framed against a person under section 300 of Cr.PC based on same facts. It is essentially the duty of police who files the charge sheet to ensure that all the charges are framed against a accused properly, also it is a responsibility of the magistrate to ensure that the charge sheet has been filed without an error.
Investigation reveals that, bottom-up approach outperforms the other approaches of hierarchical time-series model as far as modeling and forecasting of oilseeds production in India, whereas for pulses production, optimum combination has come out to be the best. Two criterions namely MAPE and RMSE are used for validation purpose. For all the approaches, the percentage error is coming out to be less than 10% indicating good performance of the model. A traditional forecasting approach namely ARIMA model has also been performed for pulses production for each of the series. The residuals of the fitted modes were investigated for any presence of autocorrelations but it is seen that the residuals are independent and normally distributed. It ensures that the model building is right and there is no information left in the residuals which can be extracted by use of any statistical model. To this end it may be concluded that instead of using the traditional statistical models, one should use the recently developed most promising statistical models like hierarchical time-series model in order to increase the accuracy of the forecasts.
Growing pulses can render profit during the short time period. Pulses are cultivated as a whole country basis including lower and upper Myanmar where the soil is sandy and soft. But most of the cultivated area is concentrated in the rainy and cool season either as a main crop or as a mixed crop together with groundnut or sesame. In the rainy season, green gram, chick pea (mostly in cool season) and pigeon pea are widely sown in the central dry zone and it amounted to 37% of total pulse sown area and the rest of 63% is cultivated in the cool season. Among South and South East Asia countries, Myanmar stands leading country for export of pulses. Canada is leading the leading exporter of pulses among the world pulses exporting countries. Myanmar and France hold the third largest exporters after Australia. Major buyer of Myanmar export pulse is Indian accounted for nearly 75% of the total export. Therefore, domestic market price is greatly influenced by India market. Then the other export markets were Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, some Middle East countries and E.U.
It is cleared from table 3 that the cashew is one of the main commodities which are exported from India worldwide and unlike rice and wheat, this commodity has been having more consistent in international market. And it is evident from the table shown above that this commodity has been imported as well throughout the study period i.e. 1995-96 to 2014-15. In the year 1995-96, India exported a total of 70076.98 metric tonne of cashew valued Rs.1235.70 crore while imports were for Rs. 760.08 crore. Export by trading value in Rs. crore kept growing till 1999-2000 when it recorded
sustaining crops. Increase in yield of subsequent crops to the tune of about 20-40 per cent has been recorded (Pande and Joshi, 1995; IIPR, 1998; 1999). In India, pulses are grown throughout the year due to favorable agro-climatic conditions. The growth in production and productivity of pulses has lagged behind the population growth rate which has resulted in decline in per capita availability of pulses from 60 g/day/capita in 1951 to 31 g/day/capita in 2009 (ICMR recommends 65 g/day/capita) due to stagnant/ decreasing production and rapid increase in population. The poor production performance of pulses has created an imbalance in demand and supply of pulses, soaring import bills, unpredictable price rises and low net profit compared to their competing crops (Joshi and Saxena, 2002). This coupled with economic factors like lack of assured market, ineffective government procurement, unfavorable parity in prices and trade liberalization make pulses cultivation unremunerative and less attractive compared to other crops (Byerlee and White, 1997; Joshi et al. 2000; Chand, 2000). Further, only a few states endow major share of pulses production in India and there exists a wide variability in their yield across different states. Keeping this in view, the present paper has made an attempt to study the supply-demand gap analysis and growth performance of major pulses and projection of supply and demand up to 2030.
important pulse producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh etc. Indians utilize around 30 per cent of the world’s pulses, but domestic production of pulses which become stagnated in recent time has not kept pace with population growth. The net availability of pulses has dropped from 60.70 g per day per person in 1951 to 43.30 g per day per person in 2013 as against recommendation of65 g per day per person by Indian council of Medical Research 4 . Import of
(0.94%) and productivity (0.52%) were positive and significant, even though growth in area (-0.74%) was negative. It is worth noting that pulses production was significantly increased mainly because of intensive promotional programs launched in the country includ- ing release of improved varieties like Maruti, TS-3R, BSMR, JG-11, TAU-1, T-9, Pusa Bisaki etc., imple- mentation of accelerated pulse production pro- grammes, awareness about package of practices for higher yield by the Agricultural Universities and Pulse Research Station and ICRISAT. The growth rate in yield in all the pulses increased in Karnatak and coun- try as a whole during entire study period. The growth in yield in general found to be lower indicating the scope for improving the productivity of all pulses. The study conducted by Balappa Shivaraya (2008) on growth in yield and resource use efficiency in redgram under IPM technology in Gulbarga district revealed that growth in redgram yield was significantly lower compared to area during study period (1990 to 2007). Similarly, Dixit et al. (2012) conducted study on growth performance and Potential of wastelands ( de- graded forest(scrub dominated), under-utilized forest (agriculture), degraded pastures /grazing land and de- graded land under plantation crops) for mixed farming system indicated marginal growth in yield. Therefore, to encourage the farmers to increase production of pulses, the necessary infrastructure along with im- proved production technology need to be developed.
This study analyses the challenges and strategies to increase pulse production with special emphasis on chickpea and pigeon pea. The study is based on secondary data collected from published sources. Compound growth rate was estimated to study the yield performance in the major states. The study revealed that there is low yield growth in chick pea and pigeon pea in the majority of the states. The yield gap analysis in chickpea also reveals high exploitable potential yield in the western zone. Totally 3.2 million tonnes of additional pulses can be produced by extending pulses area to rainfed rice fallow lands, replacing low productive crops and summer fallows. Hence, the respective state governments may take necessary action to increase pulses production by providing technological and institutional support.
One of the many advantages of Ti:sapphire oscillator is its high repetition rate (70–100 MHz). This allows a good duty cycle where the clusters in the molecular beam are irradiated several times by the output laser pulses of a relatively low energy (several nJ). Thus the laser operates in the weak-field regime. This avoids perturbation of potential energy surfaces (PES) produced by the intense laser pulse, simplifying the interpretation of the results (see also Chapters 8 and 9) and theoretical description. Moreover, non-resonant two-photon processes are not expected to occur.
During the weeks leading up to the M = 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake of 30 October 2007, a magnetometer lo- cated about 2 km from the epicenter recorded unusual non- alternating magnetic pulses, reaching amplitudes up to 30 nT (Bortnik et al., 2010; Bleier et al., 2009). The incidence of these pulses increased as the day of the earthquake ap- proached. Figure 4 from Bleier et al. (2009) shows that in the 3 weeks preceding the Alum rock earthquake, the pulse count was much higher than any other 3-week period from 2006–2007. After the earthquake, the pulse count immedi- ately falls back to normal levels. (Bleier et al., 2009) also note that there were no nearby lightning strikes at corresponding times, and that in comparison to the PC3 and PC4 geomag- netic pulsations, these localized unipolar pulses were much stronger and lasted longer, and could not be seen at locations far from the EQ epicenter, as would be expected for geo- magnetic activity. Observed pre-earthquake electromagnetic waves typically have frequencies between 0.01 and 20 Hz, possibly owing to the fact that only low-frequency compo- nents may traverse tens of kilometers through the rock col- umn.
The broad spectrum associated with ultrashort pulses supports good spatial resolution for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) in biological systems (67,68) . A 2D image is produced as a result of optical scattering from internal tissues. The pulse train of an oscillator output provides a stable comb-shaped spectrum with the spacing of the modes equalling the repetition rate. The broadband frequency comb has also been used recently in high precision optical frequency metrology, which acts as a ruler in the frequency domain (69,70) . It is expected to be able to produce an all-optical atomic clock, outperforming today’s caesium clocks (71) .
charged particles such as electrons to relativistic speeds where radiation reaction and quantum effects may in ﬂ uence their dynamics [ 2 ] . Lower intensity pulses have also been used as diagnostic tools for exploring the structure of plasmas in various states [ 3, 4 ] . In order to interpret experimental data involving classical laser interactions with both charged and neutral matter, theoretical models [ 5 – 8 ] rely crucially on parameterizations of the electromagnetic ﬁ elds in laser pulses, particularly in situations where traditional formulations using mono- chromatic or paraxial-beam approximations have limitations [ 9 – 11 ] . Such theoretical models may not be compact in all spatial dimensions and the role of a laser pulse as a classical probe is further limited by the scales that it is designed to resolve. Pulse shape design characteristics are often guided by simulations of laser – matter interactions which incorporate the known laws of physics of relevance at such scales. For example, the intense experimental activity currently exploring the electromagnetic properties of single-cycle laser pulses with nanoscale objects ( such as dielectric and plasmonic nanoparticles ) demands ef ﬁ cient modelling tools that accommodate the spatial compactness of such pulses. Such tools will eventually require incorporation of quantum effects associated with these interactions in order to properly describe observations and yield practical applications involving nanostructured dielectrics and plasmonic metals [ 12 ] . Furthermore an effective quantum description of the laser pulse itself would offer a new simulation tool for designing more accurate methods of encoding quantum information.
During 2012-2013, NREGA provided employment opportunities for more than 13 crore households as against 3.39 households covered in 2007-2008. In order to increase the productivity of assets and resources under NRFGA, convergence with other schemes relating to agriculture, forests, water resource, load rural is being initiated. In the first stage, a total of 115 pilot districts have been selected for such convergence. The government of India has proposed an allocation of rs. 39,100 crore for the year 2009-2010 for NREGA which marks an increase of a Ming boggling 144% over the 2008-2009 budget estimates.
We discuss the use of a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged point particles. These compact solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content and their influence on particular charge configurations in space. The results of such classical interactions motivate a phenomenological quantum description of a propagating laser pulse in a medium in terms of an effective quantum Hamiltonian.