Top PDF Effect of Different Decontamination Procedures for Saliva-Contaminated Uncured Bonding Agent on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel

Effect of Different Decontamination Procedures for Saliva-Contaminated Uncured Bonding Agent on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel

Effect of Different Decontamination Procedures for Saliva-Contaminated Uncured Bonding Agent on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel

This in-vitro study was conducted on 18 premolar and 18 incisor teeth extracted for orthodontic, periodontal or prosthetic treatments. The teeth had to be free from caries, restorations, enamel defects (hypoplasia or use of forceps) and fractures since the aim of this study was to assess the composite resin bond to sound enamel. After washing and removal of tissue appendages, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% chloramine T solution and then stored in saline until the experiment (maximum of 6 months). For preparation of specimens, the premolar and incisor teeth were each randomly divided into three groups of 6 and then the 3 incisor and the 3 premolar groups were randomly combined in such way that eventually 3 groups of 12 teeth including 6 premolars and 6 incisors were created. Next, enamel of the buccal surface of the teeth was ground using a disc in such way that a plastic cylinder containing composite measuring 3mm in diameter and 3mm in height could be placed on the enamel surface. Next, the specimens were mounted in Acropars auto polymerizing acrylic resin (Marlic, Tehran, Iran) in molds (specific for Instron machine) up to the level of the cementoenamel junction in such way that the composite-buccal surface interface was parallel to the lateral surfaces of the mold in order for the blade to apply load perpendicular and directly to the resin-tooth interface.
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Effect of Bleaching on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Bovine Enamel Using Three Bonding Agents

Effect of Bleaching on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Bovine Enamel Using Three Bonding Agents

pected to evaporate by air current. If these mate- rials are not fully removed from the bonding, they can cause reduction in bond strength, through their negative effects on the polymerization process [28]. By drying bonding layer of Clearfil S3 Bond, and removing solvents from the primer, the resin layer thins, and due to formation of air-inhibited layer after radiation of light, polymerization of re- sin may not be fully achieved. Under this condi- tion, the levels of non-polymerized acidic mono- mers increase. These agents attack the resin com- posite polymerization initiator system and interfere with its polymerization, which is followed by re- duced bond strength. Also, unlike in Clearfil SE Bond, only one bonding layer is used in Clearfil S3 Bond. Here, again the protective effect of first layer (primer) in Clearfil SE bond that was ex- plained earlier is an issue. In Clearfil S3 Bond mo- nomer and acid are simultaneously exposed to ac- tivated oxygen, and thus, the oxide layer produced impedes resin polymerization and bond strength is reduced. In a study by Chuang S.F et al in 2007, similar to present study 10% carbamide peroxide containing different percentages of fluoride were used and presented that enamel composite bond may be compromised due to reduced number of resin tags, which inhibits polymerization of bond- ing resin. A delay of one to two weeks in applica- tion of bonding improves bond strength [34]. Bar- cellos et al. in 2010 examined the effect of carba- mide peroxide gel 10%, 15%, and 20% on shear bond strength of Z 350-filtech composite to tooth enamel and dentin, and the results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests, with a conclusion that bond strength of composite to bleached enamel and dentin was influenced by different percentages of carbamide peroxide gel, which concurs with results obtained in this study [35]. In a study by Faiz & Khoroushi et al. in 2011, the conclusion was that, using antioxidants as buf- fering agents after bleaching, and a delay of one week in application of composite bond, the bond strength could be significantly improved [36]. Ma- zaheri et al. in their 2011 study examined bond strength of Z100 resin and reinforced glass iono-
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The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

peroxide for 6h/day for 7 consecutive days. They found that the SBS decreased when the samples were restored with composite resin immediately after bleaching; in addition, RMGI did not bond to the bleached enamel immediately after bleaching. Therefore, application of sodium ascorbate increased the SBS of composite resin restorations to the enamel bleached with 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. [17] In the current study, 15% carbamide per- oxide was used 6h/day for 5 consecutive days as the bleaching agent; while, in the above-mentioned study, hydrogen peroxide was used which is more potent than carbamide peroxide. It can produce more residual oxy- gen molecules that would significantly decrease the SBS. This might explain the significant effect of antiox- idant treatment in that study.
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In-Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Herbal Antioxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel

In-Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Herbal Antioxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel

Treatment of bleached teeth is challenging for dentists because they cannot immediately perform a resin restoration on bleached teeth due to the presence of oxygen or peroxide residues on the surface, since they prevent complete polymerization of adhesive resin [6]. However, by postponing the composite restoration for two weeks following bleaching, no reduction in bond strength would occur [5,15,17]. But, sometimes it is not possible for the patient to wait that long. Therefore, use of antioxidants like ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate is one method to immediately increase the bond strength of composite to bleached enamel [8,10]. It has been proven that application of sodium ascorbate can result in accumulation of Streptococcus mutants on bleached surfaces [18]. Also, pH of sodium ascorbate is 1.8, which has adverse effects on tooth structure in clinical application. Short shelf life of sodium ascorbate solution or gel is another disadvantage of using it [26,27]. It has been demonstrated that use of herbal antioxidants such as green tea and grape seed is an effective alternative strategy for this purpose.
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Effect of different anti oxidants on shear bond strength between nano hybrid composite and bleached enamel-an invitro study

Effect of different anti oxidants on shear bond strength between nano hybrid composite and bleached enamel-an invitro study

Many authors have investigated and published the effects of bleaching on bond strengths of composite to enamel and dentin. For brightening discolored teeth, the use of peroxide releasing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide or sodium perborate has become a popular treatment modality, which is comparatively safe. 18 This is possible because hydrogen peroxide is of low molecular weight and can denature proteins, which increases tissue permeability and allows ions to move through the tooth. Studies show that bleaching causes changes in the organic enamel matrix, a loss of calcium and a decrease in micro-hardness that are potential causes for the reduction of bond strength. 18, 19
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Effect of Addition of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Property and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite to Bovine Enamel

Effect of Addition of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Property and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite to Bovine Enamel

The current study also assessed the antimicrobial activity of Transbond XT composite containing 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations of curcNPs against S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. The three selected bacterial strains are the main constituents of dental plaque. Initiation of caries mainly depends on the activity of S. mutans while lactobacilli (mainly L. acidophilus) are responsible for progression of caries. Presence of S. sanguinis in the oral cavity decreases the population of S. mutans and these two are in equilibrium [27]. Biofilm inhibition test was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of composites since it has been shown that bacteria in the form of biofilm are four times more resistant to antibacterial agents compared to planktonic form [28]. The current results showed that addition of curcNPs to composite significantly decreased the bacterial count of all three strains compared to the control group in all three concentrations. The results for S. mutans were highly favorable since S. mutans colony count in presence of all concentrations of curcNPs decreased to zero. This indicates low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of curcNPs against S. mutans [29]. This finding is clinically significant since S. mutans is the main cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. On the other hand, L. acidophilus showed higher resistance, which may be due to its role in progression of caries and formation of a very strong biofilm. In
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Evaluation of the Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Properties and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite Bonded to Bovine Enamel

Evaluation of the Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Properties and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite Bonded to Bovine Enamel

Using nanoparticles with antibacterial activity is practical only if the physical and mechanical properties of the composite remain unchanged or in the clinically acceptable range [28]. In this regard, nanoparticles have been suggested to be incorporated in adhesives. The antibacterial activity of several nanoparticles such as Zinc (Zn) [29-31], gold [32], and silver [33-34] has been proven. One of the reasons for choosing propolis in this study is that, despite its antibacterial activity, propolis is a non-toxic and safe substance. Grenho et al [34] studied the non-cytotoxicity of propolis in addition to examining its antibacterial activity. They found that propolis inhibited the growth of bacteria and biofilm formation, while cell culture experiments showed the growth of fibroblasts and high metabolic activity without membrane damage. As a result, propolis is a biocompatible biomaterial that can be used in oral hygiene products [34]. The bond strength of an orthodontic bracket should be sufficient to resist the forces applied during the treatment. Reynolds and von Fraunhofer [35] showed that bond strengths of 5.9-7.8 MPa are sufficient to resist chewing forces, while Sharma et al [36] reported this value to be 9.7 MPa for Transbond XT composite. The results of the present study showed that increasing the percentage of prpNPs leads to a decrease in SBS in a dose- dependent manner. The SBS in the 1% prpNPs group (average of 19.6 MPa) and the 2% prpNPs
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Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

In this experimental study, 40 recently extracted intact human maxillary incisors, without any defects, were collected and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The tooth roots were embedded in cylindrical shape of acrylic resin blocks (1.5 × 2.5 cm), the coronal part, above the cemento enamel junction, out of the block. The labial enamel surface of each tooth was polished (6 × 6 mm) with 600-grit silicon carbide paper (Moyco Precision Abrasives, Montgomeryville, PA, USA). The twenty sub- groups of prepared labial surfaces of the teeth surface were bleached with 15% carbamide peroxide gel (Opalescence, 15% PF, Ultradent Product Inc, South Jordan, UT, USA) 6 hours a day for 5 consecutive days. After completing the daily bleaching procedures, teeth were rinsed with water spray for 60 seconds and then kept them in distilled water at room temperature for one day. The remaining twenty prepared labial surfaces of the teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide gel (Opalescence, Ultradent Product Inc., UT, USA) for 20 min according to the manufacturer instruction. The gel rinsed off thoroughly with water spray for 60 seconds and the process was repeated one more time.
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In-Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Sage on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel

In-Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Sage on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel

In this in-vitro study, 60 maxillary anterior teeth extracted 3 months before the study were selected. The teeth had no cracks, carious lesions or coronal restorations. After removing the tissue remnants, the teeth were rinsed under running water and im- mersed in 0.5% chloramine T solution. Then the teeth were immersed in distilled water (Shahid Ghazi Co., Tabriz, Iran) at room temperature for 24 hours before the experiment. The roots were cut at 2 mm apical to the CEJ using M016-878 di- amond bur (SS White Inc, Lack Wood, USA) and high-speed handpiece with air and water spray. The pulp of the coronal segment was removed. The samples were placed in molds measuring 35×25×10 mm, containing translucent acrylic resin (Marlic Med Co., Tehran, Iran), with the labial surfaces facing outward. The samples were placed in cold water in order to control the heat generated during the polymerization of the acrylic resin. The enamel labial surfaces with 4×4 mm dimensions were polished with wet 400- and 600-grit silicone papers to achieve a flat homogeneous labial sur- face in all specimens.
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Effect of Saliva Contamination on Shear Bond Strength of  Transbond XT and Assure Universal Bonding Resin to Enamel

Effect of Saliva Contamination on Shear Bond Strength of Transbond XT and Assure Universal Bonding Resin to Enamel

were bonded to the enamel surfaces of the teeth with light-cured Transbond XT (3M) composite in the control specimens. In this group, the buccal enamel surfaces wereetched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds, rinsed for 20 seconds, and dried with oil-free air until the enamel became white. Transbond XT primer was applied to the etched surface in a thin film and Transbond XT composite was applied to the bracket base. The bracket was then positioned exactly on the tooth and compressed to expel the excess adhesive. The specimens were cured for onesecond to obtain adequate appearance. Then, additional adhesives were removed from around the brackets’ base fol- lowed by another round of light curing for 10 seconds. All these were done according to the manufacturer’s directions.
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Effect of Three Different Antioxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composites To Bleached Enamel - An In Vitro Study

Effect of Three Different Antioxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composites To Bleached Enamel - An In Vitro Study

Materials and Methods: Forty flat enamel surfaces were prepared from freshly extracted human premolars using a low speed diamond saw. Then the specimens were divided into four random groups (n = 10). All the groups were treated with 30% H2O2. The specimens in Group I were bonded immediately after bleaching, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with antioxidants Sodium ascorbate, Pomegranate peel extract and Grape seed extract respectively. After preparation, a standard shaped resin composite was applied to all specimens. The teeth were stored in deionized water for 24hrs at 37°C and a universal testing machine determined their shear bond strength. The data were evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests.
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Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Salt on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Enamel

Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Salt on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Enamel

A previous study showed that addition of QAS to composite resin caused no change in shear bond strength of brackets after one month [8]. This finding was in agreement with our results since we found no significant difference in shear bond strength of the groups containing QAS and the control group. No standard method exists for assessment of bracket bond strength to tooth structure because in the clinical setting, loads applied to brackets are complex and include a mixture of shear and tensile loads, which cannot be well simulated in vitro. However, shear bond strength test is often performed for this purpose [15] and was adopted in the current study as well. The results showed that by an increase in concentration of QAS, no significant reduction occurred in shear bond strength. Several factors affect the bracket bond strength to tooth structure including the type of adhesive, type of bracket, clinician’s expertise and patient’s cooperation [16].
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Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Primary Enamel Treated with Casein Phosphopeptide Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Using Total-Etch and Self-Etch Bonding Systems

Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Primary Enamel Treated with Casein Phosphopeptide Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Using Total-Etch and Self-Etch Bonding Systems

It seems that such a degree of demineralization does not have adequate porosity to affect the bond strength. However, greater degrees of demineralization can affect the enamel hardness and its bond to composite. Future studies on differ- ent degrees of enamel demineralization are re- quired. The other null hypothesis of our study was that CPP-ACP would have no effect on the bond strength of composite to demineralized and sound primary enamel. Xiaojunet al. microscopically assessed and compared enamel treated with CPP- ACP and untreated enamel after etching and found that treated and etched enamel had a rougher surface than untreated enamel [14].
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Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Dentin

Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Dentin

This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 60 human premolar teeth extracted within the past six months. The collected teeth were immersed in 0.2% thymol solution (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) for disinfection for 48 hours. The teeth were then rinsed and stored in saline until the experiment. The teeth were then mounted in cylinders containing autopolymerizing acrylic resin (Acropars, Tehran, Iran). To prevent the adverse effect of heat generated during acrylic polymerization, as soon as the resin gained its primary consistency, the cylindrical molds were placed in a container containing saline. Cylindrical samples were removed from the molds. To expose dentin, buccal enamel was removed by a fissure bur (Tizkavan, Tehran, Iran) and high-speed handpiece (NSK, Tokyo, Japan) under water and air spray until a large flat surface of dentin was exposed. The area of this surface was almost the same in all samples. Using a surveyor, vertical position of this surface relative to the ground was ensured.
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Effects of at-home and in-office bleaching on the shear bond  strength of metal, ceramic and composite brackets to enamel: An In vitro study

Effects of at-home and in-office bleaching on the shear bond strength of metal, ceramic and composite brackets to enamel: An In vitro study

Shinohara MS et al (2004) evaluated the effect of non vital bleaching on the shear bond strength of composite resin using three different adhesive systems. Bleaching agents used were sodium perborate and carbamide peroxide. After bleaching, the teeth in each group were cut into enamel and dentin sections. The substrates received three different adhesive namely Single Bond (solvent: alcohol/ water); Prime & Bond NT (solvent: acetone), Clearfil SE Bond (solvent: water). The results inferred that bleaching treatment influenced the shear bond strength, regardless of the adhesive system used showing reduction in shear bond strength values. On dentin, the sodium perborate bleaching agent reduced the shear bond strength values, but the carbamide peroxide bleaching did not. They inferred that non vital bleaching treatment with sodium perborate might adversely affect shear bond strength of composite resin for both enamel and dentin. Similar effects can be expected from 37% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on enamel but not dentin, and the use of water/alcohol and acetone-based adhesive systems cannot reverse the effects of bleaching treatment on bond strengths. (53)
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Effect on enamel shear bond strength of adding microsilver and nanosilver particles to the primer of an orthodontic adhesive

Effect on enamel shear bond strength of adding microsilver and nanosilver particles to the primer of an orthodontic adhesive

Based on our in vitro results, neither SBS nor ARI scores were significantly affected by the addition of microsilver or nanosilver particles of different sizes. Ahn et al. [20] added 250 ppm and 500 ppm of silver nanoparticles with a size smaller than 5 nm in combination with nanosized silica particles to self-mixed experimental composite ad- hesives. They found that SBS values measured on human premolars did not significantly differ between the experi- mental composite adhesives and conventional adhesives. Although we added silver nanoparticles more extensively and at greater concentrations than Ahn et al. [20], we found that our SBS results were comparable with theirs [20]. Following our experimental procedure, Akhavan et al. [21] added silver nanoparticles to Transbond™ XT primer; however, they used higher concentrations (1%, 5% and 10%) of silver nanoparticles and added 5% hydroxyapatite to the mixtures. Furthermore, they mea- sured SBS on human premolars with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min making it impossible to compare their SBS values with ours [35]. Sadat-Shojai et al. [36] de- scribed the influence on bond strength of nanoparticles incorporated into dentin bonding materials. SBS increased with the incorporation of 0.2% hydroxyapatite nanoparti- cles and later decreased at higher concentrations [36]. The Table 3 Adhesive remnant index (ARI)
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Effect of Self-Etching and Single-Bottle Bonding Systems On Shear Bond Strength of Fissure sealant to Primary and Permanent Enamel

Effect of Self-Etching and Single-Bottle Bonding Systems On Shear Bond Strength of Fissure sealant to Primary and Permanent Enamel

One probable explanation for the reported differ- ences is that the PLP bonding does not have equal compatibility with all resin materials. Peutzfeldt in 2004 [1] mentioned that the shear bond strength of 6 composite resins to dentin by use of PLP bond- ing agent changed between 1 to 13 MPa. Signifi- cant changes in bond strength may be attributed to the fact that unlike etching with phosphoric acid, PLP bonding agent cannot yield an optimal bond to enamel with all types of fissure sealants and the bond strength is influenced by the mechanical properties of the resin material [1]. Another expla- nation for the variable efficacy of self-etch bond- ing system is that numerous parameters namely tooth structure, enamel preparation, test method, bonding surface area, speed of load application (cross-head speed) and the operator-related factors may affect the results [27]. Moreover, duration of water storage and thermocycling also play a role in this respect [13]. Small number of studies have evaluated the bond strength of self-etch bonding systems to unprepared enamel of primary teeth reporting different bonding quality in primary and permanent teeth. Marquezan et al, in 2008 com- pared the microtensile bond strength of self-etch and Total Etch systems to primary enamel and den- tin and reported equal bond strength of self-etch to primary enamel and dentin [18]. Furthermore, Ra-
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Micro-shear Bond Strength of a Nanofiller Bonding agent with and without Thermocycling in a Newly Invented Device

Micro-shear Bond Strength of a Nanofiller Bonding agent with and without Thermocycling in a Newly Invented Device

are constantly subjected to extreme thermal changes due to the consumption of food and beve- rages with varying temperatures. To assess mar- ginal microleakage, the effect of these thermal changes on the bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin should be evaluated in condi- tions simulating oral cavity [2]. Experimental models like thermocycling, application of mechan- ical forces, pH cycles and aging in distilled water, NaOCl and solutions simulating food products can provide us with valuable information regarding basic mechanisms affecting the tooth-resin inter- face [3]. Several studies have evaluated the quality of restorations such as their bond strength under certain conditions simulating thermal changes. Al- so, due to the invention of new restorative mate- rials such as nanofiller and nanocomposites, their assessment in conditions simulating thermal changes of the oral cavity seems necessary [4]. On the other hand, with the development of a new generation of dentin bonding agents and introduc- tion of one-step self-etch systems as well as bond- ing agents with very high nanofiller content [5] such as Clearfil Tri-S bond, concerns about the destructive effects of humidity and thermal changes of oral cavity on these materials have raised.
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Shear bond strength of different retainer wires and bonding adhesives in consideration of the pretreatment process

Shear bond strength of different retainer wires and bonding adhesives in consideration of the pretreatment process

Zachrisson [18] and Oesterle et al. [19] enlarged the surfaces of both ends of two wires measuring 0.030 inch and 0.032 inch by sandblasting to increase the adhesion between metal and composite. We investigated the influ- ence of sandblasting the dental bonding surface on the SBS of the retainer. The results showed that the SBS increased for all retainer-wire-combinations tested with a grand total of 217%. This indicates that sandblasting has a profound effect on clinical stability of the bonded retainer because of increased micro-retention after etch- ing. This was confirmed by Reisner et al. [20], who ex- amined the influence of enamel preparation on the SBS of orthodontic brackets by differentiating four groups: only sandblasted, sandblasted before etching, only acid etched and buffed with a fluted bur. They also concluded that sandblasting was no substitute for acid etching. Cal-Neto et al. [11] tested the effect of intraoral sandblast- ing prior to enamel etching. The bond strength increased, but the log-rank test did not show any significantly differ- ent clinical performance. In general, sandblasting not only increases the roughness of teeth, but also guarantees for a clean surface free from plaque and debris requiring only little efforts of time and material.
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Effect of surface protection associated to different bonding protocols on the bond strength to eroded dentin

Effect of surface protection associated to different bonding protocols on the bond strength to eroded dentin

Erosion, also known as biocorrosion, is a type of dental wear, promoted by chemical process in absence of bacteria. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of superficial protection and bonding protocols on bond strength to eroded dentin. Sound human molars had occlusal dentin exposed and were allocated into 16 groups (n = 10) according to the association between three main factors: simulation of endogenous erosion (absent or 18 DES-RE cycles); previous surface protection (absent or glass-ionomeric sealant), and protocol for dentin bonding with an universal adhesive system (with or without phosphoric acid etching; and exposed or not to chlorhexidine). Composite resin buildups were constructed on the dentin surfaces, the specimens were sectioned and submitted to the microtensile test. The sticks obtained from each tooth were divided in two groups. The first one was tested after 24 hours and the second was stored in water for seven months. Results for each period were analyzed by means of 3-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The comparison between the two periods was done by Student's t- test, for paired data. According to the statistical analysis, bonding procedures didn’t interfere on immediate bond strength values. The erosive challenge reduced the immediate bond strength in the absence of surface protection, but not in the presence of the glass-ionomeric sealant. After storage, the effect of the erosive challenge couldn’t be noted; and the use of chlorhexidine resulted in decreased bond strength in groups previously coated with glass-ionomer sealant. It could be concluded that eroded dentin surfaces previously coated with glass-ionomer sealant might have impaired bonding; and that chlorhexidine was not able to increase bonding stability after storage. Finally, both self-etch and etch- and-rinse protocols seems to be feasible for the use of the universal adhesive system on eroded dentin surfaces.
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