Current methods for characterizing liquefaction potential include indirect methods and empirical correlations, which provide accurate results for clean, loose sands (Youd et al, 2001). Unfortunately, the majority of soil types involved in liquefaction include gravels, partially cemented soils, cobbles, tailings, silty sands, and even granular soils with a little plasticity. Currently, characterization of the liquefaction potential of these soils ranges from use of engineering judgment to inappropriate generalizations. Additionally, once liquefaction-susceptible soils are identified, remediation techniques promise to reduce the risk of liquefaction, but the ability for validation prior to an earthquake is essentially non-existent. With these challenges in mind, development of the direct test for in-situevaluation of liquefaction characteristics represents a major breakthrough in liquefaction studies and will directly lead to significant gains in knowledge, developments of new models, and advances in remediation techniques.
Acknowledgements. The airborne lidar survey was kindly released by Regione Emilia-Romagna. We are grateful to Fabio Villani for helpful discussions and advice. We thank N H ESS editor Oded Katz for the editorial handling, and we are grateful to Pilar Villamor for the constructive suggestions and comments that strongly improved the paper. One anonymous reviewer also pro- vided insightful comments. The views and conclusions contained in this study are those of the authors and are purely scientific, and they should not be interpreted as necessarily representing official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The authors and the INGV make no warranty, either expressed or implied, regarding the suitability of these results for a particular use, and they shall not be liable under any circumstances for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages with respect to claims by users of this study. Edited by: O. Katz
Liquefaction is the phenomena when there is loss of strength in saturated and cohesion-less soils because of increased pore water pressures and hence reduced effective stresses due to dynamic loading. It is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading. Out of the various seismic hazards, soil liquefaction is a major cause of both loss of life and damage to infrastructures and lifeline systems. Soil liquefaction phenomena have been noticed in many historical earthquakes after first large scale observations of damage caused by liquefaction in the 1964 Niigata, Japan and 1964 Alaska, USA, earthquakes. Due to difficulty in obtaining high quality undisturbed samples and cost involved therein, in-situ tests, standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT), are being preferred by geotechnical engineers for liquefaction potential evaluation with limited use of other in-situ tests like shear wave velocity tests and Baker penetration tests.
The GLZ drug samples exhibited their characteristic peaks similar to the peaks exhibited by their respective standards in fingerprint region of FTIR spectrum as shown in Figure 1, 2 and Table 2 respectively. Thus, the GLZ drug had been identified. Also, there was no observed caking, discoloration and liquefaction on physical observation. Odor formation was also not found in the mixture. All these observations primarily indicate no signs of incompatibility between drug and excipients. This was further proved by the analysis of IR spectra of the mixture at 0 Time and after 3 week of storage Figure 3.
But these preparations when installed into the eye are rapidly drained away from the ocular surface due to blinking tear flow and lachrymal nasal drainage of the eye. Only a small amount of the drug is available for its therapeutic effect resulting in need for frequent application to the eye 4 . So to overcome these problems novel pharmaceutical ophthalmic formulations such as in-situ gel, nanoparticle 5, 6 liposome, nano suspension 7, 8 , micro emulsion 9 , intophoresis and ocular inserts have been developed in last three decades to increase the bioavailability of the drug in a sustained and controlled manner.
Previous work indicated an influence on the liquefaction reaction results, if there is back mixing in the reactor. In a continuous reactor with back mixing the products can interact with the unreacted feed and intermediately formed products  . Repo- lymerization reactions may be hindered through the back mixing leading to a higher amount of bifunctional monomers. Furthermore, bifunctional oligomers may be avail- able through a new process design which leads to the setup of a new reactor (Figure 14) set-up which is currently under construction.
Invitrodiffusion study of formulated in situ gels was carried out on Franz diffusion cell having 2.4 cm diameter and 13 ml capacity. Dialysis membrane having cut off molecular weight12000–14000 kDa was used as diffusion membrane. Pieces of dialysis membrane were soaked in phosphate buffer pH 6.4 for 24 hrs prior to experiment. [10,11] Diffusion cell was filled with phosphate buffer pH 6.4; dialysis membrane was mounted on cell. The temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5°C. The donor compartment contained 3 ml of artificial nasal fluid. After an equilibration of membrane, formulation equivalent to 1 mg of Zolpidem tartrate was placed in the donor compartment. At predetermined time points (30, 60, 90, 120, 150,and 180 min), 1 ml samples were withdrawn from the acceptor compartment, replacing the sampled volume with phosphate buffer pH 6.4 after each sampling to maintain a constant volume, for a period of 5hr The samples withdrawn were filtered and used for analysis. Blank samples (without Zolpidem tartrate were run simultaneously throughout the experiment to check for any interference. The amount of diffused drug was determined using UV visible spectroscopic method.
R.G. Sharma  concludes that the study of matter at very low temperature is fascinating because the phonon activity dies down at very low temperatures and one can look into the electronic behaviour minutely. Cryogenic baths of liquefied gases provide excellent medium to cool down samples. Liquefaction of a gas is a combination of an isothermal compression followed by an adiabatic expansion. Cascade process was adopted in liquefying oxygen by Cailletet and Pictet independently in 1877. The final cooling stage has always been a Joule-Thomsen (J-T) valve. Another important breakthrough came in 1898 when James Dewar succeeded in liquefying hydrogen making a temperature range of 20–14 K accessible. The moment of triumph came in July, 1908 when years of hard work by Kamerlingh Onnes at Leiden ultimately resulted in the liquefaction of helium. A temperature range of 4.2–0.8 K thus became accessible in the laboratory. A cascade process using Lair, LO2, LN2 and LH2 and the J-T expansion valve was employed. Within 3 years of this discovery came the defining moment of the discovery of superconductivity in April, 1911 in pure Hg at just below 4.2 K.
wave velocity (Vs) field method. Also, in this study, the results of two methods of evaluation of soil layering after liquefaction by SPT and shear wave velocity (Vs) are compared using empirical relationships between them. Considering that a large part of the earthquake damage is due to the occurrence of various seismic geotechnical phenomena , one of which is sand liquefaction and impermeable saturation layers; therefore, in this field, research has been carried out in advance. Further, they will be dealt with. Lee and Albeiza (1974) studied the amount of settling in saturated sands after cavernous water pressures, based on information from periodic loading experiments. It was concluded that the amount of strain of the volume for the conditions that flow with no increase in the size of the soil grains, decreasing relative densities and increasing the excess pore pressure of the water increases . Ishihara et al. (1992) conducted research to estimate the settlement (volume strain) after the initial liquefaction. They observed that the amount of settlement mainly depends on the maximum shear strain and the density of the soil and does not correlate with the effective stress of the overhead. They presented the curve based on the relationship between relative density and volume strain after primary liquefaction in terms of maximum shear strain and observed that with increasing shear strain, the volume of strain increases after initial liquefaction . Tokimatsu and Seed (1987) presented a simple method for analyzing and estimating the sediment potential in saturated or dry sandy soils under earthquake. They found that the main factors controlling the sedimentation in sandy soils are the ratio of stress and shear strain to the maximum caused by the earthquake . In case that in dry soils and semi-saturated sandy soils, induced periodic strains due to earthquake are the main factor . By combining these factors mentioned with the largest earthquake and number of standard penetration resistance, they provided charts for the estimation of the settlement. The results presented by them indicate that there is an appropriate coordination between the Field Observation arising from the earthquake and the estimation produced from the settlement summation of the graphs. In order to estimate the settlement after the occurrence of liquefaction, the correlation between the results of coastal and laboratory studies were determined, then the volume strain and maximum
vestigation primarily highlights the challenges in cultivating bacteria in the AP and the advantages in recycling bacterial biomass for higher bio-oil production and quality. Activated charcoal, N and P amendment as well as dilution were necessary to reduce inhibitory compounds and balance macronutrient stoichi- ometry. The highest bacterial cell yield was obtained from the activated charcoal treated 15 vol% DT-CbAP. Higher cell densities in more concentrated DT-CbAP may be achieved by either alternating aerobic and anaerobic culturing condi- tions or using co-cultures of Enterobacter species. Co-liquefaction of the bacteria and cardboard produced 33% increase in bio-oil with HHV of 34.73 MJ·kg −1 .
loading cycles (equivalent number of uniform cycles for a magnitude 7.5 earthquake based on Seed and Idriss, 1982). Triggering of liquefaction is defined here as the moment at which the material reaches to a single-amplitude shear strain of 3%. Liquefaction triggering correlations by Idriss and Boulanger (2008) were used in this calibration study:
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the liquefaction-induced ground deformations of sand-like soils based on Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) at Semani site, Fieri prefecture in Albania. These tests are performed during the process of investigation of this area, in which a Liquid Natural Gas Ter- minal-Power Plant was supposed to be built. This paper presents the assessment of the liquefac- tion and of the liquefaction-induced ground deformations such as lateral spreading displacement and post-liquefaction reconsolidation settlement. The liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and post-liquefaction reconsolidation settlement are estimated based on CPT data according to the method in MNO-12 “soil liquefaction during earthquake”, presented by Idriss and Boulanger (2008). This evaluation is very important and should be taken into consideration for the design of engineering structures that will be constructed in this area. All the calculation’s results are shown in graphs. At the end, there are highlighted some conclusions regarding the liquefaction-induced ground deformations in this site.
the pharmaceutical scientists is fast pre-corneal removal of the drug, ensuing in deprived bioavailability and healing response because of high lacrimal fluid yield. In situ formed gels are liquid which upon insertion, experience phase conversion in the cul de sac of eye to form a visco-elastic gel and these formed gels tender a reaction to environmental changes. In the last few years, a notable number of pH, novel temperature, and ion induced in situ gel forming systems have been reported for constant ocular delivery of drugs 2 . The reduced bioavailability and curative response showed by conventional ocular solutions due to quick pre-corneal drug elimination may be sweeped over by the use of a gel system which are instilled into the cul de sac as a drop and which undergoes a sol-gel conversion in eye 3 . LEV, Biopharmaceutical Classification System I, is a broad spectrum anti-infective agent, under the third generation fluoroquinolone derivative mainly used in the infection of the eye such as acute conjunctivitis. The recommended dosage of LEV for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is 1 or 2 drops of 0.5% solution in the affected eyes for every 2 hours upto 8 times for 2 days, then 1 or 2 drops every 4 hours up to 4 times for next 5 days 4 . LEV is quickly and fully absorbed subsequent to oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are typically attained one to two hours subsequent to oral dose. The normal terminative plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin is ranging from around 6 to 8 hours consequent to single or multiple doses of levofloxacin administered either intravenously or orally 5 .
To apply a simplified method for estimating volumetric strain, some interpolation scheme must be applied to obtain tip resistance and sleeve friction from below the building, because in-situ tests are available only from the close vicinity of the building. For the cases at hand, first available CPT results have been simpli- fied such that for each geologic layer a constant value for tip resistance and sleeve friction was obtained. That procedure was chosen such that at the locations of the CPT soundings the settlements were close if either the raw CPT data or the simplified CPT data was used.
Index Properties, LL, PI, Soil Classifications, Fines Content and soil behavior studies were made intensely. Table 3 presents some of the soil properties of the alluvial foundation, which will allow us to predict its behavior respect to liquefaction. Most of the samples were taken from drillholes, and were tested in the laboratory. Because of the high fines content determined, the liquefaction potential predicted by the SPT method may not occur at the dam site. However, according to the studies performed by Seed  the clayey portions of the Qal may experience loss of strength during the earthquake event due to cyclic failure.
Preliminary methodologic issues. For comparisons between the direct and the standard tests, subjects were grouped ac- cording to the growth characteristics of the organisms from their direct test and standard urine culture (Table 4). Before direct and standard susceptibility test results could be com- pared across the total population, it was necessary to resolve two methodologic issues regarding direct test interpretation in specific subgroups. The first of these concerned zone size de- termination for direct tests showing mixed growth (Table 4, groups 2, 3b, and 4b). The predominant organism approach, in which inner colonies within zones were ignored, gave a slightly higher VM error rate than that obtained by the smallest-zone approach, in which inner colonies were taken into consider- ation (Table 5). In contrast, the smallest-zone approach gave significantly higher rates of M and mi errors, with dramatically lower overall agreement (Table 5). We therefore used the predominant organism approach in all subsequent compari- sons.
The collapse of Dam I, tailings dam, at Vale S.A.’s (“Vale”) of the Córrego do Feijão Iron Ore Mine in Brazil was an accident that caused over 270 casualties and made irreparable damage to the surrounding environment. The exact reason for the failure is not known however, liquefaction was suspected to be the most influencing factor in the failure.
Around the mid-1950s, large brazed aluminium plate and R n heat exchangers were commercially intro- duced. They readily became the heat exchangers of choice for cryogenic air separation and liquefaction plants. In this type of heat exchanger, corrugated R ns are sandwiched between plates to form a passage for gas S ow. The use of R ns provides increased surface area for heat transfer. Typical R n heights range be- tween 5 and 9 mm; R n spacing can be as low as 1 R n per mm. A heat exchanger block is formed by stack- ing passages. Generally, S ow through individual pas- sages is countercurrent with a warming stream in one passage and a cooling stream in the adjacent passage. A heat exchanger block can easily handle multiple warming and cooling streams. Plate and R n heat ex- changers are applied in virtually all the heat ex- changer services of an air separation plant. They are used as main heat exchangers, reboiler-condensers and subcoolers. The maximum size and pressure rat- ing of these heat exchangers depend on the manufac- ture; however, heat exchangers 1200 mm wide by 1200 mm stack height by 6000 mm long with a pres- sure rating up to 50 atm can easily be found. For large size plants, multiple heat exchangers are used in par- allel and careful attention is paid to the S ow distribu- tion in the manifolds.